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Latin american music

  1. 1. The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music Second Edition
  2. 2. The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music Second Edition Edited by Dale A. Olsen and Daniel E. Sheehy
  3. 3. First published 2000 by Garland Publishing, Inc.This edition published 2008by Routledge270 Madison AvenueNew York, NY 10016Simultaneously published in the UKby Routledge2 Park Square, Milton ParkAbingdon, Oxon 0X14 4RNRoutledge is an imprint of the Taylor and Francis Group, an informa businessThe Garland Handbook of Latin American Music, second edition, is an abridged paperback edition ofSouth America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, volume 2 of The GarlandEncyclopedia of World Music, with revised essaysThis edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2007.“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to”© 2000 Dale A. Olsen and Daniel E. Sheehy; 2008 Taylor & FrancisAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in anyform or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval systemwithout permission in writing from the publisher.Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks,and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataA catalog record for this book has been requestedISBN 0-203-93454-7 Master e-book ISBNISBN10: 0-415-96101-7 (pbk)ISBN10: 0-203-93454-7 (ebk)ISBN13: 978-0-415-96101-1 (pbk)ISBN13: 978-0-203-93454-8 (ebk)
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Audio Examples ix List of Maps xi List of Contributors xiii Preface xv Acknowledgments xxiPart 1 Introduction to the Music Cultures of the Region 1 A Profile of the Lands and People of Latin America 2 Dale A. Olsen Studying Latin American Music 13 Dale A. OlsenPart 2 Issues and Processes in the Music of Latin America 36 The Distribution, Symbolism, and Use of Musical Instruments 38 Dale A. Olsen Musical Genres and Contexts 53 Anthony Seeger Social Structure, Musicians, and Behavior 65 Anthony Seeger Musical Dynamics 78 Anthony Seeger v
  5. 5. Music of Immigrant Groups 90 Dale A. Olsen Part 3 Nations and Musical Traditions 100 Caribbean Latin America 102 Cuba 105 Olavo Alén Rodríguez Haiti 126 Gage Averill and Lois Wilcken The Dominican Republic 143 Martha Ellen Davis Puerto Rico 163 Héctor Vega Drouet Questions for Critical Thinking: Caribbean Latin American Music 176 Middle Latin America 177 Mexico 181 Daniel E. Sheehy Tarahumara 209 J. Richard Haefer Guatemala 216 Linda O’Brien-Rothe Panama 234 Ronald R. Smith Kuna 250 Sandra Smith Questions for Critical Thinking: Middle Latin American Music 264 South America 265 The Music of South America 267 Dale A. Olsen The Tropical-Forest Region 275 Anthony Seeger Venezuela 291 Max H. Brandt Warao 315 Dale A. Olsen Brazil: Central and Southern Areas 326 Suzel Ana Reily Afro-Brazilian Traditions 352 Gerard Béhaguevi Contents
  6. 6. Paraguay 370 Timothy D. Watkins Argentina 385 Ercilia Moreno Chá Mapuche 408 Carol E. Robertson Bolivia 417 Henry Stobart Peru 438 Raúl R. Romero Q’eros 463 John Cohen and Holly Wissler Afro-Peruvian Traditions 474 William David TompkinsQuestions for Critical Thinking: South American Music 488 Conclusion 489 Dale A. OlsenQuestions for Critical Thinking: Latin American Music 493 Glossary 495 A Guide to Publications 515 A Guide to Recordings 526 A Guide to Films and Videos 534 Notes on the Audio Examples 537Index 545 Contents vii
  7. 7. LIST OF AUDIO EXAMPLES ON CD 1 AND CD 2The following examples are included on the two accompanying audio compact discs pack-aged with this volume. Track and CD numbers are also indicated on the pages listed belowfor easy reference to text discussions. Complete notes on each example can be found onpages 537–543.Compact Disc 1Track Page reference 1 Yanomamö male shaman’s curing song (Venezuela) 292 2 Yekuana male shaman’s curing song (Venezuela) 292 3 Warao male wisiratu shaman’s curing song (Venezuela) 320 4 Warao male hoarotu shaman’s curing song (Venezuela) 322 5 Sikuriada (Bolivia) 421 6 “Kulwa” (Bolivia) 421 7 Lichiwayu notch flutes (Bolivia) 422 8 “Walata Grande” musiñu-drum ensemble (Bolivia) 422 9 Tarkeada (Bolivia) 423 10 “Lunesta, Martesta,” song with charango (Bolivia) 432 11 Folia de Reis (Brazil) 338 12 Moçambique—dancers and percussion (Brazil) 339 13 “É bonito cantar” (Brazil) 336 14 Forró do pite (Brazil) 346 15 Forró de sanfona (Brazil) 334 16 “Boa noite todo povo” (Brazil) 365 17 Canto a lo peuta—with guitar (Chile) 41 18 “Tengo que hacer un barquito”—with accordion (Chile) 49 19 Song by blind rondador (panpipe) player (Ecuador) 46 20 Quechua song with harp (Ecuador) 46 21 Huayno (Peru) 443 ix
  8. 8. Track Page reference 22 Festival de la Virgin del Carmen (Peru) 444 23 “No lo cuentes a nadie”—huayno (Peru) 446 24 “Quien a visto aquel volcán”—music for charango (Peru) 445, 449 25 “Zancudito”—Christmas song (Peru) 478 26 “La Catira” (Venezuela) 300 27 Festival de San Juan (Venezuela) 297, 303 28 “Cuaulleros”—with harp, violins, and jarana (Mexico) 194 29 Danza de Corpus Christi (Mexico) 196 30 “Siquisirí”—son jarocho (Mexico) 192 31 “Ámalihani”—ancestor ceremony (Belize) 219 32 “El Corredizo”—for dueling dancers (Nicaragua) 74 33 “Los Novios”—marimba trio (Nicaragua) 229 34 “Los Coros de San Miguel”—with drums (Dominican Republic) 152 35 “Dice Desidera Arias”—merengue (Dominican Republic) 155 36 Song for Legba, dance for Ogoun (Haiti) 131 37 Rara instrumental music (Haiti) 134 38 Afro-Martinican street music (Martinique) 39 39 “Koumen non k’alé fè”—koutoumba music (St. Lucia) 60 Compact Disc 2 Track Page reference 1 “Ibarabo Ago Mo Juba”—song for Eleguá (Cuba) 108 2 “Las Leyendas de Grecia”—guaguancó (Cuba) 115 3 “Así es el Changüí”changüí (Cuba) 115 4 “Yo Canto en el Llano”—son (Cuba) 119 5 “En un Eterno Poema”—seis villarán (Puerto Rico) 171 6 “Los Gallos Cantaron”—aguinaldo jíbaro (Puerto Rico) 170 7 “El León”—plena (Puerto Rico) 173 8 “Se Oye Una Voz”—bombo (Puerto Rico) 170 9 “El Cihualteco”—son jalisciense (Mexico) 195 10 “El Perro”—son calenteño (Mexico) 194 11 “El Aguanieve”—son huasteco (Mexico) 191 12 “La Bamba”—son jarocho (Mexico) 192 13 “La Llorona” (Mexico) 193 14 “Los Trece”—guarimba or seis por ocho (Guatemala) 230 15 “Brincando na Roda”—capoeira angola (Brazil) 357 16 “Sueño de Barrilete”—tango (Argentina) 397 17 “Pájaro Chogüí”—polka paraguaya (Paraguay) 380 18 “China Uha Taki” or “Female Sheep Song” (Q’eros, Peru) 465 19. “Pantilla T’ika” or “My sacred phallcha flower” (Q’eros, Peru) 468x List of Audio Examples on CD1 and CD2
  9. 9. LIST OF MAPS 1.1 Latin America 6 1.2 Native peoples of South America 8 1.3 Native peoples of Mexico and Central America 9 8.1 The Caribbean region 10213.1 Mexico 17913.2 Central America 18020.1 Northern South America: Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana 26820.2 Western South America: Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia 26920.3 Southern South America: Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay 27020.4 Eastern South America: Brazil 272 xi
  10. 10. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORSGage Averill Linda O’Brien-RotheUniversity of Toronto San Pedro School SystemToronto, Canada San Pedro, California, U.S.A.Gerard Béhague Dale A. OlsenUniversity of Texas The Florida State UniversityAustin, Texas, U.S.A. Tallahassee, Florida, U.S.A.Max H. Brandt Suzel Ana ReilyUniversity of Pittsburgh The Queen’s University of BelfastPittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Belfast, Northern IrelandJohn Cohen Carol E. RobertsonPutnam Valley, New York, U.S.A. Buenos Aires, ArgentinaMartha Ellen Davis Olavo Alén RodríguezUniversity of Florida Center for Research and DevelopmentGainesville, Florida, U.S.A. of Cuban Music (CIDMUC) Havana, CubaErcilia Moreno CháInstituto Nacional de Antropologia Raúl R. RomeroBuenos Aires, Argentina Pontifica Universidad Católica del Perú Lima, PerúJ. Richard HaefferArizona State University Anthony SeegerTempe, Arizona, U.S.A. University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. xiii
  11. 11. Daniel E. Sheehy Héctor Vega Drouet Smithsonian Institution University of Puerto Rico Washington, D.C., U.S.A. San Juan, Puerto Rico Ronald R. Smith Timothy D. Watkins Indiana University Rhodes College Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A. Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A. Sandra Smith Lois Wilcken Independent Scholar Hunter College California, U.S.A. New York, New York, U.S.A. Henry Stobart Holly Wissler Cambridge University The Florida State University Cambridge, England Tallahassee, Florida, U.S.A. William David Tompkins Independent Scholar Calgary, Alberta, Canadaxiv List of Contributors
  12. 12. PREFACEThe many regions that constitute Latin America—that is, the countries and islands in theWestern hemisphere that lie south of the United States and use Spanish and/or Portugueseas their major languages—are extremely varied and diverse, as is their musical output.From tango, cuarteto, and roc nacional of Argentina, to salsa, son, and merengue of theCaribbean, from dakoho, huayno, and sikuriada of Amerindian cultures, to the jarana,marimba, and chirimía of Middle Latin America, Latin American music represents a widerange of genres, musical instruments, and styles, and has permeated and influenced civi-lizations in almost all parts of the globe. The Garland Handbook of Latin American Musicaims to provide an introduction to these diverse musical sounds and cultures that will beuseful for students, scholars, and aficionados of Latin American music. The present Sec-ond Edition includes carefully chosen essays from Volume 2 of The Garland Encyclopediaof World Music, titled South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, witharticles written by twenty-three scholars who have conducted years of research and field-work in their specific areas. Nearly half of the country case study articles were written byscholars from those countries.HOW THE SECOND EDITION IS ORGANIZEDThe Second Edition of The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music is organized likethe First Edition—that is, into three parts that include introductory chapters in Part 1,essays that focus on issues and processes which have affected the development of musicin Latin America in Part 2, and studies of regions, countries, and cultures in Part 3. TheSecond Edition is, however, greatly expanded and completely revised. The additions aredescribed below. Each contributing author was encouraged to follow a particular issue-oriented “menu”that includes much of the information generally discussed in Parts 1 and 2, as listed in the xv
  13. 13. Table of Contents (e.g., geography and demography; indigenous, European, and African heritages; musical instruments; musical genres and contexts; social structure, musicians, and behavior; musical dynamics; learning and music education; governmental policy; and others). Each culture and country entry, therefore, is issue- and process-oriented. In an ethnomusicological way, the essays deal with how music is made by people for themselves, for other people, or for the supernatural. Some entries are naturally more issue- and process- oriented than others, because of the nature of each author’s background, training, interests, and knowledge of the total subject matter (each writer carries her/his unique intellectual baggage). Nevertheless, we have aimed for internal consistency in the essays in Part 3. INTRODUCTION TO THE MUSIC CULTURES OF LATIN AMERICA Part 1 includes two essays that discuss the diversity of Latin America, its music, and ap- proaches to how Latin American music can be studied. The essay “A Profile of the Lands and People of Latin America” briefly describes the history, geography, demography, and cultural settings of the regions that comprise Latin America. It also includes a list of recent population figures for each of the countries studied (population figures are not included in the country essays). The chapter titled “Studying Latin American Music” discusses some of the basic ways music scholars conduct their research in Latin America, focusing on ar- chaeology, iconography, mythology, history, ethnography, and practice. ISSUES AND PROCESSES The first article in Part 2, “The Distribution, Symbolism, and Use of Musical Instru- ments,” reveals the importance of musical material culture in understanding Latin Ameri- can music. Most music is performed on or accompanied by musical instruments, and because of history, geography, politics, and many other factors, Latin American countries and regions share many music instrument types, but have also developed others that define their uniqueness and individuality. The following three articles entitled “Musical Genres and Contexts,” “Social Structure, Musicians, and Behavior,” and “Musical Dynamics” are intended to be both a synthesis of the information in Part 3 and a presentation of new ideas derived from it. The approach of these essays is anthropological, offering students of many backgrounds an opportunity to see how music functions as culture. Part 2 ends with a chapter titled “Music of Immigrant Groups,” because Latin America is a land of immigrants, from ancient times to the present. SELECTED REGIONAL CASE STUDIES The regions, countries, and cultures discussed in Part 3 are presented in a different or- der than in the original Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Vol. 2, and there are more countries and cultures included in this Second Edition of the Handbook than in the Firstxvi Preface
  14. 14. Edition. Our rationale is to present them roughly in the way the regions of Latin Amer-ica were settled, both in antiquity and during the colonial period. This organization alsomakes it possible to begin with the regions that are possibly best known to readers in theUnited States because they are the closest in distance and culture (because of immigra-tion) to our country. Thus, both history and geography have influenced the organizationalscheme of this volume. We have chosen to emphasize the information in Part 3 as the main body of TheGarland Handbook of Latin American Music, and many Latin American countries are in-cluded. New to this Second Edition are country chapters on Haiti and Panama. We feltthat neither the Dominican Republic nor Cuba should be included without a chapter onHaiti, because of the history, migration, and transculturation in the Greater Antilles, andthe important role of Haiti in those processes. Panama is included as the southernmostcountry of Middle Latin America (or Central America) and because of its unique historyas the “crossroads of the world,” from ancient times through the present. Additional chapters have been added on Amerindian musical cultures, including theTarahumara of Mexico, the Kuna of Panama, and the Mapuche of Argentina (and Chile).Recognizing that Amerindian groups are justifiably nations in their own right, often hav-ing their own systems of internal government, religion, and moral codes, we include a totalof five essays that provide an overview of several contrasting indigenous cultures from dif-ferent regions of Latin America (the Warao of Venezuela and Q’eros of Peru are the othertwo cultures, the latter essay highly revised). Many indigenous cultures are also discussedwithin the country essays. Another addition is a chapter titled “Afro-Peruvian MusicalTraditions,” which complements the chapter “Afro-Brazilian Musical Traditions,” which,like all the essays, has also been revised and updated. The South American countries chosen for the Handbook are presented more or lessgeographically from north to south through eastern South America, and from south tonorth through western South America. Our rationale for this order is to emphasize thecommonalities shared by bordering countries. Because of space limitations, it has beenimpossible to include all the countries of Latin America. It is hoped that interested read-ers will consult the original South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean,Volume 2 of The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music for additional reading.NEW IN THE SECOND EDITIONThe Garland Handbook of Latin American Music has been newly concluded with a “Con-clusion” written by Dale Olsen and several of his students from his Music of Latin Americaclass at Florida State University. Incorporating several issue-related ideas, the “Conclusion”includes the following sub headings: “Musical Threads Revisited,” “New Wine in OldBottles,” “Cultural Identity vs. Cultural Blurring,” and “Looking at the Past, Seeing theFuture.” These were inspired by critically thinking about the big picture of Latin America,rather than merely enjoying the historical, ethnographic, and sonorous descriptions ofparticular countries or cultures. It is our major purpose with the Handbook to inspire Preface xvii
