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Communicative Language
      Teaching



          Presented by:
        Ms. Joy M. Avelino
           MA Ed-ELT
GOALS
The goals of communicative approach are as
follows: (Sunga, et.al, 1994)

1.To become communicatively competent.

2.To use the language appropriate for a
given social context.

3.To manage the process of relating
meaning with interlocutors.
FOCUS OF INSTRUCTION
LEARNER ROLE
   Breen and Candlin in Richards & Rodgers
(2001:166) describe the learner’s role within
CLT is as negotiator between the self, the
learning process, and the object of
learning, emerges from and interacts with the
role of joint negotiator within the group and
within the classroom procedure and activities
which the group undertakes.
TEACHER ROLE
    According to Breen and Candlin in
Richards & Rodgers (2001:167) that
teacher has two main roles in CLT.
   1. Facilitator
   2. Independent Participant
Other roles assumed for
teachers are:
 • Need analyst
 • Counselor
 • Group process manager
CLASSROOM
ACTIVITIES
TYPES OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
     The range of exercise types and
activities     compatible      with    a
communicative          approach       is
unlimited, provided that such exercises
enable     learners    to    attain the
communicative      objectives    of the
curriculum.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

  Information-Gap Activities

  Jigsaw activities

  Pair and Group Work
Emphasis on Pair and Group Work

• They can learn from hearing the language
  used by other members of the group.
• They will produce a greater amount of
  language than they would use in teacher-
  fronted activities.
• Their motivational level is likely to increase.
• They will have the chance to develop fluency.
• Teaching and classroom materials today
  consequently make use of a wide variety of
  small-group activities.
Other Activity Types in CLT
 •   Task-completion activities
 •   Information-gathering activities
 •   Opinion-sharing activities
 •   Information-transfer activities
 •   Reasoning-gap activities
 •   Role plays
INSTRUCTIONAL
  MATERIALS
Richards & Rodgers consider
three kinds of materials currently
used in CLT:


• Text-based materials
• Task-based materials
• Realia.
PROCEDURE
Because communicative principles
can be applied to the teaching of any
skill, at any level, and because of the
wide variety of classroom activities
and exercise types discussed in the
literature on communicative Language
Teaching, description of typical
classroom procedures used in a lesson
based on CLT principles is no feasible.
Finocchiaro and Brumfit offer a lesson
outline for teaching the function “making a
suggestion” for the learner in the beginning level
of secondary school program.

1.Presentation of a brief dialog or several mini-
dialogs.

2.Oral practice of each utterance of the dialog
segment to be presented that day.

3.Question and answer based on the dialog topic.

4.Question and answer related to the student’s
personal experience.
5.Study one of the basic communicative expression in
dialog.

6.Learner discovery of generalizations           or   rules
underlying the functional expression.

7.Oral recognition, interpretative activities.

8.Oral production activities-proceeding from guided to
freer communication activities.

9.Copying of the dialog or modules if they are not in
the class text.

10.Sampling of the written homework assignment.
ADVANTAGES
     AND
DISADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES
    The interaction between students and
 teachers. Teacher-student relationship is
 an         interactive,      harmonious
 relationship, rather than the traditional
 education, the kind of master-servant
 relationship.
Greatly enhanced the student’s interest.
Communicative language teaching encourage
students to participate in, sometimes
accompanied     by   scenes   or    simulated
scenarios, so that students more close to
life, the students became the main
character, naturally they were interested in
the English language, to learn English as a
pleasure.
DISADVANTAGES

       Often, there is no text, grammar
  rules are not presented, and classroom
  arrangement is nonstandard. Students
  are expected to interact primarily with
  each other rather than with the
  teacher, and correction of errors may
  be absent or infrequent.
DISADVANTAGES

       Students with low levels of
  proficiency in the target language
  may find it difficult to participate in
  oral communicative activities and, if
  the exams used by an institution are
  grammar      based,     communicative
  fluency may not be appropriate.
References:

Brown, Douglas H. 1994. Teaching by Principles: An Integrative Approach to
       Language Pedagogy. USA: Prentice Hall Regents.

Celce-Murcia, M. 2006. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign
       Language. 3rd Edition. Cengage Learning.

Richards, J.C. & Rodgers T.S. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language
       Teaching. 2nd Edition. United Kingdom. Cambridge University
       Press.

