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Introduction to Newspapers - student version

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Ju-at-BSix

Introduction to Newspaper for Eduqas's A-Level Media Studies

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Introduction to Newspapers
Independent Activities Pack
Component 1 Sections A & B
Focus Areas
Section A
• Media language
• Representation
• Media contexts
You will need to study the front
and back pages of The Times and
the front page and linked article
in The Daily Mirror
Section B
• Media industries
• Audiences
• Media contexts
You will need to study a
complete edition for each
newspaper (plus selected pages
from each of their websites)
UK Newspapers
• The Sun
• The Daily Mirror
• The Daily Express
• The Guardian
• The Daily Telegraph
• The Times
• The Observer
• Financial Times
• Daily Mail
• The Sunday People
• Daily Star
• Morning Star
UK Newspapers: Formats
Newspapers can be
categorised in different
ways. In Britain, there are
two main formats, which
are the tabloid and the
broadsheet.
Main Formats of NewspapersTabloids
 'Popular' press
 Aimed at lower social groupings (C2,D & E)
 Bold layout (e.g. colour on the masthead, very
bold typeface, easy to read), with large, dramatic
pictures
 Shorter articles, more pictures, less 'in-depth'
reporting
 Puns and jokes in headlines
 More focus on human interest stories, celebrity
gossip
 Use of gimmicks such as bingo games, free travel
tickets, phone-in surveys
Broadsheets
 'Quality' or 'serious' press
 Aimed at higher social groupings (A,B,C1)
 Plainer layout (Little colour on the front page,
smaller typeface suggests readers will make more
effort to read it), and subtle, possibly smaller,
pictures
 Longer articles, more detailed
 Serious headlines
 More focus on politics, international news
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact
page size smaller with the emphasis on
‘soft news’ such as sensational crime,
astrology, celebrity gossip, sport and TV.
A broadsheet is a new paper, which is
traditionally large in size – recently many
broadsheets have become compact, and
focuses on ‘hard news’ such as: politics,
education, science, international and global
news, economics.
Create a new blog post called ‘Introduction
to newspapers’ with a subheading ‘Tabloid
and Broadsheet’
• Using the information on the slide write
your own definition of different
newspaper formats.
UK Newspapers: Formats
• The Sun
• The Daily Mirror
• The Daily Express
• Daily Star
• The Guardian
• The Daily
Telegraph
• Morning Star
• The Times
Tabloid or Broadsheet
• Underneath your definition of different
newspaper formats.
• Place the following publications in the
correct newspaper format.
Ad

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Introduction to Newspapers - student version

  • 2. Component 1 Sections A & B Focus Areas Section A • Media language • Representation • Media contexts You will need to study the front and back pages of The Times and the front page and linked article in The Daily Mirror Section B • Media industries • Audiences • Media contexts You will need to study a complete edition for each newspaper (plus selected pages from each of their websites)
  • 3. UK Newspapers • The Sun • The Daily Mirror • The Daily Express • The Guardian • The Daily Telegraph • The Times • The Observer • Financial Times • Daily Mail • The Sunday People • Daily Star • Morning Star
  • 4. UK Newspapers: Formats Newspapers can be categorised in different ways. In Britain, there are two main formats, which are the tabloid and the broadsheet.
  • 5. Main Formats of NewspapersTabloids  'Popular' press  Aimed at lower social groupings (C2,D & E)  Bold layout (e.g. colour on the masthead, very bold typeface, easy to read), with large, dramatic pictures  Shorter articles, more pictures, less 'in-depth' reporting  Puns and jokes in headlines  More focus on human interest stories, celebrity gossip  Use of gimmicks such as bingo games, free travel tickets, phone-in surveys Broadsheets  'Quality' or 'serious' press  Aimed at higher social groupings (A,B,C1)  Plainer layout (Little colour on the front page, smaller typeface suggests readers will make more effort to read it), and subtle, possibly smaller, pictures  Longer articles, more detailed  Serious headlines  More focus on politics, international news A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller with the emphasis on ‘soft news’ such as sensational crime, astrology, celebrity gossip, sport and TV. A broadsheet is a new paper, which is traditionally large in size – recently many broadsheets have become compact, and focuses on ‘hard news’ such as: politics, education, science, international and global news, economics. Create a new blog post called ‘Introduction to newspapers’ with a subheading ‘Tabloid and Broadsheet’ • Using the information on the slide write your own definition of different newspaper formats.