  15. 15. students, scholars, and other readers to think critically about this vitally important regionof the world. With that purpose in mind, we have incorporated several “Questions forCritical Thinking” at the ends of the regional sections (Caribbean Latin America, MiddleLatin America, South America, and Latin America). The study questions can serve stu-dents and teachers alike with thought provoking essay questions, suitable for exams or justmere writing enjoyment. Also new to the Second Edition is a second CD, which contains audio examples fromthe Smithsonian-Folkways collection and private collections. See more information below,under the description for the Compact Discs accompanying the book. Finally, The Handbook of Latin American Music now has a companion web site, This is provided for both teachers and stu-dents, and will have several resources: quizzes, sample tests, web links, etc.ORTHOGRAPHYHundreds of languages other than Spanish and Portuguese are spoken in Latin America,and there are many ways to represent them in writing. Often, non-Latin-derived terms arespelled with a modified phonetic alphabet, as in the use of k instead of qu, w rather thangu, gü, or hu, and so forth; the latter forms are derived from Spanish. Nevertheless, certainterms are so fixed in the minds of English readers that we have given spellings in the Span-ish style: for example, Inca rather than Inka, huayno rather than wayno, and quena ratherthan kena. We have also chosen to retain the orthography preferred by the authors of par-ticular essays. The large-scale rendering of Amerindian languages, however, is consistentwith recent linguistic scholarship. Thus, we have Kechua rather than Quechua and Waraorather than Guarao. Regional varieties will nevertheless occur, as among the Quichua ofEcuador, who speak a dialect of Kechua; the Carib of Venezuela, who speak Karib; and theGuaraní of Paraguay, who speak Tupi-Waraní. Some authors have chosen to use diacritics to indicate vowel or consonant sounds ofparticular Native American terms, but none has chosen to use the International PhoneticAlphabet (IPA). Readers can consult an English dictionary to learn how to pronouncevowels that contain diacritic markings. Otherwise, vowel sounds are comparable to Span-ish usage. Certain Amerindian languages, however, require additional diacritic markingsto represent their sounds properly. Kechua is one of these because of aspirated and explo-sive consonants. The Kechua-speaking Q’eros, for example, pronounce their name forthemselves with an explosive “k” sound not found in English or Spanish. Additionally,some languages have nasal sounds, rendered by the tilde (as in Portuguese): Waiãpi, forexample, is pronounced with a nasalized sound on the second “a.”RESEARCH TOOLSReaders will find research aids throughout the Handbook. Maps help locate the places andpeoples mentioned in the text; references at the end of each essay specify further readings
  16. 16. and recordings to consult. Cross-references to essays in this volume are indicated in smallcapital letters within brackets. The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music provides awealth of other illustrations, including photographs and song texts.MUSICAL EXAMPLESThroughout the Handbook, musical examples supplement the verbal representations ofmusical sound. In all cases, these appear in staff notation or some variation of it. As ethno-musicologists, however, we realize that Western staff notation cannot capture the nuancesand subtleties of music sound, although some learning experiences can be gleaned fromstudying them and even singing them aloud. The majority of them are written in a mannerthat tries to create a balance between descriptive (what the music is doing) and prescrip-tive (what you can do with it) music writing. Therefore, they are intended to be singable(depending on how well you read music), and what you sing may give you some idea ofwhat the music sounds like. No musical notation, however, is a substitute for real musicalsound. For that reason, two compact discs are included with the Handbook, placed insidethe back cover.COMPACT DISCSThe two enclosed compact discs illustrate and supplement many of the essays. Because ofthe volume’s reorganization and the consequent exclusion of essays that pertain to othercountries and cultures (e.g., Dutch-, English-, French-, and native-speaking people), theaudio examples on the first CD are not always referred to within the main text in thenumerical order found on the compact disc. All of the examples on the compact discs,however, are referenced in the margins of the text with a CD icon and track number. On the first CD we have attempted to incorporate original field recordings by theauthors of the essays that represent audio materials not available in commercial stores.The second CD contains audio examples from the Smithsonian-Folkways collection andprivate collections. We realize that not all countries are equally represented on the enclosedCDs because many excellent commercial recordings are easily accessible (these are listedin “A Guide to Recordings of Latin American Music”). Commercial recordings of Cubanmusic, for example, are fairly common, while recordings of Bolivian indigenous musicare not. Notes on the recordings can be found at the back of the volume, preceding theindex.GLOSSARYA glossary of over five hundred entries provides definition or identification for ethnicgroups and musical concepts, instruments, and genres. Readers will find selected termsand their glosses reproduced on the top of many pages throughout the Handbook. Preface xix
  17. 17. REFERENCES Following the Glossary and preceding the Index are three sections entitled “A Guide to… Latin American Music.” These include listings of reading, listening, and viewing materi- als. To coincide with the contents in the Handbook, these references have been shortened. The list of recordings provides reference to commercially produced sound recordings that reflect the late-twentieth-century proliferation of recordings of Latin American music. Many more recordings, of course, exist in archives and record stores around the world. Likewise, the list of visual materials provides documentation of musical events, dances, and other types of phenomena that include music and dance. These also reflect the recent number of commercially available videocassette tapes and DVDs on the market.xx Preface
