Excursion program the implicit and culture based learning it triggers


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Excursion program the implicit and culture based learning it triggers

  1. 1. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460 EXCURSION PROGRAM: THE IMPLICIT AND CULTURE-BASED LEARNING IT TRIGGERS I Made Rai Jaya Widanta* rai_widanta@yahoo.com Luh Nyoman Chandra Handayani* Chandra_Handayani@yahoo.com POLITEKNIK NEGERI BALI AbstractThis paper tries to propose a concept which facilitates Darmasiswa, foreignerslearning Indonesian language and culture, with a fun, creative, and less stressingmethod in learning the subjects. Pursuant to some hindrances the learners faceduring their learning activities in Indonesia, particularly in Politeknik NegeriBali, and based on the writer observation, excursion program is then introducedand designed to meet the learners’ needs. Excursion is the out side-class roomlearning activity where learners are able to learn the subjects implicitly. Thelearning is undertaken in the real life situation in accordance with the topic ofdiscussion. The language (grammar, expression, vocabulary, structure) thelearners focus to learn is implicitly designed that they will not be aware of whatbeing learned. By interviewing and making report upon their interview session,learners are stimulated to explore new, accurate, natural vocabularies,expressions, sentence structures used by Indonesian native speakers. In additionthe activities are very meaningful since they facilitate the learners with situationwhere they can explore the language and practice the skills on their own.1. Background It is undeniable that learning a language merely without paying attentionto the culture standing behind it causes a misleading concept among the learnerssince language and culture are inseparable things. According to Sapir and Whorflanguage influences culture, or in other word, language influences the waymembers of a speech community behave (Sapir and Whorf in Abdul Chaer,2007:70). What people do is usually influenced by characteristic of theirlanguage. However, this hypothesis is not in line with what most people recentlythink that culture, on the contrary, simply influences language. Westerners onlyhave the word “rice” to explain many objects in Indonesia, like padi, gabah, 16
  2. 2. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460beras, and nasi. It is merely the impact of being not having such culture as whatIndonesia do. Foreigners who learn Indonesian language, for example, will find itdifficult to learn the language without their involvement in any activity nativepeople are doing as a part of culture. They will feel to be separated from the norm,habit, rule, aspects based on which the language can be mastered easily.Vocabulary, for instance, is obvious evidence about how culture plays animportant role for it existence. Most words of Indonesian language, like thatexemplified above, are premised from local culture. To minimize the case, theyhave to be always aware of doing adjustment to save their time to reach the goaleffectively. In term of action as the response to an expression, linguistic and culturalbarriers may sour relations. They both can cause worse understanding or evenmisunderstanding between individuals whose cultures are different (Bochner,1985:100). In Indonesian culture, saying “thanks” to respond to expression“Would you like some coffee?” may or normally mean if the interlocutor wouldnot like to have coffee. However, it means something opposite in western country.Hence, speaker and interlocutor of different culture have to understand mutuallytheir both cultures. Cultural adjustment non natives speakers do is of much importance toavoid culture shock, feelings of powerless, self-restrictedness, paranoia,annoyance, or homesick (Koester in Tubbs and Moss,1998:236). Many foreignstudents learning Indonesian language leave Indonesia by force for these reasons.However, many of them can survive and even start to like to learn the languagesince they are culturally tolerant. To achieve this, they have to sacrifice extra timeto involve in what native people do as their habit, such as selling, farming, makingfriends, doing social work, and other activities that involve other people tocommunicate with. Foreign students who learn Indonesian or Darmasiswa in Bali, particularlyin Politeknik Negeri Bali (PNB) find it hard to learn the language since they canhardly learn Balinese or Indonesian culture. They are some reasons why they find 17
