Presentation on Barcelona Architecture of Gaudi, Jujol & more


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Presentation of some major works by Gaudi and Jujol, and the correlation between them, based on mostly personal visits to and personally photographed work, on a visit in 2005.

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Presentation on Barcelona Architecture of Gaudi, Jujol & more

  1. 1. Architecture of Gaudi & Jujol Out of this World. Barcelona, 2005. (From Top Left, clockwise: Casa Negre (Jujol), Casa Battlo (Gaudi), Sagrada Familia (Gaudi))
  2. 2. With a hotel room in the middle of the most ancient part of Barcelona, just a minute walk off the ‘Ramblas’, one finds oneself in an ideal location for an Architectural sight-seeing tour on foot, to see some of the main works of Gaudi. For Park Guell and the Sagrada Familia, one takes a bus. For works of Jujol, a contemporary and early collaborator / partner / employee of Gaudi, one needs to travel by bus or rail to the outskirts of the city, to the locality of San Joan Despi, which contains some of his most well-known works, where he designed a second home himself and his wife, and where his wife was from. More works by Jujol are to be found a country-ride Southwest, to Tarragona and environs.
  3. 3. Park Guell Sagrada Familia Catalonia Barcelona Casa Mila Casa Battlo Barcelona San Joan Despi Barcelona is the 2nd largest city in Spain and capital of Catalonia (see inset-top left), historically an autonomous part of Spain, with a rich cultural history of its own. San Joan Despi (see inset-bottom left) is a small suburb town, originally a small village, now part of the greater Barcelona metropolitan area.
  4. 4. Josep Maria Jujol (1879-1949) Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926) For an understanding how the two relate (and why this presentation combines them), it might be a good idea to first take a look at some of the work by Jujol, so we can better recognize his ‘hand’ in the buildings that are among Gaudi’s work, and that we’ll visit later on. Chronologically speaking however, the buildings by Jujol superseded the period in which he worked for and with Gaudi. It could of course also be argued that the work for Gaudi had influenced Jujol to such an extent and in such manner that his later work was at least in part a result of this. However, we know that Gaudi had a great deal of respect for the creativity of Jujol (and for that matter, also for other artists or Architects he worked with), and on more than one occasion gave him full reign on assignments, which would argue to the contrary. It seems that despite the big difference in age (27 years), both the respect of Gaudi and disposition of Jujol played a role in the successful collaboration of the two, and that different interests were a big part of the reason that each went their own way after the Park Guell project.
  5. 5. Images source: “Josep M. Jujol” by Vincent Ligtelijn, Rein Saariste, 010 Publishers. Torre de la Creu (1913-1916), San joan Despi (by Jujol) Designed as two semi-detached homes, featuring roof balconies and mosaic-clad domed roofs, as well as wrought iron balcony railings and fences/gates.
  6. 6. Staircase / hall, Torre de la Creu Staircase, Torre de la Creu Entrance hall / staircase, Torre de la Creu Images source: “Josep M. Jujol” by Vincent Ligtelijn, Rein Saariste, 010 Publishers.
  7. 7. Casa Negre (1915-1926), San Joan Despi (by Jujol) This was a renovation, with exterior and interior modifications, executed in stages over a 11-year period, for a lawyer, Pere Negre. Current town square setting does not do well in conveying the original ‘countryside’ setting. The detailing is ‘exotic’ and is reminiscent of the detailing on Casa Battlo (by Gaudi), on which Jujol worked in 1906/07, immediately after he graduated. Images source: “Josep M. Jujol” by Vincent Ligtelijn, Rein Saariste, 010 Publishers.
  8. 8. Balcony with bay window Inside bay window, door to balcony Looking from top floor onto roof of bay window Images source: “Josep M. Jujol” by Vincent Ligtelijn, Rein Saariste, 010 Publishers. Floor plans shown are from right to left: first floor, second and third floor (attic). Probably the most famous interior parts of this house is the staircase, painted and decorated with a dazzlingly spacious effect, as if going up the stairs is really leading one into another ‘world’. The most eyecatching element of the front façade, the balcony/bay window, has built-in seats and doors to either side of the balcony. The house contains a little chapel and a ‘painting-cabinet’ (shown above).
  9. 9. Staircase 2nd to 3rd floor Floor plans shown are from right to left: second and third floor (attic). Images source: “Josep M. Jujol” by Vincent Ligtelijn, Rein Saariste, 010.
  10. 10. Casa Battlo (1904-06), Barcelona (by Gaudi) A stunningly fluid and organic façade and overall Architectural treatment, with evoking otherworldly associations. Jujol’s main contribution here was the ceramic surface of the façade. The undulating mosaic of shiny colorful fragments with scattered round tiles produces the effect similar to scales on a skin.
  11. 11. 2nd floor plan, Casa Battlo Image source: “Gaudi Guide” by Xavier Guell, 2002. Drawings by Lluis Bonell. Upon entering the house, one seems to be ‘submerged’ into an almost sub-oceanic world, that opens up the more one rises to the top, the roof, itself a landscape filled with fantastic forms and executed with beautiful details. Notice the location of columns on the 2nd floor; at the rear (Dining room), a pair of columns is at the very center of the door opening to the roof top terrace, while at the front they help define the space at the fabulous undulating windows. Grand staircase, 1st floor Dining room at rear, 2nd floor Tiled hearth alcove, 2nd floor Living room at front, 2nd floor
  12. 12. Living room at front, 2nd floor