  18. 18. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSVolume 2 of The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, of which this Handbook is but apart, took nearly ten years to complete. During that time we worked steadfastly togetherto edit, re-edit, and polish the many essays as if we were two ethnomusicological Michel-angelos chipping away in an attempt to free “The Captives” from their marble encase-ments. Michelangelo, it is said, never finished his masterpiece, but we finished ours andhave, moreover, repackaged major portions of it into the present Second Edition. We wish to thank all the contributing authors who have made The Garland Hand-book of Latin American Music possible. Without their expertise and wonderful work, itspublication could never have been completed. We wish to thank the many individualswho have been official and unofficial readers. Jacob Love, the copyeditor of the originalvolume, deserves our highest praise—he is a true scholar with a breadth of knowledgeand love of improvisation that is unsurpassed. Special thanks go to Martha E. Davis,Jane Florine, Katherine J. Hagedorn, T.M. Scruggs, Anthony Seeger, and the late GerardBéhague, for their many comments and ideas about essays from certain geographic areas.We also appreciate the vision, advice, and support of Constance Ditzel, who represents thepublisher for The Garland Handbook series. We thank Karl Barton and Michael O’Connor, respectively, for their assistance withthe organization of the glossary and checking reference materials for the First Edition.Thanks also go to Sara Black for her bibliographic assistance with the Second Edition,and especially to Emmanuel Pereira for his breadth of knowledge about Cuba and hispersistence that Haiti must be included in the Second Edition. I also thank graduatestudents Gonzalo Gallardo, Carla Gelabert, and Gregory Mardirosian for their brilliant es-says that contributed so much to the composition of the “Conclusion” to this edition.For translations we thank Jane Florine and Timothy Watkins. We have greatly benefitedfrom the photographic contributions of Elena Constatinidou, Arnold Perris, Peter Smith,and many others who are credited in figure captions. On the audio compact disc, certain xxi
  19. 19. examples were furnished by Walter Coppens, Charles Sigmund, and Welson Tremura, while John Banks offered considerable assistance in producing the first compact disc. And for their help with many aspects of the CD production, we thank the College of Music of Florida State University and the Smithsonian Folkways Recordings division of the Smith- sonian Institution. Finally, we are grateful to our wives, M. Diane Olsen and Laura Wilmot Sheehy, for their patience, understanding, and encouragement in helping us see this seemingly ongo- ing project through to its various stages of conclusion. —Dale A. Olsen and Daniel E. Sheehyxxii Acknowledgments
  20. 20. PART 1 Introduction to the Music Cultures of the Region Cumbia, salsa, tango; Carnival, fiesta, shamanic curing; mariachi, samba school, steelband; Rubén Blades, Celia Cruz, Víctor Jara, Antonio Carlos Jobim, Astor Piazzolla—these genres, contexts, bands, and musicians conjure up sinuous rhythms, lyrical melodies, pensive moods, ideological power, and above all, un- forgettable musical art. Music, dance, and music-related behavior are of great importance to the people of the countries and cultures south of the Río Grande (the river that separates the United States from Mexico), the island countries and cultures south of Florida, and many Amerindian cultures that thrive within those politically determined regions.Señor Antonio Sulca,a blind QuechuaIndian musician fromAyacucho, Peru, wears aEuropean-designed suitas he plays a Spanish-derived harp. His musictells of his people fromsouthern Peru, and hisharp is adorned witha lute-playing siren,believed to be anindigenous protectiveand amorous symbol.Photo by Dale A. Olsen,1979. 1
  21. 21. A Profile of the Lands and People of Latin America Dale A. Olsen Historical Snapshot Geography Demography Native America in Latin America Cultural Settings The essays in this book explore the music of and in the lives of people from a vast region of the Western Hemisphere. They include descriptions of the music of many nations and cultures south and southeast of the continental United States of America. Most of these nations and cultures speak Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, Dutch, Creole, Papa- miento, and/or a wide assortment of indigenous languages including (but not limited to) Aymara, Kechua, Kuna, Maya, Nahuatl, Warao, and many more. Many of the native American cultures (Amerindians) studied in this book continue to thrive as autochtho- nous and somewhat homogeneous entities within many Latin American countries. To call these cultures “Latin American” is admittedly wrong, because that colonialistic term does not represent the area’s indigenous heritage or its African heritage. Latin America theoreti- cally refers to people with southern European heritage (i.e., with descendants from Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, although in practice it seems to emphasize only those people of Spanish and Portuguese heritage), and while the majority of the inhabitants of the His- panic Caribbean, Middle America (i.e., Mexico and Central America), and South America speak either Spanish or Portuguese, many Amerindians and people of African ancestry do not want to be called “latinos.” It is with that understanding that we will use the term Latin America only as a term of convenience. History, geography, ecology, demography, economics, and politics have all played an important role in the development, migration, and social categorization of music. For instance, geography influences ecology, ecology influences economics, and economics determines musical events, musical instruments, types of dances, and other aspects of2
  22. 22. expressive behavior. Geography has also influenced terms for places. For example, whilethere is no question what comprises South America, Mexico is not usually included withinthe term Central America because tectonically it is a part of North America. In this bookwe will use the term Middle America to include Mexico and the countries of Central Amer-ica. We will retain the term Caribbean, but will include within the term Caribbean LatinAmerica the following political entities: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and, indeference to its historical and cultural importance to the region, Haiti. These regions basi-cally include the Greater Antilles (Anglophone Jamaica, however, is excluded).HISTORICAL SNAPSHOTHistory helps us to understand settlement patterns that have generated socio-cultural pat-terns of behavior, including music, dance, and other human expressions. As we considerhistory, we must look at events both in time and space. Here are some important historicalconsiderations. After political developments in Europe that primarily involved Portugal and Spainin the late 1400s (the age of exploration, the expulsion of the Moors, the Inquisition, themarriage of King Ferdinand of Aragon to Isabella of Castile), three Spanish ships underthe leadership of Cristóbal Colón, known to us as Christopher Columbus, sailed acrossthe Atlantic and made landfall on a small island somewhere in the Caribbean Sea in 1492,perhaps Samana Cay (San Salvador) or Watling’s Island, now in the Bahamas. While schol-ars still argue over the exact spot of the Spaniard’s discovery of—or Encounter with—theirnew world, it is a history known to almost everyone. On his first voyage, when land was at last sighted, Columbus wrote that his sailors fellto their knees and sang a musical setting of the Salve Regina, a Marian antiphon antedat-ing the eleventh century (from Davis, The Dominican Republic, this volume): Dios te salve, Reina y Madre de Misericordia; Vida, dulzura y esperanza nuestra, Dios te salve. A ti llamamos los desterrados hijos de Eva; A ti suspiramos, gimiendo y llorando en este valle de lágrimas. Ea, pues, Señora, abogada nuestra; vuelve a nosotros esos tus ojos misericordiosos; Y después de este destierro, muéstranos a Jesús, Fruto Bendito de tu vientre. ¡Oh clemente! ¡Oh piadosa! ¡Oh dulce Virgen María! Ruega por nosotros, Santa Madre de Dios, Para que seamos dignos de alcanzar las promesas de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo. Amen. Hail, Queen, mother of pity: Life, sweetness, and our hope, hail. To you we cry, Eve’s exiled children. To you we sigh, groaning and weeping in this vale of tears. So ah! our Advocate, turn toward us your pitying eyes. And after this exile, show us Jesus, blessed fruit of your womb. O gentle, O devout, O sweet Virgin Mary. Pray for us, holy Mother of God, That we may be made worthy of Christ’s promises. Amen. A Profile of the Lands and People of Latin America 3