Richards, Jack C. 2006. Communicative Language Teaching Today.USA.
       Cambridge University Press.

Sunga, et. al . 1994. Innovative Strategies in Communication Arts. Quezon
       City: Phoenix Publishing.
Communicative Language Teaching

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Communicative Language Teaching

  • 1. Communicative Language Teaching Presented by: Ms. Joy M. Avelino MA Ed-ELT
  • 3. The goals of communicative approach are as follows: (Sunga, et.al, 1994) 1.To become communicatively competent. 2.To use the language appropriate for a given social context. 3.To manage the process of relating meaning with interlocutors.
  • 5. LEARNER ROLE Breen and Candlin in Richards & Rodgers (2001:166) describe the learner’s role within CLT is as negotiator between the self, the learning process, and the object of learning, emerges from and interacts with the role of joint negotiator within the group and within the classroom procedure and activities which the group undertakes.
  • 6. TEACHER ROLE According to Breen and Candlin in Richards & Rodgers (2001:167) that teacher has two main roles in CLT. 1. Facilitator 2. Independent Participant
  • 7. Other roles assumed for teachers are: • Need analyst • Counselor • Group process manager
  • 9. TYPES OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES The range of exercise types and activities compatible with a communicative approach is unlimited, provided that such exercises enable learners to attain the communicative objectives of the curriculum.
  • 10. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Information-Gap Activities Jigsaw activities Pair and Group Work
  • 11. Emphasis on Pair and Group Work • They can learn from hearing the language used by other members of the group. • They will produce a greater amount of language than they would use in teacher- fronted activities. • Their motivational level is likely to increase. • They will have the chance to develop fluency. • Teaching and classroom materials today consequently make use of a wide variety of small-group activities.
  • 12. Other Activity Types in CLT • Task-completion activities • Information-gathering activities • Opinion-sharing activities • Information-transfer activities • Reasoning-gap activities • Role plays
  • 14. Richards & Rodgers consider three kinds of materials currently used in CLT: • Text-based materials • Task-based materials • Realia.
  • 16. Because communicative principles can be applied to the teaching of any skill, at any level, and because of the wide variety of classroom activities and exercise types discussed in the literature on communicative Language Teaching, description of typical classroom procedures used in a lesson based on CLT principles is no feasible.
  • 17. Finocchiaro and Brumfit offer a lesson outline for teaching the function “making a suggestion” for the learner in the beginning level of secondary school program. 1.Presentation of a brief dialog or several mini- dialogs. 2.Oral practice of each utterance of the dialog segment to be presented that day. 3.Question and answer based on the dialog topic. 4.Question and answer related to the student’s personal experience.
  • 18. 5.Study one of the basic communicative expression in dialog. 6.Learner discovery of generalizations or rules underlying the functional expression. 7.Oral recognition, interpretative activities. 8.Oral production activities-proceeding from guided to freer communication activities. 9.Copying of the dialog or modules if they are not in the class text. 10.Sampling of the written homework assignment.
  • 19. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
  • 20. ADVANTAGES The interaction between students and teachers. Teacher-student relationship is an interactive, harmonious relationship, rather than the traditional education, the kind of master-servant relationship.
  • 21. Greatly enhanced the student’s interest. Communicative language teaching encourage students to participate in, sometimes accompanied by scenes or simulated scenarios, so that students more close to life, the students became the main character, naturally they were interested in the English language, to learn English as a pleasure.
  • 22. DISADVANTAGES Often, there is no text, grammar rules are not presented, and classroom arrangement is nonstandard. Students are expected to interact primarily with each other rather than with the teacher, and correction of errors may be absent or infrequent.
  • 23. DISADVANTAGES Students with low levels of proficiency in the target language may find it difficult to participate in oral communicative activities and, if the exams used by an institution are grammar based, communicative fluency may not be appropriate.
  • 24. References: Brown, Douglas H. 1994. Teaching by Principles: An Integrative Approach to Language Pedagogy. USA: Prentice Hall Regents. Celce-Murcia, M. 2006. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. 3rd Edition. Cengage Learning. Richards, J.C. & Rodgers T.S. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. 2nd Edition. United Kingdom. Cambridge University Press. Richards, Jack C. 2006. Communicative Language Teaching Today.USA. Cambridge University Press. Sunga, et. al . 1994. Innovative Strategies in Communication Arts. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing.