Impact of Climate Change on the
Livelihoods of the Vulnerable
Groups - more especially the
Women in Uganda
By Joshua Zake,...
Objectives of this paper
• This paper presents an analysis and position of climate
change impacts on livelihood of vulnera...
Terms of Reference for the task
(1) Undertake a desk study and draft an analytical paper on
the current climate change sit...
Terms of Reference for the task
(3) Identify policy coordination needs and institutional
mechanism for climate change adap...
Methods and tools
• Desk review of literature on climate change impacts and
responses in Uganda and elsewhere.
• It’s also...
Key definitions of terms and concepts in
respect to climate change
• Climate is the prevailing or average weather
conditio...
Key definitions of terms and concepts in
respect to climate change
• Global Warming is the gradual increase in the
average...
Key definitions of terms and concepts in
respect to climate change
• Climate change adaptation refers to adjustments in
pr...
Key definitions of terms and concepts in
respect to climate change
• Mitigation - refers to an intervention to reduce gree...
Key definitions of terms and concepts in
respect to climate change
• Gender equality refers to the equal rights, responsib...
Main causes of climate change
• Production of GHG emissions (mostly carbon
dioxide) from human activities including agricu...
Main causes of climate change

1/10/2014

12
Main causes of climate change
• Developed countries particularly USA, China among
others is the largest producers of these...
Main effects of climate change in Uganda
• Floods – in 2011, 750 residents from 404 households in Bwaise
were affected/dis...
Climate variability related natural hazards (particularly droughts and
floods) that have occurred more frequently from 197...
Climate variability related natural hazards (particularly droughts and
floods) that have occurred more frequently from 197...
Main effects of climate change in Uganda
• These climate variability related disasters have had a great
impact on liveliho...
Drought in Mubende, 2009. Ben T.
Teso floods, 2007. Pilgrim

Nakasongola .

Teso floods, 2007. Pilgrim

Iguluibi village, ...
Floods submerge road in Bwaise, 2011. Awamu,

Teso floods, 2007. Pilgrim

bandoned houses in Bwaise – due to flooding, 201...
Impacts of climate change on Agriculture

• Declining crop yields due to prolonged droughts,
unreliable rainfall patterns ...
Impacts of climate change on Agriculture

• Floods destroy infrastructure such as roads, bridges –
thus limiting access of...
Impacts of climate change on Health
• Climate variability related natural hazards such heavy rains
and floods increase the...
Figure .. Monthly pattern of cholera cases from 1997-2008

• It shows that during this period (1997 and 2008), the highest...
Impacts of climate change on Health
• The incidence of diseases such as malaria, bilhazia, cholera,
dysentery will increas...
Impacts of climate change on Health
• At community level it means that households are spending
more money for treatment of...
Breakdown in social networks
• Widespread impacts of climate change could lead to waves
of migration, threatening internat...
Breakdown in social networks
• Conflicts at community levels as a result of
diminishing water sources and pastures are
exp...
Undermine poverty reduction efforts
• Climate change will further undermine efforts to
mitigate world poverty, directly th...
How have climate change impacts affected
vulnerable groups in Uganda, more especially the
women?
• Climate change affects ...
How have climate change impacts affected
vulnerable groups in Uganda, more especially the
women?
• Many studies have revea...
How have climate change impacts affected
vulnerable groups in Uganda, more especially the
women?
• This therefore means th...
How have climate change impacts affected
vulnerable groups in Uganda, more especially the
women?
• At the household level,...
The climate change policy framework and
legislation
• Policy formulation, planning, implementation and
governance processe...
The climate change policy framework and
legislation
• Achieving these targets has always been and is still difficult
for v...
The climate change policy framework and
legislation
• Climate change cannot be entirely held responsible
for the problems ...
The Draft National Climate Change Policy for
Uganda
• The process to develop the National Climate Policy for
Uganda is und...
Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to
addressing climate change impacts on
vulnerable groups especially women
• The ...
Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to
addressing climate change impacts on
vulnerable groups especially women
• Howe...
Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to
addressing climate change impacts on
vulnerable groups especially women
 The ...
Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to
addressing climate change impacts on
vulnerable groups especially women
 The ...
Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to coordination,
institutional mechanisms and climate proofing of national
develo...
Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to coordination,
institutional mechanisms and climate proofing of national
develo...
Appraisal of the policy in respect to coordination,
institutional mechanisms and climate proofing of national
development ...
Other strategies which the current draft climate change
policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation
and mi...
Other strategies which the current draft climate change
policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation
and mi...
Other strategies which the current draft climate change
policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation
and mi...
Other strategies which the current draft climate change
policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation
and mi...
Other strategies which the current draft climate change
policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation
and mi...
Implementation of the NAPAs in Uganda
• NAPA is a National Adaptation Programmes of
Action
• It provides a framework for p...
Implementation of the NAPAs in Uganda
• A strategy was developed and it informed piloting
implementation of the NAPA in 4 ...
IITA

