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International Journals Publisher
JournalsPub is a multi-disciplinary international journal boosting innovative & eminence ...
JournalsPub (Division of Dhruv Infosystems Private Ltd.) having its Marketing office located at Office No. 4, First Floor,...
International Journal of
Biomedical Engineering
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering is Bone plates, bone cemen...
PUBLICATION MANAGEMENT TEAM
INTERNAL MEMBERS
Associate Manager
Chairman
Mr. Puneet Mehrotra
Managing Director,
JournalsPub...
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GITAM University Visakhapatnam Andhra
Pradesh India,
Dr. Pierson Rathin...
From the Editor's Desk
Dear Readers,
We would like to present, with great pleasure, the inaugural volume of a new scholarl...
1. An Algorithm for ST Segment Detection Using Correlation Technique
Sandhya Singh, Shahanaz Ayub, Gaurav Gupta 1
2. Desig...
IJBE (2016) 1-6 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 1
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering
Vol. 2: Iss...
IJBE (2016) 7-12 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 7
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering
Vol. 2: Is...
IJBE (2016) 13-22 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 13
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering
Vol. 2: ...
IJBE (2016) 23–28 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 23
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering
Vol. 2: ...
IJBE (2016) 29-33 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 29
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering
Vol. 2: ...
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International Journal of Biomedical Engineering (vol 2 issue-2)

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International Journal of Biomedical Engineering
Bone plates, bone cements, cell biomaterial are the focused area of the journal. Journal is a peer-reviewed journal that accepts both research and review papers. Experimental and theoretical papers are accepted in the journal.

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International Journal of Biomedical Engineering (vol 2 issue-2)

  1. 1. plymer Mechanical Engineering Chemical Engineering Architecture Applied Mechanics 5 more... 1 more... 2 more... 2 more... 5 more... Computer Science and Engineering Nanotechnology « International Journal of Solid State Materials « International Journal of Optical Sciences Physics Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering Material Sciences and Engineering Chemistry 5 more... 4 more... 3 more... Biotechnology 3 more... Nursing « International Journal of Immunological Nursing « International Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing « International Journal of Neurological Nursing « International Journal of Orthopedic Nursing « International Journal of Oncological Nursing 5 more... 4 more... Subm it Your A rticle2017 www.journalspub.com International Journal of Biomedical Engineering Jul–DEC 2016 IJBE
  2. 2. International Journals Publisher JournalsPub is a multi-disciplinary international journal boosting innovative & eminence research work by Division of Dhruv Infosystems Pvt. Ltd. Launched in 2014 under the support and guidance by our Honorable EditorialBoard Members from renownedinstitutes. ObjectivesofJournalsPub  JournalsPub is international scholarly journal that publishes peer reviewed journal in the frontier areas of AppliedSciences,MedicalandEngineering.  JournalsPub publishes Original Research Papers, Review Papers, Popular Articles, Short Communications&CaseStudy.  Publishingspecialissues on Proceedingsof Conferences,SeminarsandSymposia.  JournalsPub Publishes issues twice a year (bi-annually) in English-language which is available online (openaccess)andinprintedversionwithagoaltopromoteanextensiveacademicawareness.  JournalsPub desires to set a good benchmark in the publishing industry by launching more than 100+ new International Journals to help the scientific community to enhance communication within the research communities and maintain a balance between the existing and emerging interdisciplinary technologies.  JournalsPub aims to provide quality research articles for Academic Researchers, Industrial Professionals, Engineers, Scientists, Professors, etc. working in the areas of Applied Sciences, Medical andEngineeringtocontributeandcommunicateinnovativework. SalientFeatures  An umbrellaof 100+ journalsthatcoversAppliedSciences,MedialandEngineeringArena.  The first and one of the rapidly emerging publication website in Country as well as overseas for its excellenceandexposure.  Universaltransmissionandreflectivity.  ARigorous, Fast andConstructivePeerReviewProcess  SpeedyPublicationof Manuscripts  EminentEditorialBoardMembersfromrenownedorganizations.  FreeRegistration,OnlineSubmission, Processing, Publication&OnlineAccessofManuscripts.  Thejournalpublishesnovelresearcharticleswithemphasison theoreticalandexperimentalwork. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering
  3. 3. JournalsPub (Division of Dhruv Infosystems Private Ltd.) having its Marketing office located at Office No. 4, First Floor, CSC pocket E Market, Mayur Vihar Phase II, New Delhi-110091, India is the Publisher of Journals. Statements and opinionsexpressedintheJournalreflecttheviews oftheAuthor(s) andarenottheopinionofJournalsPub unless so stated. Subscription Information and Order Cost of Journal National Subscription Rs. 3000/-perJournal(includes2 printissues), SingleIssue copypurchaseRs.1800/copy International Subscription OnlineOnly- $99, PrintOnly-$149 (includes2printissues) Online+ Print-$199(includes2printissues +onlineaccessof publishedbackvolumes) To purchaseprintcompilationof backissues pleasesendyourqueryatinfo@journalspub.com Subscription must be prepaid. Rates outside the India include speed delivery charges. Prices subject to change without notice. Mode of Payment:At par cheque, Demand draft, and RTGS (payment to be made in favor of Dhruv Infosystems Pvt. ltd., payableatDelhi/NewDelhi. OnlineAccess Policy A). ForAuthors: In order to provide maximum citation and wide publicity to the authors work, JournalsPub also have OpenAccess Policy; Authors who would like to get their work open access can opt for Optional Open Access publication at nominal cost as follows: India,SARC andAfricanCountries:INR 1500 includingsinglehardcopyofAuthor's Journal. OtherCountries:USD 200includingsinglehardcopyofAuthor's Journal. B.) ForSubscribers: Online access will be activated within 72 hours of receipt of the payment (working days), subject to receipt of correct informationonuser details/StaticIPaddress of thesubscriber. The accesswillbeblocked: If the user requests for the same and furnishes valid reasons for blocking due to technical issue. Misuse of the access rights as pertheaccesspolicy. Advertising and Commercial Reprint Inquiries: JournalsPub with wide circulation and visibility offer an excellent media for showcasing/promotion of your products/services and the events-namely, Conferences, Symposia/Seminars etc.These journals have very high potential to deliver the message across the targeted audience regularly with each published issue. The advertisements on bulk subscriptions, gift subscriptions or reprint purchases for distribution etc. are also very welcome. LostIssue Claims:Pleasenotethefollowingwhen applyingfor lostor missingissues: Claims for print copies lost will be honored only after 45 days of the dispatch date and before publication of the next issue as perthefrequency. Tracking id for the speed post will be provided to all our subscribers and the claims for the missing Journals will be entertainedonlywiththeproofs whichwillbeverifiedatboththeends. Claimsfiledduetoinsufficient(or nonotice)ofchangeof address willnotbehonored. Change ofAddress of Dispatch should be intimated to JournalsPub at least 2 months prior to the dispatch schedule as per thefrequencyby mentioningsubscriberID andthesubscriptionID. Refundrequestswillnotbeentertained. LegalDisputes AllthelegaldisputesaresubjectedtoDelhiJurisdictiononly. If you haveanyquestions,pleasecontactthePublicationManagementTeam: info@journalspub.com;Tel:+910120-4347644.
  4. 4. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering International Journal of Biomedical Engineering is Bone plates, bone cements, cell biomaterial are the focused area of the journal. Journal is a peer-reviewed journal that accepts both research and review papers. Experimentalandtheoreticalpapersareacceptedinthisjournal. Focus andScopeoftheJournal  Bone plates  Bone cement  Artificial ligaments and tendons  Dental implants for tooth fixation  Blood vessel prostheses  Heart valves  Skin repair devices  Surface modification of biomaterials with proteins  Synthetic biodegradable polymer  Drug and gene vector design  Cell biomaterial International Journals of Biomedical Engineering is published twice a year (bi-annual) in India by JournalsPub-An InternationalJournal is an imprint of Dhruv Infosystems Pvt. Ltd.The outlooks stated in the articles do not essentially reflect of the publisher. The publisher does not endorse the quality or value of the advertised/sponsored products described therein. Please consult full prescribing information before issuing aprescriptionfor anyproductsmentionedinthispublication. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval or transmitted in any form without written permissiontothepublisher. To cite any of the material contained in this journal, in English or translation, please use the full English reference at the beginning of each article. To reuse any of the material, please contact JournalsPub (info@journalspub.com).