  • 6. UK Newspapers: Formats • The Sun • The Daily Mirror • The Daily Express • Daily Star • The Guardian • The Daily Telegraph • Morning Star • The Times Tabloid or Broadsheet • Underneath your definition of different newspaper formats. • Place the following publications in the correct newspaper format.
  • 7. Select a date within the past month Compare and contrast the front cover of a tabloid and broadsheet featuring the same event. What meanings have been created? Analyse the following: • The image used and how much space used • The use of language in the headline and caption. • How much of the main body of the article is featured? • Additional articles Useful Website https://www.thepaperbo y.com/uk/front-pages.cfm Tabloid Broadsheet Write 1-3 sentences for each bullet point.
  • 8. Mid-market Newspapers Write a definition for a mid-market newspaper. Try to refer to the following in your definition: • Amount of the text • Number of visuals • Tone • Content/types of stories • Language What features are similar to a tabloid and which are similar to a broadsheet?
  • 9. Discuss: what do you notice about the papers’ reaction to England’s victory against Panama in the 2018 World Cup
  • 10. Newspaper Branding Choose an edition of The Daily Mirror and The Times and write a paragraph answering the following question: How does the newspaper create brand identity? • Front Page • Masthead • Advertising • Extension: what ideologies are being communicated through the branding?
  • 11. Media Language Analysing the use of code and convention in the creation of meaning
  • 12. Newspaper Conventions Definitions Convention and Definition Example Masthead - The newspaper's name, often in traditional gothic lettering. It may not have changed for many years so it's the easiest way to identify a newspaper. An important part of branding – semantic codes of the name can be identified. Slogan - A 'catchphrase' summing up the newspaper's philosophy or unique selling point “All The News That's Fit To Print”—The New York Times 'Puffs' or ‘blurbs’ - Colour bands that aim to attract readers to additional stories inside – usually more light hearted to broaden the audience base Headlines - The largest typeface on the page for the most important stories. Popular newspaper employ colloquialism and puns with quality newspapers being more formal Lead Story/Splash - The splash is the main story on the front of the paper. The largest headline will accompany this, often along with a photograph.
  • 13. Newspaper Conventions Definitions Convention and Definition Example Main Image - Dominant picture, often filling much of the front cover. Usually a dramatic picture filling most of the cover, anchorage text/caption usually close by to offer context Strapline - in smaller typeface, above or below headline that explain more about the story Local School Rocked by Series Of Explosions Standfirst - Block of text that introduces the story and offers initial content normally in a different style to the body text and headline Standalone - A picture story used on the cover to offer visual engagement News in brief (NIB) / side bars - Smaller facts or articles in a list / column positioned at the side or bottom of the paper
  • 14. Newspaper Conventions Definitions Convention and Definition Example Pull Quotes - Interesting quotes from the article extracted usually said by the person in the main image and it is written in larger font to make it stand out. “I really like ice cream when it’s hot” Caption - Brief text underneath an image describing the photograph or graphic Body Text - Also known as copy. Written material that makes up the main part of an article By-line - journalist's name & details, often includes a photo By Clark Kent, Special Correspondent Jump Line - Follows the teaser headline on the front page encouraging readers to buy and read on. Adverts - Newspapers may included adverts and offer on the cover – depending on the type – which will appeal to the audience
  • 15. Newspaper Conventions Definitions Visual Elements White space - Area on the newspaper that has no text, image or advert is left blank Margins and gutters - Lines to prevent text overlapping , newspapers have clear set areas of text, image, title Frames - Shapes outlining the parts of text such as stories or columns, to make them visually separate Columns - Newspapers always use columns when producing covers – it is the conventional layout Page furniture - Everything on a page except pictures or text of stories Font Style • Serif Font – Italic style font • Sans serif Font – Plain font type
  • 16. Analysing Newspaper Front Pages Find and annotate a newspaper front page identifying the use of conventions.