  3. 3. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460it hard to get used to these cultures: (1) they are hardly tolerant of the new ideas,(2) they tend to live together with their partners that they do not have enough timeto be sociable with local people, (3) the learning of Indonesian language in class isstill explicitly done that does not enable them to learn the real life culture tosupport their Indonesian language mastery. Pursuant to the cases above, there is a solution proposed to respond towhat learning method shall be implemented in order for the students to learnculture for the sake of their Indonesian language ability improvement that is byimplementing excursion program. Excursion program is an outside-class learningactivity functioning to enable students to learn Indonesian language by involvingthemselves in real life environment. This program shall certainly be supportedwith learning model called task-based language learning where students areassigned to do task while doing their activities, and report accomplishment whereat the end of their task students are required to make report on what they havedone at sites.2. Related Studiesa. Excursion Excursion is an outside-class learning activity. This is a situation-basedlanguage learning where the lesson is designed based on what situation would befocused in each topic. There are a lot of situations or settings teacher can choosefor excursion program, such as market, neighbor, friendship, family, religion,government, education, and many others. This division is pursuant to linguisticdomain as a cultural concept abstracted from topics of communication, relationbetween communicator and communicant, and setting (the site where acommunication takes place) in accordance with symbols existing in the society(Adi Jaya Putra, 2008:72). Based on its concept, Language domain is aconstellation between participant (speaker and interlocutor), location, and topic(Somarsono, 1990:197). The concept of language domain had been used byresearchers on language shift in Germany to know the use of German being 18
  4. 4. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460compared to other languages in contact situation. Schmidt Rohr is the first personwho undertook the research to know entire status of language choice. Theproposed domain included family, recreational places, street, school, church,literature, press, military, court, and governmental administration (Adi Jaya Putra,2008). Fishman (1968) stated that the number of domain used in sociolinguisticresearch can not absolutely be determined. He used simple domain includingfamily, neighbor, work, and religion. Sumarsono (2009) used some domainsincluding family, intimacy, education, religion, transaction, and government. The different speech situation triggered different use of languagefunctions, such as offering things, asking things, bargaining, thanking, askingpermission, saying sorry, getting one to do things, interrupting, requesting,commanding, and many others. As one domain or situation may require use ofsome language functions, one task will also involve some different languagefunctions.b. Some Purposes of Excursion As this program has some uniqueness, it is considered very effective toundertake for a number of purposes, they are as follows.a. To facilitate learners with a real life learning situation. Being involved at site where the communication actually takes place encourages learners to explore more deeply how language is used by native speakers. Learners felt to benefit from learning in such situation since they gain better training experience that will always cross in their mind on how words, expression, pronunciation, sentences, structures are used correctly.b. To provide more opportunity to practice their language. Doing the task assigned by teacher give learners more opportunity to practice the language on their own without any frontier. They felt more confident since correction and feedback done by native speakers of the language are natural, helpful, less demanding. Learners realized that this is an academic atmosphere-free activity which demands students’ obedience. In addition, 19
  5. 5. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460 native speakers also find it interesting to have foreign learners to practice their language.c. Learners can learn the language (grammar) implicitly. Learning language and skill consciously is very demanding and stressing. Conversely, this activity is so much fun to do since learners learned it implicitly. In other word, they are not psychologically bound with in-class learning situation which is normally ended in quiz.d. It is more interesting and meaningful. Learners acquire much feedback which is very corrective so that they found it very meaningful to their language and skill improvement.c. Implicit Learning Implicit learning is a learning type where the activity of instruction is doneout side class room. The idea is that learners are conditioned in such a way thatthey learn things unconsciously instead of doing it explicitly. Therefore, it isdesigned in a form of task (tasked-based learning) where they are required tointerview people or observe things and fill forms prepared by teachers. They donot see teachers, join lesson as it is in the