  5. 5. PUBLICATION MANAGEMENT TEAM INTERNAL MEMBERS Associate Manager Chairman Mr. Puneet Mehrotra Managing Director, JournalsPub, New Delhi Hidam Renubala Ankita Singh Deepika Bhadauria Rekha Rani Commissioning Editors Dr. Chhavi Goel Manisha Dhoble
  6. 6. EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS Dr. Bhanu Kiran Goriparthi GITAM University Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh India, Dr. Pierson Rathinaraj Institute of Bio-Medical Technologies Auckland University of Technology Auckland, New Zealand.1142, New Zealand Prof. Nil Ratan Bandyopadhyay School of Materials Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India Bimal Prasad Singh CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India Dr. Omprakash Yemul SRTM University Nanded, India Dr. S. Krishnakumar Associate Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Bio and Chemical Engineering, Sathyabama University, Chennai, India Dr. Tapati Jana Sarojini Naidu College for Women, Dumdum, Kolkata, (West Bengal) India Dr. PV. Mohanan Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (Govt. of India), Poojapura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Dr. Rajesh Das Department of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia, (West Bengal) India Dr. Neeraj R. Prasad Dept of Nanoscience and Technology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharastra, India Dr. Amit L. Sharma Senior Scientist, Central Scientific Instruments Organization (CSIO), Chandigarh, India Dr. Sunipa Roy Assistant Professor, JIS Group, India Dr Kamal K. Kar Professor, IIT Kanpur, India Dr. Surabhi Johari Assistant Professor, Dibrugarh University, India Nitin Sahai Assistant Professor, North eastern Hill University, India Dr. Akalabya Bissoyi Scientist, National Institute of Technology, Raipur,India Dr. Sudip Paul Assistant Professor, North eastern Hill University, India Dr. S.Sivanandam Assistant Professor, SRM University, India
  7. 7. From the Editor's Desk Dear Readers, We would like to present, with great pleasure, the inaugural volume of a new scholarly journal, International Journal of Biomedical Engineering. This journal is part of the Applied Sciences, and is devoted to the scope of present Biomedical Engineering issues, from theoreticalaspectstoapplication-dependentstudiesand thevalidationofemergingtechnologies. This new journal was planned and established to represent the growing needs of Biomedical Engineering as an emerging and increasingly vital field, now widely recognized as an integral part of scientific and technical investigations. Its mission is to become a voice of the Biomedical Engineering community, addressing researchers and practitioners in this area. The core vision of International journals of Biomedical Engineering in Journals Pub is to propagate novel awareness and know-how for the profit of mankind ranging from the academic and professional research societies to industry practitioners in a range of topics in Biomedical Engineering in general. Journals Pub acts as a pathfinder for the scientific community to published their papers at excellently, well-time & successfully. International Journals of Biomedical Engineering focuses on original high-quality research in the realm of Bone plates, Bone cement, Dental implants for tooth fixation, Heart valves, Skin repair devices, Synthetic biodegradable polymer and Drug andgenevectordesign. The Journal is intended as a forum for practitioners and researchers to share the techniques of Biomedical Engineeringandsolutionsinthearea. Many scientists and researchers have contributed to the creation and the success of the Biomedical Engineering. We are very thankful to everybody within that community who supported the idea of creating an innovative platform. We are certain that this issue will be followed by many others, reporting new developmentsinthefieldofBiomedicalEngineering. This issue would not have been possible without the great support of the Editorial Board members, and we would like to express our sincere thanks to all of them. We would also like to express our gratitude to the editorialstaffofJournalsPub,who supported us ateverystageoftheproject. It is our hope that this fine collection of articles will be a valuable resource for Biomedical Engineering readers andwillstimulatefurtherresearchintothevibrantareaofit. PuneetMehrotra ManagingDirector
  8. 8. 1. An Algorithm for ST Segment Detection Using Correlation Technique Sandhya Singh, Shahanaz Ayub, Gaurav Gupta 1 2. Design and Development of a Passive Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis P. Talukdar, S. Bag, S. Bhattacharjee 7 3. The Role of Foot Ankle Joint Mobility and Standing Plantar Pressure Distribution Variation to Diabetic Foot Ulceration R. Periyasamy, D. Joshi, S. Anand 13 4. Some Experimental Studies on Properties of Acrylic Dielectric Elastomers as Actuator for Artificial Skeletal Muscle Application Yogesh Chandra, Jitendra Mehta, RaviPrakash Tewari 23 5. A Comparative Short-Term Study for Efficiency in Similar Dance Routines of Different Dance Forms for Different Groups Jessee Moirangthem, Aparna Priya, Dinesh Bhatia 29 Contents