  23. 23. The musical activity that occurred in Latin America during the ensuing colonial pe- riod included much vocal music. Spanish and Portuguese Catholic musical compositions, such as masses, salves, and villancicos (nonliturgical songs), were performed by hundreds of singers and instrumentalists of native American and/or African heritage both at rural Jesuit missions in Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay and in elaborate urban cathedrals in Mexico City, Puebla, Guatemala City, Lima, Sucre, Córdoba, and elsewhere. Mutual aid societies and/ or religious brotherhoods known by such names as cabildos, cofradías, hermandades, and irmandades were formed on plantations and in cities in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Peru, Brazil, and other places where people of native American, African, and Afro-Latin American heritage performed their music and dances, developing syncretic religious ex- pressions that were mixtures of native American, African, and European beliefs. Spanish and Portuguese renaissance songs and musical instruments were sung and played, and their traditions were preserved in rural Cuba, Brazil, and other countries where there was once an active plantation life. We also have some idea about what happened during the next several hundred years throughout much of Latin America: after lands were claimed for Spain or Portugal; in- digenous people were “converted” to Christianity and forced to work in gold and silver mines or at other hard labor; many native Americans died of disease or committed suicide; African slaves were brought across the Atlantic by the hundreds of thousands to replace the native Americans as slaves to work on plantations; after the abolition of slavery, people of Asian backgrounds (from China, India, Japan, and Java) worked at hard labor in sugar, tobacco, cacao, and coffee fields—and our history books continue with more details that are sometimes hard to accept. These and many more activities led to the musical expres- sions of today’s Latin America. Independence movements in Latin America ushered in great changes that affected the musical expressions of many countries. Composers wrote songs with topical, nationalistic, and nostalgic content, which were transmitted and remembered in the oral tradition. Mili- tary bands influenced regional musical expressions in both rural and urban settings. The emancipation of slaves encouraged European immigration that introduced new musical expressions, such as the accordion and Italian opera. Mestizo, mulatto, and criollo compos- ers and musicians established national folklore and artistic expressions throughout Latin America. (In South America, criollo [creole] generally means born in the New World of European origin, and in the Caribbean it means having some African heritage.) The twentieth century saw numerous political movements in Latin America that con- tinued to affect the music of particular countries. Partially because of the Mexican Revolu- tion, for example, the corrido continued to develop as a song of national expression, and nationalistic composers such as Manuel Ponce, Silvestre Revueltas, and Carlos Chávez im- mersed themselves in Mexican folklore to find inspiration. The Argentine tango was largely an art form inspired by the political climate in Buenos Aires around World War I, and protest music in Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile (nueva canción chilena) developed as a response to politics in those countries during the 1960s. Musical expressions in Carib- bean Latin America, too, have been affected by the politics and social influences of Cuba,4 Introduction to the Music Cultures of the Region
  24. 24. the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Music in Latin America is aresult of these and many more times and places in history. In the beginning of the twenty-first century, Latin American music continues to playa key role in world music, especially with the growing population of Latin Americans inthe United States. Latin American artists like Enrique Iglesias, Marc Anthony, and GloriaEstefan have crossed over from world music to popular music charts. Radio stations, tele-vision programs, magazines, and Internet Web sites devoted to Latin American music andculture have proliferated. With such an explosion of interest in all things Latin American,the time is ripe for an overview of not only the popular styles, but, in some ways moreimportantly, the traditional and folk styles and customs that have influenced Latin Ameri-can music. While this volume emphasizes the traditional, folk, and native sounds, popularand rock music are also addressed in topical articles and discussed within the articles onindividual countries and regions.GEOGRAPHYMiddle and South America include topographies of extreme contrast. In South Americaare the world’s largest tropical forest (Amazon) and one of its driest deserts (Atacama).There are many lowland basins (Orinoco, La Plata, Amazon) and frigid highlands and gla-cial peaks (the Andes, including Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the Western Hemi-sphere). The country of Chile itself is, in reverse, a compressed version of the span fromcoastal Alaska to Baja California: its land goes from a northern dry desert, fertile centralvalleys, and lush southern pine forests, to extreme southern, rugged, canyonlike estuariesstudded with glaciers, terminating in frigid mountains and waters of the area of the worldthat is the closest to Antarctica. Within the small country of Ecuador are tropical forestsand perpetually snow-capped mountains—both at zero degrees latitude, the equator. Be-cause of such topographies, most of the urban centers of South America are on or near thecoasts of the Atlantic, Caribbean, or Pacific. All of these considerations have affected themusic of Central and South America.DEMOGRAPHYThe population figures for the individual countries studied in this book are constantly chang-ing, and official census calculations occur infrequently. The difficulty of counting people incountries where there are teeming cities of migrants, rainforest communities that are difficultto reach and even know about, mountain villages and individual homes that are often inac-cessible, and other factors relating to population studies, makes census taking extremely dif-ficult and sometimes impossible. For purposes of presenting a fairly consistent tabulation ofpopulation figures for the countries included in this book, the following table is drawn fromestimated 2006 population figures as they appear in The World Factbook. The countries (andthe commonwealth of Puerto Rico) are organized in the order presented in this book. A Profile of the Lands and People of Latin America 5