class room. According to Ellis (2009) implicit learning proceeds without makingdemand on central intentional resources. Its generalizations arise fromconspiracies of memorized utterances collaborating in productive schematiclinguistic production (N. Ellis in R. Ellis, 2009:3). Learner in this case remainsunaware of the learning that has taken place, although it is evident in thebehavioral responses they make. There are some criteria of implicit instruction:1. Attracts attention to target form2. Is delivered spontaneously (in communicative orientated activities)3. Is unobtrusive (minimal interruption of communication of meaning)4. Makes no use of meta language5. Encourages free use of the target form. Furthermore, implicit knowledge is determined by examining the learners’use of these features in oral or written language. In addition, implicit knowledge 20
  6. 6. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460tacit and intuitive, procedural, available through automatic processing, an onlyevident in learners’ verbal behavior. Explicit instruction, on the other hand, isdetermined by a number of criteria; they are:1. Directs attention to target form2. Is predetermined and planned (as the main focus and goal of the teaching activity)3. Is obtrusive (interruption of communicative language)4. Present target forms in isolation5. Uses meta linguistic terminology (e.g. role of explanation)6. Involves controlled practice of the target form. Although there is tendency in Politeknik Negeri Bali that the out side-classroom learning is considered strategic for learners’ language mastery, this type oflearning strategy has not been much focused yet. The Immersion program forDarmasiswa students, for example, has been regularly undertaken. This programis designed by activating students to participate in regular class where they caninvolve in and conduct interaction with regular students in their class whilejoining any lesson in stead of Indonesian language (Widanta, 2009). This implicittype of learning was successfully carried out. However, they have to be dependenton the schedule when then class are conducted. There were some silent periodswhere classes are postponed, such as on holiday, school examination, campusanniversary, or other accidental activities.d. Task-Based Learning A task is intended to result in a language use that bears a resemblance,direct or indirect, to the way language is used in the real world (Ellis, 2003:16).Task is also both a means of clinically eliciting samples of learner language forpurposes of research (Corder, 1981) and a device for organizing the content andmethodology of language teaching (Prabhu, 1987). However, Bygate, Skehan andSwain (2000b) in Ellis (2000) pointed out that task is viewed differentlydepending on whether the perspective is that of the research or pedagogy.Researcher may view a task in term of a set of variables impact of performance 21
  7. 7. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460and language acquisition whereas teachers see it as a unit of work in an overallscheme of work. Furthermore, they clarified that this work plan typicallyinvolves: (1) some input (i.e) information that learners are required to process anduse); and (2) some instructions relating to what outcome the learners are supposedto achieved. According to Lantolf and Apple, (194); Lantolf, (2000a) a task iswork plans that reenacted in accordance with the personal disposition and goals ofindividual learners in particular setting, making it difficult to predict the nature ofthe activity that arises out of a task. There are, in general, two major parts of task, target task and pedagogicaltask. A target task is a piece of work undertaken to oneself or for others, freely orfor some reward, such as painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a form. Onthe other hand, a pedagogical task is an activity or action which is carried out asthe result of processing and understanding language, such as drawing a map whilelistening to tape or listening to an instruction and performing a command (Long inNunan, 2003), a range of work plans which have the overall purposes offacilitating language learning from simple and brief to more complex and lengthyactivities (Breen in Nunan, 2003), a work plan that requires learners to processlanguage pragmatically in order to achieve an outcome that can be evaluated interm of whether the correct or appropriate propositional content has beenconveyed (Ellis in Nunan, 2003). So the task-based approach aims at providingopportunities for learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and writtenlanguage through learning activities that are designed to engage in the authentic,practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. Task is differentiated with exercise as follows. Skehan (1998a)distinguishes a task and an exercise as follows. A task shall have characteristics:1. meaning is primary;2. there is a goal which needs to be worked toward;3. the activity is outcome-evaluated;4. there is a real-world relationship (in Ellis:2000). In a task, learners are primarily engaged in trying to communicate content(meaning is primary), they work towards the goal of determining whether the 22