  • 18. What is the purpose of a newspaper front page? • What is the story about? • Who is the story about? • Where has this taken place? • When did this happen? • Why has this made the front page? • How do the front pages communicate the story? Think about all the features that appear on the newspapers and media language. Questions that can help you analyse the front page of a newspaper
  • 19. Look at the front page of the Guardian and the analysis Masthead • The word ‘guardian’ has connotations of safety, custodianship and protection. Maybe this links to the ownership by The Scott Trust Ltd, formed to “safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of The Guardian free from commercial or political interference.” The suggestion is that this newspaper is the keeper of ‘good, honest journalism’ as it is not controlled by owners, advertisers or political parties and is free to say what it wants. • The masthead is written all in lowercase and a uses a curved font, unlike most other newspapers, which use block, capitalised text. This uniqueness is, arguably, a more personal mode of address, one which offers an alternative form of journalism to the rest of the industry. Language • As expected the language is formal and at times suggests that a certain level of education or at least a good vocabulary is needed to understand the articles fully. For example Rowena Mason’s article on the public grilling of Theresa May uses phrasing such as, “introduced external assessment of disability claimants rather than self-assessment, and introduced more stringent eligibility criteria.” The paper also uses various devices expected of the medium such as the use of statistics and quotations directly from prominent people in the articles. In keeping with the style of the newspaper and the ideologies implied by the masthead - the headlines are not sensationalist or extreme - they are simple and give the impression of just providing the facts, suggesting that the reader is to make their own minds up. Layout & Style • The page is very busy without being cluttered - it has an organised formal feel to it. The image is almost central to the page and the audiences’ eye will be drawn to it. The main headline is not related to the main image which suggests that no one story is more important than another - encouraging the audience to make their own mind up. There is the start of a few articles, which each continue inside - overall there is a calm and formal tone - nothing feels over the top or ‘in your face’ which suggests that the reader is not going to be bombarded with unnecessary information or exaggerations. How to Start Analysing Newspaper’s Front Cover newspapers, w hich use block, capitalised text. This uniqueness is, arguably, a m ore personal m ode of address, one w hich offers an alternative form of journalism to the rest of the industry. Language As expected the language is form al and at tim es suggests that a certain level of education or at least a good vocabulary is needed to understand the articles fully. For exam ple Rowena Mason’s article on the public grilling of Theresa May uses phrasing such as, “introduced external assessm ent of disability claim ants rather than self-assessm ent, and introduced m ore stringent eligibility criteria.” The paper also uses various devices expected of the m edium such as the use of statistics and quotations directly from prom inent people in the articles. In keeping w ith the style of the newspaper and the ideologies im plied by the m asthead - the headlines are not sensationalist or extrem e - they are sim ple and give the im pression of just providing the facts, suggesting that the reader is to m ake their ow n m inds up.
  • 20. Newspaper Headlines Task: Find and analyse 5 different headlines Consider • meaning – denotations and connotations (Barthes’ Theory) • Language techniques • Audience responses • Extension: The relationship the words have with the accompanying image. Technique Definition Pun A play on words Alliteration Repetition of the same letter at the start of a word Rhyme Words that sound similar Hyperbole Deliberate exaggeration Direct address Use of pronouns – ‘you’ for effect Emotive language Use of words that provoke an emotional response Exclamatives Sentences that shout out Informal language Words that are like everyday speech Stuart Hall’s Audience Positioning: • Encoded/Decode d • Preferred position • Negotiated position • Oppositional position Create a new blog post called ‘Newspaper Conventions’ with a subheading ‘headlines’
  • 21. News Photographs Task Analyse the photographs on 2-3 front pages and make notes on the use media language AND the following: • Camera angle: what viewpoint does newspaper wants us to take? • Anchorage text: is there any text which pins down the meaning of the image? • Caption: which words are placed underneath to add contextual information? Colour, narrative, characters… Under the blog post called ‘Newspaper Conventions’ include another subheading called ‘News Photographs’
  • 22. Exploring Anchorage in Newspapers Anchorage - Where the meaning of a media text is fixed or stabilised by a caption, shot type, costume or so on. In other words Anchorage is when a piece of media uses another piece of media to reduce the amount of connotations in the first, therefore allowing the audience to interpret it much more easily. For example, in a newspaper, pictures are accompanied by a caption that allows us to understand what the picture is showing us. Read through the handout called Anchorage in Newspapers. Analyse the use of language and anchorage in this edition of The Sun.