  9. 9. IJBE (2016) 1-6 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 1 International Journal of Biomedical Engineering Vol. 2: Issue 2 www.journalspub.com An Algorithm for ST Segment Detection Using Correlation Technique Sandhya Singh, Shahanaz Ayub, Gaurav Gupta* Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jhansi, UP, India ABSTRACT A novel algorithm for ST segment analysis is developed using the correlation technique. In electrocardiogram, the ST segment is important, it has close relationship with myocardial ischemia and myocardial infraction. In this paper ST detection is divided into two parts, firstly R-R peak detection to check the heart rate variation from normal heart rate 60- 100BPM next part is detection of seven ST segments from ECG strip. Analysis has done on consecutive seven ST segments. In the analysis of ST segment heart rhythm is regular and correlation coefficient of ST segments are comparatively low with respect to respect to normal ST segment. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and is able to successfully detect ST segment. Keywords: arrhythmia, correlation, ECG, MATLAB, R wave, ST segment INTRODUCTION ST segment defined as part of ECG located between point J and J+X ms In ECG (electrocardiogram) monitoring, ST segment the change of electric potential in the period which from the end of ventricular depolarization to the origin of repolarization. In normal conditions, ST segment shows horizontal level, but some heart disease condition ST segment will be affected and drifted in different direction and shown in Figure 1. ST segment variation in large amount shows different kind of heart disease attack. The importance of the ST segment has been highlighted by the Suzuki et al. ST segment is the indicator of myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio. ST segment is used for detection of myocardial infraction, the ST segment may become irregular.ST segment analysis is important for diagnose sudden cardiac attack or heart failure. The analysis of ST segment requires the detection of isoelectric level, onset and offset of QRS and T wave. The first step of ST type classification is calculate ST offset level, it include J+X, R+X, regional search, and T wave methods. The J+X method is firstly determine the end point of QRS, named J point, and then select the point which after several milliseconds after J point as J+X point, using the value of this point as the offset level, R+X method is the same with the above method, just use the R point replace J point because R point is easily determined than J point.[1] Second method is T wave method, the T wave method is using the onset point the T wave as the offset level of ST segment. The shape recognition of ST segment is very important for heart disease especially in sudden cardiac attack and for recognizing various heart disease, this feature not can help to analysis the reason of ST change, but help people to determine the heart disease. In this field many people
  10. 10. IJBE (2016) 7-12 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 7 International Journal of Biomedical Engineering Vol. 2: Issue 2 www.journalspub.com Design and Development of a Passive Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis P. Talukdar1* , S. Bag1 , S. Bhattacharjee2 1 JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, West Bengal, India 2 Royal School of Engineering and Technology, Guwahati, India ABSTRACT Persons suffering with Poliomyelitis, Muscle Dystrophy, Multiple Sclerosis, spinal cord injury or Quadriceps Muscle injury leads to mobility impairment which locks the knee and the ankle from full extension during both the stance and swing phases of Gait cycle. Locking the knee results in abnormal gait pattern characterized by hip hiking and leg circumduction during swing as a result of which they suffer from pain, depression and ultimately they feel humiliated. So, the persons with such weaknesses and impairments are often prescribed with a knee-ankle-foot-orthosis. In this study an orthotic devices are designed to assist in improving the muscular or skeletal structure of the legs, ankles, knees and feet. In this study the important design factors such as size, weight and noise etc. were considered to ensure wide consumer acceptance. The newly developed orthotic devices are light weight, cost effective and fulfilled all the design criterion of controlling the motion, correction of deformity and foot drop, compensation of weakness, making it as comfortable to wear. The clinical trial shows its effectiveness. Keywords: assistive device, knee-ankle-foot-orthosis, muscle dystrophy, pathological gait, rehabilitation INTRODUCTION Walking is a fundamental part of one’s daily life and a key component in overall quality of life. The efficiency and effectiveness of gait depends on joint mobility and muscle activity, where both are selective in terms of timing and intensity.[1] The forces and motions generated during gait are attributed to three main functional tasks: weight acceptance, single limb support and limb advancement.[2] Weight acceptance and single limb support occur during swing when foot is off the ground. The ability of walk can be impaired by injuries as well as numerous neurological and muscular pathologies.[3,4] In 2015 census, it was published that India’s population is 1.28 billion out of which 23.73% lives in urban areas and 76.27% lives in rural areas. In their 58th round survey over disabled person, the National Sample Survey Organization found that the percentage of locomotive disability is much higher compare to other disabled condition such as mental disability, visual disability, hearing disability, speech disability etc.[5] In our country, a large number of population suffer from lower limb deformities with impairments like stroke, polio, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries and cerebral palsy etc. Such impairments are very often treated with “Lower limb orthosis” as a means of improving functionality during gait.[6,7] These are the devices which externally assist a person to support and improve the muscular or skeletal structure of the legs, ankles, knees and feet. The