  8. 8. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460picture they hold is the same as or different to the picture held by their partner, theoutcome is evaluated in terms of whether they are successful in this goal, andthere is a relationship with the real world in the sense that the kind of discoursethat arise from this task is intended to resemble that which occurs naturally(Skehan, 1998a). Exercise as in a fill-in-blank grammar, engage learners primarily inproducing correct linguistic forms, there is no obvious communicative goal to beachieved, the outcome is evaluated in terms of whether the learner’s answer aregrammatically correct or not, and no direct relationship between the type oflanguage activity involved and naturally occurring discourse is intended (Skehan,1998a). Further more, Widdowson (1998a) explains, a task and an exercise differwith regard to the kind of meaning, goal, and outcome they are directed toward.An exercise is premised on the need to develop linguistic skill as a prerequisite forthe learning of communication ability, while a task is based on the assumptionthat linguistic ability are developed through communicative activity. Ellis claims that Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) contributes tomajor goals; they are “communicative activities” and “second languageacquisition (SLA)” (Ellis in Jaya Widanta, 2011:109). However, there are basicpurposes of TBLT: 1. To give learners confidence in trying out what ever language they know 2. To give learners experience of spontaneous interaction 3. To give learners the chance to benefit from noticing how others express similar meanings 4. To give learners chance for negotiating turn to speak 5. To engage learners in using language purposefully and cooperatively 6. To make learners participate in a complete interaction, not just one-off sentence 7. To give learners chance to try out communication strategy, and 8. To develop learners’ confidence that they can achieve communicative goals. 23
  9. 9. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460 In this study, task given to learners is in purpose to facilitate them withoptimal opportunity to practice the language with certain outcome the taskoutlines. Students are considered successful in doing the task if they outcomething as what then task requires. By doing the task appropriately they areconsidered to have practice communication a lot. As their focus is to do taskcorrectly, they do not realize that they lean the language optimally (studygrammar, memorizing ad produce functions of language, memorize and learn newvocabulary from their interlocutors). That is the main idea of implicit languagelearning.e. Project As task-based learning is outcome focused, there shall be an outcome thelearners have to finally achieve. In this study, Darmasiswa students produce aproject in the form of report undertaken upon their activities completion in thesite. This is merely to sum up what they have done and how well they can reportwhat they have done. This is a written report they can design freely so that theycan imply their idea as much as possible. Beside the main topic they deal with inthe site, such as shopping, some aspect can be included in the writing; such assetting, the time of the event, people involved in it, why they do so, the specialtyabout the event if being compared to others.3. Solutiona. How is Learning Model Designed? There are a number of stages to carry out in designing this learning modelas follows. First, we have to determine the language. Language in this case meanslevel of language in term of grammar, structure, expression, language functions,or vocabulary a part from the skills we have to focus. More importantly, we haveto detail what language function we will bring into the discussion. This will beeasier to consider if we know what level the students are in. Knowing thestudents’ level will ease us to determine what topic we have to adequately rise. 24