  26. 26. Cuba 11,382,820 Haiti 8,308,504 Dominican Republic 9,183,984 Puerto Rico 3,927,188 Mexico 107,449,525 Guatemala 12,293,545 Panama 3,191,319 Venezuela 25,730,435 Brazil 188,078,227 Argentina 39,921,833 Paraguay 6,506,464 Bolivia 8,989,046 Peru 28,302,603 Demography, the description of human populations, is more than a statistical science,however. When joined with cultural studies, demography becomes more complex thanmere calculation of numbers and migration of people. There is probably no place on earthas racially and culturally diverse and complex as the Americas, especially the Americascovered in this volume. As a way of explaining the complexity of a particular area, George List (1983) has triedto fit certain regions of South America within the framework of a tricultural heritage—na-tive American, African, and Spanish. But within each of these areas there could be dozensof subareas of influence: which native American culture? which African culture? and evenwhich Spanish culture? These are questions that must be asked (Bermúdez 1994). Todaywe can speak of Latin America as a multicultural heritage and even a transcultural heritagebecause people representing so many world cultures have immigrated into many SouthAmerican countries and Mexico especially, globalization has brought many types of musicinto all regions, and transculturation has allowed for many Latin American musics to flowoutward to all parts of the globe. To attempt to understand the many types of cultural mixing, terms such as mestizaje[miscegenation] (a mixing of race and culture usually assumed between native Americanand Spanish or Portuguese) and criolismo [creolism] (usually a mixing of African and Euro-pean or referring to European descendants born in the New World; usage depends on thecountry; in Haiti, Creole refers to the language) have been used to categorize people andcultures in Middle America, South America, and the Caribbean. The terms mestizo andcriollo are used throughout these areas by the people themselves; however, they are perhapsless useful today with the amounts of urban migration taking place, the increasing pos-sibilities of upward mobility, and the great influx of immigrants and their descendantsfrom China, England, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, and elsewhere. Eachcountry has its own ways of using the terms mestizo and criollo or uses other terms to ac-commodate its unique demographic mixtures. Each country also has its native people, many of whom have assimilated and mixedwith the foreign dominant cultures in many regions. In other areas, Amerindians haveremained the dominant culture. Because of the important contributions American ab-original people have made to what is today called Latin America, the remainder of thisessay discusses their legacies. A Profile of the Lands and People of Latin America 7
  28. 28. PAPAGO YAQUI KI LI Río Grande W SERI A GUARIJIO YAQUI TARAHUMARA MAYO SINALOA HUICHOL CORA PAME MAYA OTOMI PURÉPECHA UA (Mexica NAH ) MIXTEC MAYA AMU TRIQUE ZG O Z EC A PO T CHORTI MI MAYA SKI U T BRIBRI KU N CABÉCAR A BRUNKA GUAYMÍ H KUN A C OC OMap 1.3 Native peoples of Mexico and Central AmericaNATIVE AMERICA IN LATIN AMERICAOn 12 October 1492, the Lucaya, a native people of the Caribbean, discovered Columbus.When he and his crew made landfall on Samana Cay (San Salvador, present Bahamas), theythought they were in the East Indies; therefore they called these people Indians—a termthat has caused confusion ever since, especially considering that hundreds of thousandsof immigrants from India also live in the Caribbean today. (This volume uses the termsnative American, Amerindian, and Indian interchangeably, reflecting particular authors’choices.) In 1492, the islands of the Caribbean and adjacent Atlantic were inhabited bynative American peoples, including the peaceful Island Arawak or Taíno (including theLucaya subgroup) and the warlike Carib. And before them were other groups, includingthe Yamaye (Jamaica), the Borinquen (Puerto Rico), the Caliponau and Calinago (LesserAntilles), the Siboney (Dominican Republic), and others (Loukotka 1968). Columbus had no idea that the islands he encountered were but tiny specks comparedto the huge landmasses in the Western Hemisphere, and that millions of people were A Profile of the Lands and People of Latin America 9
  29. 29. dwelling in cities larger than many of those in Europe, living and farming in lands higher in altitude than the Italian Alps, and hunting and foraging in tropical forests unimaginable to him. Native Language Classifications At the time of the Encounter (a term preferred to the Conquest, because most native Amer- icans were never conquered), it is believed that about 15 million people were living in the South American continent; about 26 million or more were living in Middle America (including present Mexico and Central America) and the Caribbean; and about 5 mil- lion were living in North America. These inhabitants of what was to become known as the Americas spoke more than two thousand languages, 1,492 of them in South America alone (Loukotka 1968:17). The South American aboriginal languages can be classified into seven large phyla: Macro-Ge, Macro-Panoan, Macro-Carib, Equatorial, Macro-Tucanoan, Andean, and Chibchan-Paezan; those in Middle America (Central America and Mexico) include three families within the collective group Central Amerind (Kiowa-Tanoan, Uto- Aztecan, and Oto-Mangue) plus Chibchan, Hokan, Penutian, and Equatorial in the Carib- bean basin (Greenberg 1987:63, 388–389). Scholars are not in complete agreement with this classification (mostly based on published works), and other systems can be devised. Nevertheless, for the sake of consistency, this system will be followed in this volume. The native American cultures included in this section of the volume belong to many of those language areas. The map on page 8 shows the approximate locations of the South American native people discussed in this volume. The map on page 9 shows the approxi- mate locations of those from Middle America. Many of these native American cultures are studied in individual essays organized alphabetically by region (for South American regions, see Steward 1949:5, 674). Each is identified according to linguistic affiliation and cultural area and described according to criteria presented in Parts 1 and 2, enabling the reader to make comparisons, observe trends, and so forth. The Earliest Migrations The “Indians” in American history books are the native Americans, but even they are descen- dants of earlier peoples who came from the Old World as discoverers, explorers, invaders, and conquerors. It is widely accepted that, tens of thousands of years ago, hunters followed game across the land bridge between present Siberia and Alaska. During two ice ages, the first one about fifty thousand to thirty thousand years ago and the second one twenty-five thousand to twelve thousand years ago, the oceans receded to create a continuous stretch of tundra between Asia and North America, enabling animals to migrate in search of food, followed by nomadic hunting-gathering cultures (Layrisse and Wilbert 1966:17–18). For millennia, these early Americans migrated south and southeast, constantly in pur- suit of game, being forced farther south by stronger groups of people; some built elaborate cities and ceremonial centers (Chichén Itzá, Mitla, Monte Albán, Tenochtitlán, Teoti- huacán, and Tula in Mexico; Iximché, Kaminaljuyú, and Utatlán in Guatemala; Chan Chan and Cuzco in Peru; Tiawanaku in Bolivia; and others), some developed agricultural10 Introduction to the Music Cultures of the Region