UCDA

URCSF

ADEKE

DTC

FAO
Briquettes making in Bwaise. ActogetherUg and EA

Kinawattaka Women’s Initiative. EA,
2009

Kinawattaka Women’s Initiative...
Conclusions
• Climate change and its impacts on livelihood and
economic development are here with us and is not about
to g...
Conclusions
• It is by now widely accepted that failure to include
women in decision-making processes around climate
chang...
Conclusions
• The implementation of the climate change policy for
Uganda after approval by the Cabinet should be fast
trac...
Possible actions/strategies as responses to
Climate Change
• Adaptation and mitigation actions should be both at
individua...
Possible actions/strategies as responses to
Climate Change
• Action research – climate change impacts, vulnerabilities,
ad...
Possible actions/strategies as responses to
Climate Change
• Training and awareness for
action targeting various
stakehold...
Possible actions/strategies as responses to
Climate Change
• Policy/program analyses
and reviews;
• Exposure learning visi...
Key strategies
Area wide interventions for awareness on
climate change impacts – adaptation and
mitigation actions
• Media...
Key strategies
Area wide interventions
for awareness on
climate change impacts
• Targeted
documentation e.g.
illustrative ...
Thank you for Listening!!
Mwebale nnyo!!
Timeline / Deadline for remaining Tasks –
Climate change policy for Uganda
1st draft of Costed implementation strategy; Oc...
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Climate change impacts on vulnarable people in uganda esp women a country analyses and position paper 16 nov 2012 jzake

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This paper presents an analysis and position of climate change impacts on livelihood of vulnerable groups (especially women) in Uganda among other related critical issues. Furthermore, it highlights key recommendations targeting key stakeholders at all levels to take proactive actions to advance adaptation and mitigation to these impacts.

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Climate change impacts on vulnarable people in uganda esp women a country analyses and position paper 16 nov 2012 jzake