  10. 10. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460 Second, we have to design the task. If the topic of discussion which hasbeen determined is shopping for instance, then we will design a task aboutshopping. The task may contain things concerning a dialogue between a foreignerand a local seller traditional shop which includes some activities like bargaining,greeting, asking price, asking size, color, thanking, requesting, and commanding. Third, we have to determine how learners will perform the activity. Sinceit is a task-based language teaching, the learner will be performing a task relatedto shopping. The activity will include interviewing the seller about things,interviewing while observing how people perform dialogs, or any other form ofinteraction which involves the learners’ active participation to practice thelanguage. This activity is called excursion program. In this stage, learners willimplicitly learn a lot about the nature of language used commonly by nativespeakers and also be introduced with culture based on what the conversation takesplace. This activity will particularly train learner to comprehend questions andgive respond to the questions appropriately. By doing so, they will be able to traintheir speaking ability without being directed and monitored by teachers. Thisexperience will contribute to a meaningful learning to the learners. SHOPPING 1. Sapa penjualnya (greet the seller) 2. Berterima kasih karena dipersilakan masuk (thank the seller for the permission) 3. Tanyakan jika dia menyediakan sepatu (ask if shoes are available) 4. Tanyakan jenis merek yang tersedia (ask the what brands are available) 5. Tanyakan ukuran-ukuran yang tersedia (ask what sizes are available) 6. Tanyakan jika bisa dicoba (ask if we can try them on) 7. Tanyakan harganya (ask price of the shoes) 8. Tanyakan jika bisa ditawar (ask if the price can be lowered) 9. Tanyakan harga pasnya (ask the best price) 10. Berterimakasih atas harga yang diberikan (thank the seller for the best price) 25
  11. 11. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460 11. Tanyakan jika ada barang lain (ask if other items you want are available) 12. Begitu seterusnya (and so on ) 13. Berterimakasih dan permisi (thank the seller and ask permission to leave) This is the suggested task learners should use since it can trigger them topractice the language without being aware of their learning the language.However, there can be other possibility of task design as far as it still focuses onthe learners’ learning the language implicitly.b. Project Accomplishment Upon the interview session, learners are requested to make a report on thewhole interview. This project will train their ability to synthesize what they havewritten in the task and what they have seen in the field to make a full and detailnarration. In this written report learners may paraphrase the responds of seller(s)to make it more natural and smooth. In addition, this writing will train them howto write properly, use vocabulary and expression, to structure sentencesappropriately and grammatically.4. Conclusion and Suggestiona. Conclusion Excursion is a strategic method by which learners will be able to learnIndonesian language in a meaningful and fun possible way. By this method,learners will find the learning triggering and stimulating since they are involve insuch a situation and activity where language and culture aspects are learnedimplicitly. In addition, this method will overcome learners’ being reluctant tostudy in a-class-explicit program. The two learning activities, interviewing and reporting the interviewresult, will be meaningful for learners since they are stimulated to explore thelanguage (natural expressions, sentence structures, vocabularies in the real life 26
  12. 12. Stilistetika Tahun I Volume, Nopember 2012 ISSN 2089-8460situation) and to practice the four major skills (listening, writing, speaking, andreading).b. Suggestion This empirical study is an observation-based conceptual study. Thisconcept should be implemented to see how much it is applicable in the field, whatobstacles the learners face in the field. More deeply, implementing the model willenable us to identify what factors results in hindrances that we are going to beable to overcome them with some constructive ways out.BibliographyBochner, Stephen. 1985. Culture in Context. A Study in Cross-Culture Interaction. Great Britain: Pergamon Press Ltd.Chaer, Abdul.2007. Linguistik Umum. Jakarta: PT. Asdi Mahasatya.Ellis, Rod. 2000. Task-Based Research and Language Pedagogy. Language Teaching Research 4 (3), hal. 193-2020)Jaya Putra, Adi. 2008. Desertasi: Penggunaan Kode oleh Masyarakat Tutur Pegayaman. Denpasar: UdayanaSumarsono. 1993. Pemertahanan Bahasa Melayu Loloan di Bali. Jakarta: Proyek Penelitian dan Pembinaan ahasa dan Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah Jakarta.Tubbs. Stewart L. and Sylvia Moss. 1996. Human Communication. Bandung: PT. Remaja RosdakaryaWidanta, I Made Rai Jaya. 2009. Implementasi program immersion bahasa indonesia untuk penutur asing (bipa): suatu strategi untuk meningkatkan penguasaan bahasa indonesia pelajar BIPA. Dipresentasikan dalam Seminar Bahasa Ibu. Universitas Udayana Denpaasr.Widanta, I Made Rai Jaya and Luh Nyoman Chadra Handayani. 2011. “The Implementation of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) at Politeknik Negeri Bali (PNB): A Strategic Approach to Improve Students’ Implicit Knowledge of English” in Jurnal Sosial dan Humaniora. Bukit Jimbaran: Politeknik Negeri Bali. 27