  30. 30. societies, and others retained hunting-gathering activities. Elaborate priest-god religionsdeveloped, while other systems of belief were based on shamanism, whereby a single en-tranced religious leader communes with the supernatural. In all cases, these peoples devel-oped nations in their own right. The achievements of many American cultures and nations were distinguished andremarkable. Unfortunately, most of them did not survive the intruders’ guns and swords,the enslavement inflicted on them for labor, the diseases unwittingly brought by the Eu-ropeans, and the dozens of other wrongs inflicted by one people on others. Hundreds ofcultures have survived, however, and some still maintain life-styles and beliefs perhapssimilar to those of ancient times while others exist in varying degrees of assimilation. Weknow little about the present music and musical performance of the native Americans inSouth America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, and much study remainsto be done. What remains may be but a mere echo of the past; nevertheless, many musical aspectsof today’s native Americans still resound and are vital to an understanding of the essenceof Mexico, Central America, and South America. Many native American musical formsare being revived while others are being performed with renewed vigor and still others aredisappearing. Those that do continue are often important components of revolutionarymovements by native Americans (as in Mexico and Guatemala) and non-Indians (as innueva canción chilena “Chilean new song” and the new-song movement throughout Cen-tral and South America). In many regions of Mexico, Central America, and South America(Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, and elsewhere), native people themselves make audio and videorecordings of their indigenous events for learning and passing on the traditions and/orbringing attention to their way of life, its plights, and its beauties.CULTURAL SETTINGSEthnomusicology is the study of music made by people for themselves, their gods, and/orother people. The people of South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbeanare diverse and the countries pluralistic, and their musical styles and other cultural attri-butes are equally so. When a person is making music for himself or herself, rarely is he orshe completely alone: someone—a family member, a friend, a community—is listening,enjoying, crying, or singing along. When music is made for God or the gods, rarely is itdone in isolation: people are listening, learning the songs, and perhaps praying or thinkingspiritual thoughts. When music is made by a group of people or for a group of people,rarely does the musical event exist without dancing and the participation of members ofthe family. Music is an affair, an experience, and an event to be shared.REFERENCESBermúdez, Egberto. 1994. “Syncretism, Identity, and Creativity in Afro-Colombian Musical Traditions.” In Music and Black Ethnicity: The Caribbean and South America, ed. Gerard H. Béhague, 225–238. Miami: North-South Center, University of Miami. A Profile of the Lands and People of Latin America 11
  31. 31. Greenberg, Joseph H. 1987. Language in the Americas. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Layrisse, Miguel, and Johannes Wilbert. 1966. Indian Societies of Venezuela: Their Blood Group Types. Caracas: Editorial Sucre. List, George. 1983. Music and Poetry in a Colombian Village: A Tri-Cultural Heritage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Loukotka, Cestmír. 1968. Classification of South American Indian Languages. Los Angeles: Latin American Center, University of California. Steward, Julian H., ed. 1949. Handbook of South American Indians. 5 volumes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Gov- ernment Printing Office. The World Factbook ( see individual country entries. Wauchope, Robert, ed. 1971. Handbook of Middle American Indians. Austin: University of Texas Press.12 Introduction to the Music Cultures of the Region
  32. 32. Studying Latin American Music Dale A. OlsenThe Archaeological RecordThe Iconographic RecordThe Mythological RecordThe Historiographic RecordEthnology and PracticeAlmost everything known about music and musical performance in the Americas comesfrom archaeology, iconology, mythology, history, ethnology, or current practice. Sinceantiquity, culture bearers, conquerors, missionaries, Peace Corps volunteers, politicians,grave robbers, scholars, students, travelers, visitors, and many others have contributed tomusical knowledge in the Western Hemisphere.THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORDProbably all ancient cultures in South America, Middle America (i.e., Mexico and CentralAmerica), and the Caribbean—as, indeed, throughout the world—have used music forreligious and social reasons. Many have used musical instruments for rhythmic or melodicpurposes or as some type of reinforcement of vocal sounds or dancing. Through archaeolo-gy it is possible to see (and even to hear) some of the musical instruments of ancient peoplebecause many extant musical instruments have been unearthed. Many of these, found intombs, temples, and other ruins, are available for study in private and public collections.It is possible to see how musical instruments may have been held, which ones may havebeen played together, and what activities—such as dancing, sacrificing, healing, parading,hunting, and so on—they may have been used for. When musical instruments and perfor-mances are depicted in pottery, wood, and any other medium, their study is called music 13
  33. 33. iconology. When such artifacts have been recovered from tombs, temples, and other sites lost in time, music iconology is a branch of archaeomusicology. Nearly everything said about ancient musical instruments and events has to be quali- fied with the words possibly, may have, and other modifiers indicating speculation; people living today can never be certain about artifacts from prehistoric times. The materials of ancient musical instruments can usually be ascertained, and the age of the instruments can be roughly determined—by carbon-14 dating for wood and bone, thermoluminescence (TL) for pottery, and other methods of dating. Instruments can be measured and physi- cally described. Beyond these limits, however, archaeomusicologists must speculate. The primary drawbacks in the study of ancient musics are the absence of emic points of view (what the bearers of the culture might say about it), observable cultural contexts, and actual sounds. Even if sounds are obtained from ancient musical instruments, it is still the researcher, rather than the bearers of the extinct culture, who causes the sounds to be made. For economic and other reasons, counterfeit artifacts—fakes!—are constructed and circulated, and determining the validity of supposed artifacts can be problematic. Furthermore, carbon-14 dating is not always possible because the procedure destroys part of the artifact, and it may not always be reliable because a buried instrument may receive contamination from seepage, garbage, vegetable matter, the chemical composition of the soil, and other sources, becoming nearly impossible to date by that method. TL dating is rare because few laboratories can do it, and its margin of accuracy is often too wide for it to be useful. Sometimes, researchers designate as musical instruments ancient objects that may ac- tually have been constructed and used for other purposes: a ceramic water vessel or beaker may be called a drum with its skin missing, a pipe for smoking may be said to be a flute, and so on. At other times, what may be termed an artifact may actually be an ecofact, as when a so-called bone flute is just a bone, or a geofact, as when a so-called polished stone is a naturally polished stone rather than a human-crafted lithophone or stone chime. Archaeomusicology is the study of music through archaeology, and music archaeology is the study of archaeology through musical instruments. Scholars who study the former are usually trained musicians, while those who study the latter are trained archaeologists (Hickmann 1983–1984). Because no etic conclusions (by an outsider) can be made with certainty since no emic evaluations (by the ancient musician or maker of the instrument) are possible, both fields of study raise more questions than the answers they provide. Musi- cal artifacts can be measured and described, but archaeomusicologists may never know be- yond what they can speculate about the use and function of ancient musical instruments, and though the term scientific speculation seems like an oxymoron (a self-contradiction), some speculation can be undergirded by the methods of scientific inquiry. New World archaeomusicologists often consult the writings of Spanish chroniclers from the early years of the Encounter, though these writings may not always be accurate and reliable, may contain prejudiced or biased views, and may even transmit misinformation from their na- tive American respondents who may have had some familiarity with their music-making ancestors. There may be difficulties translating the flowery language of early chroniclers— writers who themselves may not have clearly understood what they were describing. Ad-14 Introduction to the Music Cultures of the Region