  1. 1. Impact of Climate Change on the Livelihoods of the Vulnerable Groups - more especially the Women in Uganda By Joshua Zake, Doctoral Research Fellow at BOKU, Vienna, Austria Email: joszake@gmail.com; Tel: +256773057488 Personal website: http://ug.linkedin.com/pub/joshua-zake/23/45/181 A Country Position and Analyses Paper Presented at National Tribunal on Climate Change organized by AWEPON, 16 November, 2012 at Imperial Royale Hotel, Kampala Uganda
  2. 2. Objectives of this paper • This paper presents an analysis and position of climate change impacts on livelihood of vulnerable groups (especially women) in Uganda among other related critical issues. • It highlights key recommendations targeting key stakeholders at all levels to take proactive actions to advance adaptation and mitigation to these impacts. 1/10/2014 2
  3. 3. Terms of Reference for the task (1) Undertake a desk study and draft an analytical paper on the current climate change situation and how it has impacted negatively on the livelihoods of vulnerable groups especially women; (2) Make personal observations and comments on the following: - Manifestation of climate change and weather patterns in Uganda citing examples - Impact of climate change on agriculture, food and water security, health, … - How these manifestation affect women in differentiated way - Violation of laws/policies/constitutional mandate, if any, by the concerned state agencies/department 1/10/2014 3
  4. 4. Terms of Reference for the task (3) Identify policy coordination needs and institutional mechanism for climate change adaptation, implementation and climate proofing of national development policies and strategies that effect women; (4) Look at the Draft National Climate Change Policy and make personal recommendations for policy options to mitigate negative impacts of climate change on the vulnerable more the especially women to support positive developments ; (5) With simple illustrations use Bududda and Bwaise as live examples highlighting the negative impacts of climate change on communities … 1/10/2014 4
  5. 5. Methods and tools • Desk review of literature on climate change impacts and responses in Uganda and elsewhere. • It’s also based on my own experience and exposure through engagement on issues of environment, agriculture, natural resources management and climate change for the last 10 years in Uganda. • Results were analyzed and synthesized qualitatively and subjectively to draw appropriate conclusions and recommendations to advance climate change mitigation and adaptation actions at community, local and national levels. 1/10/2014 5
  6. 6. Key definitions of terms and concepts in respect to climate change • Climate is the prevailing or average weather conditions of a place as determined by the temperature and metrological change over a period of time. Various factors determine climate and the most important are rainfall and temperature • Climate change refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural causes or as a result of human activity 1/10/2014 6
  7. 7. Key definitions of terms and concepts in respect to climate change • Global Warming is the gradual increase in the average temperature on the earth and affects all sectors of development. It is the documented historical warming of the earth’s surface based upon the worldwide temperature records which have been maintained by humans since 1880s. In real terms, it is the historical and/or recent climate change on the global scale 1/10/2014 7
  8. 8. Key definitions of terms and concepts in respect to climate change • Climate change adaptation refers to adjustments in practices, processes, or structures to take into account changing climate conditions, to moderate potential damages, or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate change. • Greenhouse gases are gaseous elements of the atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation. They exist naturally in the Earth's atmosphere and are part of what keeps the Earth warm and habitable. E.g. Methane and nitrous acid 1/10/2014 8
  9. 9. Key definitions of terms and concepts in respect to climate change • Mitigation - refers to an intervention to reduce green house gas (GHS) emissions or enhance GHG sinks • Gender refers to the differences in socially constructed roles and opportunities associated with being a man or a woman and the interactions and social relations between men and women. Gender determines what is expected, permitted and valued in a woman or a man in a determined context. 1/10/2014 9
  10. 10. Key definitions of terms and concepts in respect to climate change • Gender equality refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. Equality between men and women is seen both as a human rights issue and as a precondition for, and indicator of, sustainable people-centered development. • Gender Inequality originated from development models that were used to build present societies. Social assessment of individuals based on their gender has led to an unfair distribution of accessible resources and opportunities and, therefore, of the possibilities for participation in the benefits of development. 1/10/2014 10
  11. 11. Main causes of climate change • Production of GHG emissions (mostly carbon dioxide) from human activities including agricultural production, industrialization, burning of fuels (fossil and bio), and deforestation • GHG react with the Ozone layer which protects the earth from direct heat from the sun. When this layer is depleted, sun rays hit directly on the earth resulting in temperature raises which influence climate on the earth and these changes manifest as global warming, prolonged droughts, and unreliable rainfall. 1/10/2014 11