  • 23. Potential Exam Question Answer the following exam style question • How does the code and conventions create meaning [15] Choose one of the following front pages
  • 24. Headline Intro Focus Narrative Structure Works as an enigma (Barthes), teasing the audience to want to find out more. They are an important hook to capture the audience and encourage them to pay attention to the article. There is an assumption in this headline that the audience will know who Brady is, and the word ‘moor’ will remind them if they have forgotten. Like the headline, the hook should grab the audience’s attention and encourage them to want to read the rest of the article. Intros are usually very short – maybe 30 words – and should be able to be read and digested quickly and easily. The intro sums up the main point of the article – in this case the discussion of Brady’s possible final resting place. Journalists often present stories from a human interest angle, putting people at the centre of their stories. Quotes are often used to give a human touch by emphasising the importance of the people in the story. In this instance, Brady is the focus but the sympathy clearly lies with the victims and their families. A quote from one of the victim’s brothers shows this. Reveals information in such a way as to keep the reader interested but also to aid their understanding of what is going on. Short paragraphs are important in news reports and each one is used to develop the narrative of the story a little bit more. There is also often a structure to news stories in that all the important info is given at the start and less important details are added later. In this example, the important info is that a coroner will not release Brady’s body until he is satisfied his ashes won’t be scattered on the Moor. Arguably less important information comes later such as how he died. How can newspaper article create meaning and appeal to audiences?
  • 26. Representation Exploring representation in newspapers will involve: • Understanding who are the gatekeepers • Analysing what ideologies are being presented • Considering how representations are constructed through a process of selection and combination. Reminder: Representation is how media texts deal with and present gender, age, ethnicity, national and regional identity, social issues and events to an audience. Media texts have the power to shape an audience’s knowledge and understanding about these important topics. Ideologies = beliefs and values help by a group in society, which are often represented in media texts. In a newspaper, the ideology of the owner or senior editors could influence the way certain stories are represented, such as lending support to a particular political party.
  • 27. WHAT IS THE TERM? A term applied to the editing and filtering process where decisions are made to let some information ‘pass through’ to the receiver (audience) and other information remains barred. GATEKEEPING
  • 28. These are the issues/attitudes debated over in the Media which form part of the everyday ideological discourse in our society. The views taken on the following subjects form the basis of our social rules and practice: SUBJECTS Gender FeminismSexuality Racism Nationalism/national identity Education Employment Environmentalism Crime And Punishment Youth/Age Public/Personal Reality Useful terminology Hegemony = The control or dominating influence by one person or group over others, especially by one political group over society or one nation over others. Read through 1-2 articles in the handout 1. Make a note of any language which assumes the reader holds the same attitudes/values as the writer. 2. List the ideological discourses which are referred to either directly or indirectly. 3. Consider what part this particular article plays in maintaining or possibly challenging the hegemonic belief. In other words, how does what is said correspond to what the reader wants to read? Religion Create a new blog post called ‘Representation in Newspapers – Ideology and Hegemony’
  • 29. Political Perspectives Newspapers, like any Media text, have an agenda. Most are associated with political perspectives and ideology, as well as specific political parties. Right-wing politics: • Conservative • Traditional values • Capitalism • Privatisation • “Outdated” values • Inequality • Hierarchy Far right-wing politics = Fascism/racism (Nazism, KKK etc.) Left-wing politics: • Liberal • Progressive values • Multiculturalism • Inclusiveness • Civil Rights • Feminism • Environmentalism • anti-war • Communism/ • Marxism/Anarchism Create a new blog post called ‘Newspaper – Political Perspective’ and copy the information on the slide onto your blog.