  34. 34. ditional scientific speculation can be based on the technique called ethnographic analogy(commonly used in ethnoarchaeology), whereby interpretations of the use and function ofancient culture are made by comparisons with modern cultures. This method can be par-ticularly valuable when the cultures being compared are from the same geographic region,and especially when the living culture claims to be a descendant of the ancient one. Within the Caribbean, few archaeomusicological studies have been conducted; most distalcome from the Dominican Republic. Within Mexico, Central America, and South Amer- The portion of aica, however, many studies exist; the cultures receiving the most frequent archaeomusi- musical instrumentcological investigation come from Mexico and Guatemala, including the Aztec, Maya, farthest from the mouthpieceNayarit, Olmec, and Toltec; the Central American countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua,and Panama, including the Chorotega and Nicarao; northwestern Colombia, includingthe Sinú and the Tairona; the northern Andean countries of Colombia and Ecuador, in-cluding the Bahía, Chibcha, Guangala, Jama-Coaque, Manteño, Nariño, Piartal, Tuza,and Valdivia; the central Andean countries of Peru and northern Bolivia, including theChancay, Chimu, Inca, Moche, Nasca, and Tiawanaku; and the southern Andean coun-tries of Bolivia and Chile, including the Diaguita and San Pedro. Hundreds of ancient cul-tures thrived in these areas, each with musical activities that were possibly similar, judgingby music iconography. This essay describes some extant musical instruments and suggestsideas about ancient musical performance as determined from ancient pottery.The CaribbeanArchaeological investigations in the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and Puerto Rico have re-vealed the existence of ancient bone flutes and ceramic vessel flutes with two or three holesfor fingering (Boyrie Moya 1971:14–17; Moldes 1975:6–7; Veloz Maggiolo 1972:49).Specific details of their cultural derivations and contexts are unknown, and their use mayhave been ceremonial, for personal protection, or for diversion. A musical instrument usedby the ancient Taíno is the conch trumpet, which may have had a signaling function, as itdoes today in the Caribbean. It may also have had a ceremonial function, because the pro-tuberances on it resemble those on a Taíno idol (zemi), and they may symbolize a volcanoor a sacred mountain (Fred Olsen 1974:96).Middle AmericaBetween 200 b.c. and a.d. 500 along the rugged coast of west-central Mexico, in the Figure 2.1 A ceramic tubularpresent states of Colima, Jalisco, and Nayarit, there lived some of the earliest Mexican flute with a long ductcultures to produce musical instruments and depictions of musical performance, both mouthpiece, four fingerholes, and andone mostly in fired clay. These artifacts, buried in shaft tombs cut into the volcanic rocks elaborate flared orof the highlands, were probably the belongings of a religious elite of shamans and rulers. disk-shaped distal endThe instruments include many idiophones (scraped, struck, and rattled); bodies of mem- that perhaps represents flowers or the sun.branophones; and aerophones, such as ceramic duct globular flutes, duct tubular flutes, Perhaps Mexíca (Aztec)panpipes, and conch trumpets. In central Mexico are similar musical instruments plus culture, central Mexico, about A.D. 1300–1500.more elaborate tubular flutes with flared or disk-shaped distal ends that represent flowers Photo by Dale A.or perhaps the sun (Figure 2.1). Olsen, 1970. Studying Latin American Music 15
  35. 35. Ancient multiple duct flutes have been discovered in other parts of Mexico and as far south as Guatemala. Their existence suggests that multipart musical textures were used in Mexican and Central American antiquity, though a theory of polyphony is debatable, since no ancient flutists survive to prove or disprove it, and multi-tubed duct flutes are no longer used in the area. Other types of duct tubular and globular edge aerophones, however, are common in Mexico today, and all have prototypes in ancient times (Crossley-Holland 1980). Robert M. Stevenson (1968) published the most comprehensive study of the ancient instruments and many others. Basing his findings on historical and archaeological records, he showed how native American—mostly Aztec (Nahuatl-speakers) and Maya—musical instruments and performing continued during Mexican colonial times, albeit with changes affected by or as a result of Spanish authority. These changes were structural (instruments made from cane rather than clay, six to seven holes for fingering rather than four, unornamented tubular rather than affixed with a disk at the distal end, a pipe-and-tabor rather than pan- pipe-and-rattle “solo” ensemble) and contextual (instruments no longer used for sacrificial rituals, but for Christian-related ceremonies). Aztec and Maya influence stretched as far southward as Costa Rica and even Panama, and Chibchan and other South American influences are found in ancient Panama and northward into Costa Rica (Andrews V. 1972; Boggs 1974; Hammond 1972a, 1972b; Rivera y Rivera 1977). Among the former, northern influence is the use of log idiophones similar to Aztec and Maya examples. The latter, southern influence includes ceramic oca- rinas (similar to those of Colombia) in the realistic shapes of animals, birds, fish, humans, and reptiles. In the southern lowlands of the Nicaraguan Pacific Coast, archaeologists have found small tubular and globular duct flutes and evidence for the existence of a log idiophone (called teponaztli by Nahuatl-speaking people further north, whence early Nicaraguans probably came). It is believed that the Chorotega and Nicarao of Costa Rica also migrated from Mexico, and the ancient people from the Diquís region of Costa Rica show possible influences from South America, probably through and as an extension of the Chiriquí of ancient Panama (Acevedo Vargas 1987; Ferrero 1977). Many archaeological sites appear in Panama, though none of them were large ceremonial centers or cities. As found farther north into Mexico and farther south into Colombia, many of the musical instruments excavated by archaeologists in Panama are tubular and globular flutes made from clay. South America Hundreds of prehistoric sites are found throughout the northern extension of the Andes and the northern Caribbean littoral of present Colombia. The Spanish conquistadors re- garded this region of South America as most probably the land of the fabled El Dorado (The Golden Man), and they made great efforts to locate his supplies and depositories of precious metal. As a consequence, indigenous nations were quickly destroyed. In the north, the great cities of the Sinú and the villages of the Tairona were sacked and the people were killed, enslaved, or forced into the interior. Musically, the Sinú and Tairona are the most important cultures in the region now known as Colombia because of the numbers of their16 Introduction to the Music Cultures of the Region