  12. 12. Main causes of climate change 1/10/2014 12
  13. 13. Main causes of climate change • Developed countries particularly USA, China among others is the largest producers of these emissions and hence the largest contributors to climate change • However developing countries also contribute to carbon dioxide emissions through deforestation, exhaust fumes from old vehicles and industrialization albeit to a very small extent. 1/10/2014 13
  14. 14. Main effects of climate change in Uganda • Floods – in 2011, 750 residents from 404 households in Bwaise were affected/displaced (NV); • Prolong droughts; • Heavy rains with hailstones; • Heavy rains with strong winds; • Receding and falling water levels in lakes and rivers particularly, Lake Victoria and River Nile; • High temperatures – scotching sunshine – Global warming; • Increased incidence/severity of pests and diseases for crops and livestock; • Increased Household conflicts and violence ; • Receding ice caps on mountain Rwenzori; • More than 300 people died in Bududa as a result of landslides due to heavy rains in 2010 and 2012. 14 1/10/2014
  15. 15. Climate variability related natural hazards (particularly droughts and floods) that have occurred more frequently from 1979 to 2006 are presented in the Figure. These figures depict the size of population effected climate variability disasters. And period during which they occurred. 1/10/2014 15
  16. 16. Climate variability related natural hazards (particularly droughts and floods) that have occurred more frequently from 1979 to 2006 are presented in the Figure. These figures depict the loss of life by these climate variability related disasters. 1/10/2014 16
  17. 17. Main effects of climate change in Uganda • These climate variability related disasters have had a great impact on livelihood and economic development in the country. They are likely to continue with greater impacts given the current trends of climate change, variability and uncertainty. • In Uganda (in 2007) especially in Eastern (for instance in Bududa) and Northern parts of Teso and Lango, and in Kampala (– in Bwaise) floods cut off the road network making communication difficult; submerged crop fields and destroying crops and this will result in long term famine and increase in cost of food. This means that over 1000 families affected became food insecure and were not able to meet their daily food requirements and subsequently it required adequate and timely provision of relief food rations to save their lives. 1/10/2014 17
  18. 18. Drought in Mubende, 2009. Ben T. Teso floods, 2007. Pilgrim Nakasongola . Teso floods, 2007. Pilgrim Iguluibi village, L. Victoria basin. Science direct Eastern Uganda, 2012 Tabu
  19. 19. Floods submerge road in Bwaise, 2011. Awamu, Teso floods, 2007. Pilgrim bandoned houses in Bwaise – due to flooding, 2010. Echwalu
  20. 20. Impacts of climate change on Agriculture • Declining crop yields due to prolonged droughts, unreliable rainfall patterns , floods, hailstones …could leave hundreds of millions without the ability to produce or purchase sufficient food – household food insecurity, malnutrition, poor health eventually resulting in death. • Furthermore, droughts lower the country’s productive capacity; reducing her agricultural exports, increasing food prices leading to food shortages, nutritional deficiencies and an unstable macro economy. For instance, there is uncertain that increasing temperature rise will affect coffee production in Uganda. 1/10/2014 20
  21. 21. Impacts of climate change on Agriculture • Floods destroy infrastructure such as roads, bridges – thus limiting access of agricultural produce to markets; • Floods promote water borne diseases (cholera, malaria…) which affect farming community thereby reducing their performance/output on their farms; • Climate variability increases incidence and severity of crop and livestock diseases (Wilts, Mossaic, Newcastle, Swine fever…) results in higher expenses on treatment costs and at extreme loss of crops and livestock • Climate change/variability reduces country gross domestic product (GDP) and loss of livelihood of communities’ dependant on agricultural production; 1/10/2014 21
  22. 22. Impacts of climate change on Health • Climate variability related natural hazards such heavy rains and floods increase the incidence of water borne diseases as they result in stagnant water, which provides a good environment for the proliferation of diseases causing germs and vectors. • In Uganda increase out breaks of Malaria, bilhazia and other water borne diseases were reported as often occurring during and immediately after floods 1/10/2014 22
  23. 23. Figure .. Monthly pattern of cholera cases from 1997-2008 • It shows that during this period (1997 and 2008), the highest number of cholera cases were registered in the months of January, February, March, April and may. •Also notable is that in 1998, the Elnino induced flooding which affected many parts in the country resulted in increased number of cholera cases. 1/10/2014 23
  24. 24. Impacts of climate change on Health • The incidence of diseases such as malaria, bilhazia, cholera, dysentery will increase in communities affected by floods resulting in death unless otherwise substantial resources are needed to provide adequate treatment for the victims. • Climate change further imposes additional burden on the health services e.g. estimates by the MoH indicate that the average expenditure on malaria-related treatments are as high as US $300 million annually and are likely to increase as malaria epidemics emerge in areas where the disease was not known before – such as Kabale 1/10/2014 24