  • 30. UK Newspapers: Political Stances • The Sun • The Daily Mirror • The Daily Express • The Guardian • The Daily Telegraph • The Times • The Observer • Financial Times Left-wing, Central or Right-wing
  • 32. Bias • Representation is not reality rather it is a construction. Taking Donald Trump for an example, a man who I am certain most people have never met or are ever likely to meet, yet they probably still have a very definite view of the man. Where did this interpretation come from? It is created through re-presentation. Beliefs and attitudes are repeated, reinforced and legitimised. Audiences can often reach their own conclusion on media products, but there is generally a dominant ideology or 'right' way to think presented. As British citizens, our perception of other countries may entirely be created through carefully constructed representations. Therefore, we need to be wary of bias and agenda when analysing a media product. Agenda - the ideological goals of a media product. Often a media product will attempt to change the ideology of an audience, for example in a party political broadcast Bias/media bias - Where the producers of a text demonstrate a prejudice towards a certain group, or favouritism towards another. A one sided perspective.
  • 33. Is it biased? Discerning newspaper bias can be done through the following ways: • Bias through selection and omission • Bias through placement • Bias by headline • Bias by photos, captions and camera angles • Bias through use of names and titles • Bias through statistics and crowd counts • Bias by source control • Word choice and tone
  • 34. Types of Bias Potential Explanation Bias through selection and omission An editor can express a bias by choosing to use or not to use a specific news item. Within a given story, some details can be ignored, and others included, to give readers a different opinion about the events reported. If, during a speech, a few people boo, the reaction can be described as “remarks greeted by jeers” or they can be ignored as “a handful of dissidents.” Bias through omission is difficult to detect. Only by comparing news reports from a wide variety of outlets can the form of bias be observed. Bias through placement Readers of papers judge first page stories to be more significant than those buried in the back. Where a story is placed, therefore, influences what a reader or viewer thinks about its importance. Bias by headline Many people read only the headlines of a news item. Most people scan nearly all the headlines in a newspaper. Headlines are the most-read part of a paper. They can summarize as well as present carefully hidden bias and prejudices. They can express approval or condemnation. Bias by photos, captions and camera angles Some pictures flatter a person, others make the person look unpleasant. A paper can choose photos to influence opinion about, for example, a candidate for election. The captions newspapers run below photos are also potential sources of bias. Bias through use of names and titles News media often use labels and titles to describe people, places, and events. A person can be called an “ex-con” or be referred to as someone who “served time twenty years ago for a minor offence.” Whether a person is described as a “terrorist” or a “freedom fighter” is a clear indication of editorial bias.
  • 35. Types of Bias Potential Explanation Bias through statistics and crowd counts To make a disaster seem more spectacular (and therefore worthy of reading about), numbers can be inflated. “A hundred injured in air crash” can be the same as “only minor injuries in air crash,” reflecting the opinion of the person doing the counting. Bias by source control To detect bias, always consider where the news item “comes from.” Is the information supplied by a reporter, an eyewitness, police, executives, or elected or appointed government officials? Each may have a particular bias that is introduced into the story. Companies and public relations directors supply news outlets with puff pieces through news releases, photos or videos. Often news outlets depend on pseudo-events (demonstrations, sit-ins, ribbon cuttings, speeches and ceremonies) that take place mainly to gain news coverage. Word choice and tone Showing the same kind of bias that appears in headlines, the use of positive or negative words or words with a particular connotation can strongly influence the reader or viewer.