  13. 13. Upper floor plans, Casa Battlo Image source: “Gaudi Guide” by Xavier Guell, 2002. Drawings by Lluis Bonell. Floor plans Casa Battlo While the 2nd floor has a mysteriously fluid and organic plan (top), the upper floors are more straightforward and make a rational impression in terms of layout (lower). These were large apartments, stretching all the way from front to back, and entered at the heart of the building, right off the stairs and landing adjoining the courtyard. Light and ventilation shafts are located centrally, serving both kitchen (for ventilation) and entry (for light).
  14. 14. Top of atrium, Casa Battlo Tiled chimney, Casa Battlo Tiled parapet (back of front facade, Casa Battlo Roof scape with tiled chimneys and guarded skylights, Casa Battlo
  15. 15. Casa Mila (1906-10), Barcelona (‘La Pedrera’)(by Gaudi) These were designed as upscale apartments, around a central courtyard which served to admit light to the dwellings from both sides. Jujol designed the sinuously wrought iron balustrades, completed the chimneys on the roof, as well as the murals in the entrance hall, and stucco reliefs at the first floor. On the interior he created the ceiling and wall paintings.
  16. 16. Typical upper floor plan Casa Mila We see each floor being divided into four large apartments, with circulation around the central courtyards, flooding the apartments with light from both sides. The courtyard facades have a strong vertical character, whereas the street facades are more horizontal, layering the building. The street facades are fluid and continuous, divided into three sides (main street, side street, and the chamfered corner). The apartments are entered via elevators where the courtyard facades project into the courtyard space, while two staircases serve as service (at the ends of the building) and one as a central exit/entrance. The organic geometry of the layout of the floor plans seems to be derived from / inspired by the corner location of the building, with a tightening at the rear of the apartments, and shifts of orientation, while the hallways meander through the building. Notice how almost every room receives natural daylight and ventilation. Image source: “Gaudi Guide” by Xavier Guell, 2002. Drawings by Cesar Martinell.
  17. 17. Hall way along courtyard Gaudi chair, hallway, Casa Mila Living / Dining room, Casa Mila Kitchen, Casa Mila
  18. 18. Details of roof, with various patio’s, staircases taking one up and down, and fantastic imagery from the chimneys, as well as views over the city and beyond.
  19. 19. Park Guell (1900-1914), Barcelona (by Gaudi) On a hill overlooking the city and in the distance the Meditteranean Sea, Gaudi designed buildings and terraces, staircases and spaces into the hillside supported by columns.
  20. 20. Jujol’s best known work from the years with Gaudi is found here, in the mosaics of the benches surrounding the main terrace, and where the Park is most famous for. He worked on this from 1911-13, with the help of a mason and two day-laborers. It would be the last collaboration with Gaudi.
  21. 21. La Sagrada Familia (1883-Present), Barcelona (by Gaudi) A deeply religious man himself (Roman Catholic), after 1915 Gaudi dedicated himself almost entirely to his ‘Magnum Opum’ the Sagrada Familia cathedral, for which he got the commission in 1883. Started in Gothic style, it became more organic later on. He did not live to see it finished, but then, construction continues to this day. A visit is a visit to a construction / job-site, and work continues while thousands of tourists, each day are channeled through part of the cathedral and up into the towers. The detailing is sublime, from top (i.e. see column base with turtle) to the top (i.e. see spires), and many well-known artists took part in it.
  22. 22. Floor plan, Sagrada Familia
  23. 23. He intended the interior to look like a forest where columns are branching out to a ‘leafy’ deck of flower-like ceiling components. A lot of the work on these parts of the cathedral today is done through the use of pre-fabricated concrete parts (see photo to the right). The building is not expected to be finished before 2027.
  24. 24. Ending note: On a stroll along the harbor, I happened upon this; a replica of the first real submarine (in the world !), the Ictineo II, that was made there and had it’s maiden voyage in the harbor of Barcelona. The Ictineo I, operated by manpower, was smaller, launched and tested in 1859, but was smashed by a big freighter as it was sitting at the dock. The Ictineo II was a two-walled submarine, outfitted with a steam engine able to operate under water, and invented to save divers. Somehow, the experience of what I had seen in the extraordinary Architecture of Barcelona, suddenly didn’t seem so remote from this, the harbor and the sea; as if there indeed was a connection in terms of ‘spheres’, and maybe, in hidden ways, the sea, as well as engineering, provided, and still provides, as a source of inspiration. (End of main part of the presentation; for Bonus Features – click on !)
  25. 25. Barcelona Bonus Features: Palau de la Musica Catalana (by Lluis Domenech i Montaner) Barcelona Paviljon (by Mies van der Rohe)
  26. 26. Palau de la Musica Catalana (1905-08) (by Luis Domenech i Montaner) Seemingly tucked away in a narrow street / alley, this magnificent building is one of the most beautiful concert halls that I know of, and/or have visited, in the world. The original hall has been restored, and an addition (in top left photo, to the left of the original building) has been added. The ticket box offices are incorporated into two of the massive columns supporting the upper stories, and showcase beautiful mosaics.
  27. 27. Floor plan, Palau de la Musica
  28. 28. The hall features large windows with colored/stained glazing, a tremendous dazzling stained glass ceiling (see top right), and exquisite detailing, mosaics, etc. , not only in the hall itself but extending throughout the building (i.e. staircase, to the bottom right). The stage (above) is ornate and features a large organ, completely restored as well (and sounding magnificent). Images source: Wikipedia Commons
  29. 29. 1 2 3 1 2 5 4 6 Images source: 6 Barcelona Paviljon (1929) (by Mies van der Rohe) 5 3 4