  25. 25. Impacts of climate change on Health • At community level it means that households are spending more money for treatment of climate variability induced ailments (such as cholera, respiratory diseases , malaria, bilhazia, diarrhoeal, dysentery) and in extreme cases it results into death when they cannot afford the treatment. • The diseases also affect the productivity of the household considering that the household members who are affected stay bed ridden and weak making them less productive thus affecting the household labor force and activity. 1/10/2014 25
  26. 26. Breakdown in social networks • Widespread impacts of climate change could lead to waves of migration, threatening international stability. One study estimates that by 2050, as many as 150 million people may have fled coastlines vulnerable to rising sea levels, storms or floods, or agricultural land too arid to cultivate. • Migration across borders has frequently led to violent clashes over land and resources. • In addition, these migrations lead to breakdown of social networks, conflicts as grazing and watering points become scarce among pastoralist communities and livelihood insecurity 1/10/2014 26
  27. 27. Breakdown in social networks • Conflicts at community levels as a result of diminishing water sources and pastures are experienced among pastoral communities particularly the Karamojong and Pokot of North-eastern Uganda and Northern Kenya; Encroachment on Queen Elizabeth National Park by the Bansongola; Conflicts among the Balaalo (pastoralists) and Banyoro in Buliisa. 1/10/2014 27
  28. 28. Undermine poverty reduction efforts • Climate change will further undermine efforts to mitigate world poverty, directly threatening people's homes and livelihoods through increased storms, droughts, disease, and other stressors. • Not only could this impede development, it might also increase national and regional instability and intensify income disparities between rich and poor. This, in turn, could lead to military confrontations over distribution of the world's wealth, or could feed terrorism or transnational crime; 1/10/2014 28
  29. 29. How have climate change impacts affected vulnerable groups in Uganda, more especially the women? • Climate change affects various gender categories at a household level differently. It’s therefore, important to understand how each gender category is affected and also determine their climate adaptation and mitigation needs. • Additionally, it requires an understanding of existing inequalities between women and men, and of the ways in which climate change can exacerbate these inequalities. Conversely, it also requires an understanding of the ways in which these inequalities can intensify the impacts of climate change for all individuals and communities. 1/10/2014 29
  30. 30. How have climate change impacts affected vulnerable groups in Uganda, more especially the women? • Many studies have revealed that poor women and children are more vulnerable to natural disasters, given socially constructed gender roles and behaviors. • For instance, in many communities in Uganda, women are expected and or take up the role of tilling the land, caring for the family, caring for the sick among other household chores. Despite this, very few women own and have limited access to resources and decision making. • Only about 7% of agricultural land in Uganda is owned by women, yet they do most of the agricultural work 1/10/2014 30
  31. 31. How have climate change impacts affected vulnerable groups in Uganda, more especially the women? • This therefore means that when climate change impacts strike, women have limited options for coping and adaptation as compared to men. • As such, women are often less able to adapt to climate change than men since they represent the majority of lowincome earners, they generally have less education than men and are thus less likely to be reached by extension agents and they are often denied rights to property and land, which makes it difficult for them to access credit and agricultural extension services. 1/10/2014 31
  32. 32. How have climate change impacts affected vulnerable groups in Uganda, more especially the women? • At the household level, the failure of women to meet their gender constructed roles amidst climate change impacts results in domestic violence and conflicts. 1/10/2014 32
  33. 33. The climate change policy framework and legislation • Policy formulation, planning, implementation and governance processes at all levels in the development of any country are very important. • The effectiveness of these processes is a precondition for achieving anticipated targets and outcomes of such policies and programs which are usually about poverty reduction, sustainable economic development, sustainable use of environment and natural resources and improved livelihoods among others. 1/10/2014 33
  34. 34. The climate change policy framework and legislation • Achieving these targets has always been and is still difficult for various developing and least developing countries. This is partly due to inadequate planning, weak policy implementation, limited enforcement of legislation and poor governance. • Consequently, there is escalating forest degradation and deforestation; poor waste management and disposal; escalating encroachment on wetlands; increased contamination of water bodies due to siltation and pollution; soil fertility depletion in various parts of the country; limited access to tree seedlings to support tree planting; Violation of environmental impact assessments by private developers!! 1/10/2014 34