  • 36. Exemplar - Daily Mirror The headline’s use of a pun effectively reveals the newspaper’s delight in Jeremy Corbyn’s success, as ‘Cor blimey’ is colloquial term expressing surprise and excitement. The headline is an exclamatory sentence and its use of bold capital letters as well as the exclamation mark sensationalises the event. Moreover, the use of slang for the headline reinforces the perception that Corbyn is a non-traditional party leader, as he is portrayed as more down-to- earth and fighting for the need of the common people, because of the phrase’s association with the cockney dialect and the working class, which is the Labour and the newspaper’s main target demographic. Corbyn is known for his communist and left wing views, which fits to a certain extent the political stance of The Daily Mirror. The headline anchors the splash’s main image, as it features Corbyn with his thumb up implying his satisfaction with the results. The main image’s use of direct address looks to further emphasise Corbyn’s reliability to the audience, as he is smiling making him appear friendly and the fact that it is in a medium shot gives him a more commanding presence connoting his confidence, which challenges the criticisms that he is a weak leader, which he faced at the start of his tenure as party leader. The contrasting body language of the party leaders exhibit the newspaper’s bias towards Corbyn. The inserted image of Theresa May connotes disappointment, as she is looking down opposing the sense of confidence projected by the image of Corbyn reinforcing the binary opposition between men and women, as she is portrayed as a weak leader. Also, the photograph of May selected is unflattering, because the close up reveals a ‘turkey neck’ suggesting the newspaper is trying to undermine her leadership by encouraging discussions about her looks. The direct address works alongside the positioning of the Vote Labour badge shows the newspaper’s affiliation with the party, as it placed in middle third of the frame suggesting that Labour’s success will be at the centre of change in the political make up of Britain. Lastly, the caption shows bias towards Corbyn, as it creates a hyperbolic tone through its use of rhyme, the word ‘stormin’ infers that Corbyn achieved an extraordinary feat. The informal nature of the caption is reinforced by the missing ‘g’, which is again used to reflect Corbyn’s easygoing and nonconventional persona.
  • 37. Compare and Contrast the two newspaper covers about Jeremy Corbin How have the codes and conventions of a front page been used to communicate the newspaper’s bias, agenda as well as political stance/ideology? Create a new blog post called ‘Bias in Newspapers’
  • 38. Research Task Donald Trump presidential campaign 2016 • Official launch date June 16, 2015- November 19 2016 Find interesting 3 front page or articles about Trump from The Daily Mirror and The Times during his presidential campaign. What impression of Trump has been created by the newspaper before his election win? • Is it positive or negative? • What is the main focus of his portrayal – personal controversy or his policies? https://www.thepaperb oy.com/uk/front- pages.cfm Create a new blog post called ‘The Portrayal of Trump’s Presidential Campaign’ with a subheading for each publication.
  • 39. The splash represents Trump as an infamous personality due to his salacious nature and this perception is encoded because of the word ‘scandal’ in the strapline. The fact that the strapline is in red, adds to the connotations of sexuality, as it is a signifier inferring passion. The headline shows that Trump is in a fight to save his presidential campaign, as ‘Trump on the Gropes’ is a pun that plays on the boxing term ‘on the ropes’, which has connotations of being defenseless, as the fighter has been cornered by his opponent. The article also suggests that Trump’s presidential campaign is in crisis by the use of “his own party deserts” in the subheading. Moreover, the use of pun in the headline - gropes - portrays Trump as sexual predator and this links with the use of the word ‘sleazy’ in the headline’s subheading. The splash effectively uses hyperbole to emphasise the shocking nature of the event making Trump seem like a controversial presidential candidate. This is because the word ‘bombshells’ signifies the potentially devastating and destructive consequence of this revelation. The fact it uses a plural means this is not the end of the controversy. The choice of photo for the main image portrays Trump as arrogant through his facial expression because he is pursing his lips implying vanity especially as it can be seen as an intertextual reference to the character Zoolander. Additionally, his pursing lips resembles preparing for a kiss reinforcing the key theme of the article - his sex scandal. Trump is shown to have dedicated wife in Melania through the use of the two shot connoting togetherness, which is key to his republican demographic as it upholds more conservative ideologies around marriage and family. Moreover, her gestures makes her seem defiant as she has one hand out, which could imply that she is trying to block out and ignore the controversy