According to Hymes (1974)• An ethnography of a communicative event is a description of all the factors that are relevant in understanding how that particular communicative event achieves its objectives.
- Ethnography is alternately botha research methodology anda way of writing up research. (1)- the study of single groupthrough direct contact with theirculture.
Speech is used in differentways among differentgroups of people. Eachgroup has its own norms oflinguistic behavior.
Marshall (1961)• Marshall has indicated how the !Kung have certain customs which help them either to avoid or reduce friction and hostility within bands and between bands.
• According to Marshall, speech among the !Kung helps to maintain peaceful social relationships by allowing people to keep in touch with one another about how they are thinking and feeling.
Basso (1972)• The Western Apache of East-Central Arizona choose to be silent when there is a strong possibility that such uncertainty exists.
• They are silent on ‘meeting strangers’ whether these are fellow Western Apache or complete outsiders; and strangers, too, are expected to be silent.
Fox (1974)• Fox (1974) has described how the Roti consider talk one of the great pleasures of life - not just idle chatter, but disputing, arguing, showing off various verbal skills, and, in general, indulging in verbal activity.
• Silence is interpreted as a sign of some kind of distress, possibly confusion or dejection. So social encounters are talk-filled.
Reisman (1974)• In Antigua, people speak because they must assert themselves through language. They do not consider as interruptions behavior that we would consider being either interruptive or even disruptive.
• Reisman says that in Antigua ‘ to enter a conversation one must assert one’s presence rather than participate in something formalized as an exchange.
Frake (1964)• Subanun of the Philippines, who employ certain kinds of speech in drinking encounters. Such encounters are very important for gaining prestige for resolving disputes.
• Frake (1964) has described how to talk, what he calls ‘drinking talk’, proceeds in such encounters, from the initial invitation to partake of drink, to the selection of proper topics for discussion as drinking proceeds competitively, and finally to displays of verbal art that accompany heavy, ‘successful’ drinking.
(S) Setting and Scene EXAMPLESetting refers to the time and The living room in theplace. (the concrete physical grandparents home might becircumstances in which speech a setting for a family story.takes place).Scene refers to the abstract The family story may be toldpsychological setting, or the at a reunion celebrating thecultural definition of the occasion. grandparents anniversary. At times, the family would be festive and playful; at other times, serious and commemorative.
(P) Participants EXAMPLE- Speaker and audience. At the family reunion, an aunt might tell a- Participants include story to the youngvarious combinations of female relatives, butspeaker-listener, males, although notaddressor-addressee, or addressed, mightsender-receiver. also hear the narrative.
(E) Ends EXAMPLEPurposes, goals, and The aunt may telloutcomes. a story about the grandmother to entertain the audience, teach the young women, and honor the grandmother.
(A) Act sequence EXAMPLE- refers to the actual form and The aunts story mightorder of the event. begin as a response to a toast to the grandmother. The storys plot and development would have a sequence structured by the aunt. Possibly there would be a collaborative interruption during the telling. Finally, the group might applaud the tale and move onto another subject or activity.
(K) Key EXAMPLEKey refers to the tone, The aunt might imitatemanner, or spirit in which a the grandmothers voiceparticular message is and gestures in a playfulconveyed: light-hearted, way, or she mightserious, precise, pedantic, address the group in amocking, sarcastic, pompous, serious voiceand so on. emphasizing the sincerity and respect of the praise the story expresses.
(I) Instrumentalities EXAMPLE Instrumentalities refers to the choice of channel, (e.g., oral, The aunt might written, or telegraphic). speak in a casual register with many dialect actual forms of speech employed, such as the language, dialect, features or might code, or register that is chosen. use a more formal register and careful grammatically "standard" forms.
(N) Norms EXAMPLENorms of Interaction refers to the In a playful story by thespecific behaviors and properties aunt, the norms mightthat attach to speaking allow many audience interruptions and collaboration, or possiblyNorms of Interpretation how these[behaviors] may be viewed by those interruptions mightsomeone who does not share be limited to participationthem, e.g., loudness, silence, gaze by older females. Areturn, and so on. serious, formal story by the aunt might call for attention to her and no interruptions.
(G)Genre EXAMPLEGenre refers to category . The aunt might tellof event . a character anecdote about the(e.g. poems, proverbs, grandmother forriddles, sermons, prayers, entertainment, or anlectures, and editorials.) exemplum as moral instruction.
Leither (1980, p. 5) states, ’the aimof ethnomethodology is to study theprocesses of sense making (idealizingand formulizing). Ethnomethodology is a branch ofthe social science which is concernedwith exploring how people interactwith the world and make sense ofreality. (3)
Common Sense Commonsense knowledgerefers to a variety of things. It is theunderstandings, receipts, maxims, and definitions that we employ indaily living as we go about doingthings.
Practical reasoning Practical reasoning refers to theway in which people make use oftheir commonsense knowledge and tohow they employ that knowledge intheir conduct of everyday life.
OTHER REFERENCES(1)http://my.ilstu.edu/~jrbaldw/372/Ethnography.html(2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dell_Hymes(3) http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-ethnomethodology.htm