  11. 11. IJBE (2016) 13-22 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 13 International Journal of Biomedical Engineering Vol. 2: Issue 2 www.journalspub.com The Role of Foot Ankle Joint Mobility and Standing Plantar Pressure Distribution Variation to Diabetic Foot Ulceration R. Periyasamy1* , D. Joshi2 , S. Anand2 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India 2 Center for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India ABSTRACT Background: Foot ulceration is a common cause for hospitalization among type 2 diabetes subjects in India. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of foot ankle joint mobility and standing plantar pressure distribution variation in causing foot ulceration and its association with duration of diabetes. Methods: The thirty nine subjects with age ranged from 40 to 75 years were participated in this study and classified into three groups: 13 subjects with diabetic neuropathy (DN), 13 subjects without diabetic neuropathy (DWN) and 13 subjects with healthy feet. Neuropathy status was assessed using 10gm Semens Weinstein monofilament. Joint mobility parameters such as ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion and Metatarsophalangeal–I dorsiflexion/ plantar flexion are measured by goniometer. Plantar pressure distributions parameter-Power ratio (PR) was measured during barefoot standing using portable Pedopowergraph system. Results: Our result shows that metatarsophalangeal- I dorsiflexion (MTH-I DF)/plantar flexion (MTH-I PF) of both feet of type 2 diabetes subjects had significant correlation (p<0.0001) over duration of diabetes. Mean range of ankle dorsiflexion (ANKDF) and MTH-I DF was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in DN group than DWN group. Also there was significant (p<0.05; p<0.01) change in PR value between DN and CG groups under the fore foot and hind foot. The degree of joint mobility was more restricted in subjects with longer duration of diabetes. Plantar pressure distribution parameter-PR was higher in subjects with longer duration of diabetes. Conclusions: We conclude that increased forefoot PR value and reduced ankle joint mobility have clinical significance in diabetic neuropathic subjects and may be responsible for the occurrence of foot sole ulcers but additional prospective studies are needed. In future we will investigate the plantar pressure distribution parameter-PR and joint mobility variation in diabetes with obese and deformity subject. Keywords: duration of diabetes, foot and ankle joint mobility, goniometry, plantar pressure distribution parameter-PR, type 2 diabetes, ulceration INTRODUCTION Plantar ulceration is a significant complication of diabetes mellitus and often precedes lower extremity amputation (Apelqvist J 1993, Boyko EJ 1996, Larsson J 1998).[1–3] The most frequent underlying etiologies for ulceration are neuropathy, trauma, deformity, high plantar pressures and peripheral arterial disease (Armstrong et al 1998).[4] Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most important risk factor for plantar ulceration because it was associated with limited joint mobility (LJM) and increased peak plantar pressure(Smith KE et al 2000, Singh N et al 2005).[5,6] However altered plantar
  12. 12. IJBE (2016) 23–28 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 23 International Journal of Biomedical Engineering Vol. 2: Issue 2 www.journalspub.com Some Experimental Studies on Properties of Acrylic Dielectric Elastomers as Actuator for Artificial Skeletal Muscle Application Yogesh Chandra, Jitendra Mehta, RaviPrakash Tewari* Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Allahabad, UP, India ABSTRACT In this paper, experimental studies have been performed to get the properties of acrylic dielectric elastomer for design and development of artificial skeletal muscles. The various tests i.e. uniaxial tensile test, compression test, frequency and stretch dependent permittivity test and oscillatory shear test of a commercially available acrylic dielectric elastomer (VHB 4910, 3M, USA) film have been performed and methods for the preparation of samples, experimental procedures, use of various machines with different setups are discussed. The uniaxial tensile (different stretch rates) test/compression test were performed on the UTM, whereas permittivity of this material was determined from measured capacitance using LCR meter. Variations of permittivity with different pre-strain values and with different applied voltage frequencies are also studied. Oscillatory shear test was performed on the Rheometer with cylindrical specimen. Finally results of all tests are discussed and compared with observations of various researchers. Keywords: actuators, compression test, dielectric elastomers, permittivity INTRODUCTION This paper reports the experimental studies on the properties of acrylic dielectric elastomers, i.e. a type of electroactive polymers have been recognized as future materials for actuator technology due to their tuneable properties such as high dielectric constant, low elastic modulus, large actuation strain, high specific energy density, good fatigue resistance and high energy absorption capacity.