surrounding her husband. Interestingly the image makes inferences about the dynamics in the relationship as it suggest unequal commitment, Melania is portrayed as a loving wife devoted to him through blocking and proxemics, because she is facing him, reinforcing the stereotype that it is a wife’s role to support and be by her husband’s side. The caption anchors this representation further saying "support" and relates to the song stand by your man. She is represented as caring due the fact that she is kissing on the cheek suggesting affection. On the other hand, Trump is represented as the typical breadwinner and leader, as he is not facing his wife but looking ahead connoting his focus on the job at hand, yet he still fulfills his role as a husband as he leans his head towards her. Analysing the representation of Trump during his presidential campaign
  • 40. Galtung and Ruge (1973) - news values Factor Explanation Frequency Often these are events that occur suddenly, are short-term and require little explanation. Short-term events such as murders or robberies that occur frequently are newsworthy. Other frequent newsworthy items are politics, economics and education. Threshold Events that have impact – large numbers involved, perhaps casualties in an accident, or a particularly gruesome murder – could be considered newsworthy. The bigger impact the story has, the more people it affects, the more extreme the effect or the more money or resources it involves, the more newsworthy it is. Unambiguity News reports must have immediate meaning and no ambiguity, so they can be easily understood. Proximity Stories which happen near to us have more significance. News must be about the people it is targeted at and relevant to them. Proximity doesn't have to mean geographical distance. Stories from countries with which we have a particular bond or similarity have the same effect. Predictability News that is hinted at, and then becomes real as expected by the media. Unexpectedness If an event is out of the ordinary it will have a greater effect than something that is an everyday occurrence. Events that are unexpected are considered newsworthy. ‘Man eats tiger!’ Continuity News stories, once reported, must continue to be reported on, as we expect to see closure, i.e. Royal Wedding, Michael Schumacher. Composition News must be balanced at the time of broadcast, consisting of relevant news, urgency, importance and domesticity – length of reports adjusted accordingly. Reference to Elite Nations Stories concerned with global powers receive more attention than those concerned with less influential nations. News which relates culturally to our own and which is relevant to us. We are not necessarily interested in the news of a tiny country we have never heard of on the other side of the world, but we are interested in European news because it is close to us. Reference to elite persons Stories concerned with the rich, powerful, famous and infamous get more coverage. News about our monarchy is extremely newsworthy, as is news about politicians. Personalisation Events that can be portrayed as the actions of individuals will be more attractive than one in which there is no such "human interest.” News must feel personal; someone is accountable for their actions rather than an organisation. Celebrity or human interest. Election campaigns will become personal, party leaders representing their parties. Negativity The newsworthy value is ‘bad news is good news’ and is therefore worth reporting. Death, tragedy and extreme weather conditions are newsworthy reporting. Visual Imperative Footage or photos of an event can help make a story more newsworthy. Galtung and Ruge (1973) developed a set of values which are used as a form of ‘gatekeeping’, ensuring that news reporting is relevant and informative for consumers. These values determine how much prominence a news story can be given. Some cultures have different ideas of what they consider to be newsworthy. In the UK, it is said that we are particularly interested in celebrity news. Their theory argues that the more an event accessed these criteria the more likely it was to be reported on in a newspaper
  • 41. Preparing for the Set Text Trump becomes president. Evaluate this news event against Galtung and Ruge’s idea about new value. Create a new blog post called ‘Trump’s Election – News Value’
  • 42. Why is Trump So Controversial? Some of Trump's campaign promises His campaign promises are aimed at changes to immigration, trade, taxes and foreign policy. • ‘Build a wall’ — and make Mexico pay for it • Temporarily ban Muslims from entering the United States • Cut taxes • ‘Bring manufacturing (jobs) back’ • Deport undocumented immigrants • Impose tariffs on goods made in China and Mexico • ‘Full repeal of Obamacare’ and replace it with a market- based alternative • ‘Bomb’ and/or ‘take the oil’ from ISIS
  • 44. Media Language and Representation The Daily Mirror The American Election (10th November 2016) Case Study Discuss the connotations of the following words/phrases: Liberty Statue Utopia
  • 45. Connotations Crown – 7 points?Torch? Raised arm to hold it high? Robes? Pedestal? Tablet inscribed with an important date?
  • 46. Product Context • National mid market Tabloid Newspaper established in 1903 and aimed at a predominantly working class readership, it follows a traditionally left wing political stance. • The Daily Mirror demonstrated an unequivocally oppositional response to the result and views Trump as ill suited to such a high position of power. Newspapers Daily Mirror front cover and article – Thursday, November 10, 2016
  • 47. • This edition was published on the 10th November 2016 following the unprecedented high profile American election campaign which was eventually won by Republican Donald Trump, a 70 year old billionaire famous for appearing on reality TV show The Apprentice USA. • Donald Trump achieved one of the most improbable political victories in modern US history, despite a series of controversies exposed during the election campaign, his extreme policies that drew criticism from both sides of the political spectrum, a record of racist and sexist behaviour, and a lack of political experience.
  • 48. Complete the annotation handout answering the questions in each box Newspapers Daily Mirror front cover and article – Thursday, November 10, 2016 What connotations are created by the font colour used for the headline “It’s President Trump”? What connotations does the black overcast create? Write about the history of the Statue of Liberty and why it was built. What does it symbolizes? What does Statue of Liberty’s body language and gesture suggest? What impact does the use of ellipsis have on the headline “It’s President Trump”? What part of the Statue of Liberty is missing and why is that significant? How does it link to the meaning created? What connotations does the city backdrop create? What significance does the colour of the river? How could it be linked to the bible? In what ways does the front page reflect Gerbner’s notion of the mean world syndrome? What connotations have been created by the headline ‘what have they done?’ How does it reveal the paper’s bias? What impact does the strapline have and in what ways does it anchor the main image?In what ways does Trump’s election oppose the American ideology “the land of opportunity’ and the line from the national anthem ‘the land of the free and the home of the brave”?
  • 49. Theoretical perspectives Stuart Hall • The representation of Trump and his supporters is constructed, using media language to create meaning for the audience. The use of these ‘signs’ by the newspaper suggest that Trump and his supporters belong to a specific cultural group of predominantly white, middle class men. This representation transmits ideas to the reader about inequalities of power and the subordination of certain social groups. Find specific evidence from the set to support this application of theory
  • 50. Theoretical perspectives Paul Gilroy • The idea that colonial discourses continue to inform contemporary attitudes to race and ethnicity in the postcolonial era. • The idea that civilisation constructs racial hierarchies and sets up binary oppositions based on notions of ‘otherness’. • In After Empire, Gilroy (2004) identified that there are often ‘hostile responses to strangers and settlers’. So much so, that ‘incomers may be unwanted and feared...’. Find specific evidence from the set to support this application of theory
  • 51. Watch the documentary about Donald Trump Make notes on: • The controversy surrounding him • His campaign and political ideas
  • 52. Media Language and Representation The Times The American Election (10th November 2016) Case Study
  • 53. Product Context • The Times newspaper is a British national ‘quality’ newspaper first published in 1785. • The Times has been published by Times Newspapers since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, wholly owned by News Corp, Rupert Murdoch’s company The Times front and back cover – Thursday, November 10, 2016
  • 54. • The Times is famous for having a range of journalists with varied political viewpoints which allows the newspaper to offer a more neutral political stance on Trump’s victory.
  • 55. AUDIENCE RECEPTION • The process of directing the audience towards a certain meaning = a PREFERED READING (Stuart Hall). • A NEGOTIATED READING is when the audience understands what message the producer is trying create through their representation, however, the audience uses their own common sense in light of their knowledge and experience and decides whether to accept it.. • An OPPOSITIONAL READING is when you realise what a message a media representation wants to you to have and then interpreting it in a completely different way. Anchorage is a technique where by the choice of written text, commentary, mise en scene, camera angle or soundtrack can direct the audience towards a certain meaning
  • 56. Complete the annotation handout answering the questions in each box