[1–4] Several applications have been envisaged for dielectric elastomer actuators alternative to conventional actuators for numerous applications including robotics, prosthetics, biomedical, actuators such as mobile mini robots, micro-pumps, prosthetic devices and flat panel loudspeakers. These actuators transform electrical energy into mechanical work. Researchers have been designed and fabricated dielectric actuators of different shapes successfully. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) consists of an elastomeric film coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. When electric field is applied, the attractive force between dissimilar charges on opposite electrodes generates compressive stress in the thickness direction.[4] Recent investigations on the relative permittivity show that its value varies with pre-straining, temperature, frequency and applied compliance electrodes. In this paper, the permittivity variation of VHB 4910 for large range of frequency and high uniaxial stretch value has been shown. A typical tensile test result of such elastomer is a stress-strain
  13. 13. IJBE (2016) 29-33 © JournalsPub 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 29 International Journal of Biomedical Engineering Vol. 2: Issue 2 www.journalspub.com A Comparative Short-Term Study for Efficiency in Similar Dance Routines of Different Dance Forms for Different Groups Jessee Moirangthem1 , Aparna Priya2 , Dinesh Bhatia1* 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, NEHU, Shillong, India 2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, India ABSTRACT Dance is an art which requires the active involvement of an individual’s physical and mental well-being. In the present world, many people are showing keen interest in dance and trying to learn on their own or through online videos. However, they lack the knowledge of proper body movements and the biomechanics rules the body should follow in order to execute the required movement. Such continued practice over a long period of time often awards them with injuries which may be prominent or long lasting. For this study, two similar dance routines of two different dance forms were considered, the Araimandi of Bharathanatyam and Demi-Plie of Ballet. The posture of trained dancers was considered in these dance routines was studied and incorporated on non-dancers. Also, another group of non-dancers were instructed to imitate the posture. Keywords: Araimandi, biomechanics, dance, Demi-Plie, injuries INTRODUCTION Biomechanics is the scientific discipline that studies the mechanical principles of human movement and provides information on muscular function and its characteristics. Dance inquiry involving the principles and techniques of biomechanics dates back to the early 1960s with continuous reforms in its studies.[1–6] In dance, the body is the instrument, and as any other instrument, it has to be well studied and controlled. During dancing, the body of the dancer is considered to be in balance when his evolution is determined by the state of balance which could be static or dynamic.[7,8] Biomechanics of dance, defined as the science examining internal and external forces acting on a dancer, points out mechanical and physiological effects produced by these. The qualitative analysis of dance techniques (balances, jumps, turns and pas de deux), in order to give, at the end, scientific dignity to a teaching method based on biomechanical principles.[9–11] Dance injuries are seldom caused by one single trauma or physical factor; rather they are usually the result of repeated overload and micro-trauma superimposed on multiple biomechanical factors. A sound biomechanical evaluation is essential in providing complete treatment for the dancer.[1,5] Foot and ankle injuries are among the most common to affect the dancing population. Being able to not only identify these injuries but also to understand their mechanics helps with treatment. The most common of the foot and ankle injuries were the lateral ankle sprain followed by tendinopathies of the lower extremity musculature and other injuries such as posterior ankle
  14. 14. plymer Mechanical Engineering Chemical Engineering Architecture Applied Mechanics 5 more... 1 more... 2 more... 2 more... 5 more... Computer Science and Engineering Nanotechnology « International Journal of Solid State Materials « International Journal of Optical Sciences Physics Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering Material Sciences and Engineering Chemistry 5 more... 4 more... 3 more... Biotechnology 3 more... Nursing « International Journal of Immunological Nursing « International Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing « International Journal of Neurological Nursing « International Journal of Orthopedic Nursing « International Journal of Oncological Nursing 5 more... 4 more... Subm it Your A rticle2017 www.journalspub.com International Journal of Biomedical Engineering Jul–DEC 2016 IJBE

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