  35. 35. The climate change policy framework and legislation • Climate change cannot be entirely held responsible for the problems such as poverty, low household incomes, food insecurity, malnutrition, poor sanitation among others. However, it will escalate these problems to levels that are unmanageable resulting in increased loss of lives and property. 1/10/2014 35
  36. 36. The Draft National Climate Change Policy for Uganda • The process to develop the National Climate Policy for Uganda is underway. It’s coordinated through the Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Water and Environment. • The goal of the policy is to ensure harmonized and coordinated action towards a climate resilient and sustainable low carbon development path for Uganda. • The overarching objective of the policy is to ensure that all stakeholders with a role to play in the development of Uganda address climate change impacts and their causes through appropriate measures while promoting sustainable development. 1/10/2014 36
  37. 37. Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to addressing climate change impacts on vulnerable groups especially women • The policy recognizes that climate change impacts on vulnerable groups in Uganda. The policy categorizes them under crosscutting priorities with sub categories of gender issues and children welfare; and vulnerable groups. • Under each sub category the respective challenges presented by climate change are well articulated and related specific strategies to address them are earmarked. 1/10/2014 37
  38. 38. Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to addressing climate change impacts on vulnerable groups especially women • However, the following observations and suggestions are flagged for consideration in the policy:  The draft policy has not adequately analyzed vulnerability due to climate change impacts based on locality. Such analyses would be the basis for selection of locations where adaptation actions should be prioritized considering the extent of vulnerability. If information and statistics in this respect are missing, then conducting studies to generate this information should be integrated in the specific strategies of the policy; 38 1/10/2014
  39. 39. Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to addressing climate change impacts on vulnerable groups especially women  The draft policy does not appreciate/recognize that the various gender groups/categories (women, men, children, vulnerable groups – people with disabilities, HIV/AIDs) have differentiated climate change adaptation needs, preferences and capacities. Therefore, climate change adaptation programs should address these adaptation needs, preferences and capacities at different levels. The information on the climate adaptation needs, preferences and capacities of the different gender categories may not be known and hence not available. In this case a strategy for generating this information should be integrated in the 39 1/10/2014 policy;
  40. 40. Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to addressing climate change impacts on vulnerable groups especially women  The draft policy treats aspects gender and vulnerable groups as cross-cutting issues among the different sectors. This presents risk of these issues falling out during implementation. One way of addressing this is by instituting a gender focal point within the Climate Change Unit/Climate Change Department to oversee implementation and screening of the different sectors programs/projects to ensure that aspects of gender are addressed. 1/10/2014 40
  41. 41. Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to coordination, institutional mechanisms and climate proofing of national development policies and strategies • At the national level the policy suggests transition of the Climate Change Unit into the Climate Change Department under the recently approved Uganda National Meteorology Authority • The functions of the suggested Climate Change Department will include: • Information clearinghouse on climate change concerns; • Policy and strategic advice on climate change; • Ensuring the integration of climate change concerns in planning at national level; • Overall monitoring of the implementation of the Policy and its implementation Plan; • National focal point on climate change. 1/10/2014 41
  42. 42. Appraisal of the draft policy in respect to coordination, institutional mechanisms and climate proofing of national development policies and strategies • At the local level, the draft policy suggests the Natural Resources Department of the District Local Government as the focal point for policy implementation and all Local Government Departments will ensure that climate change issues in their sectors are integrated in the District Development Plans. • However, the draft climate change policy is silent on the aspect of climate proofing implementation of national development policies and whose role this is. • It’s also questionable whether the Climate Change Department has the mandate and authority to take up such a role or this role be reallocated under the Office of the Prime Minister or National Planning Authority and in such an arrangement, the Climate Change Department would be tasked to provide technical input and 42 guidance.
  43. 43. Appraisal of the policy in respect to coordination, institutional mechanisms and climate proofing of national development policies and strategies • In this respect as well, the development of guidelines as a reference for different sectors to use in climate proofing implementation of different national policies should be added as another function of the Climate Change Department. • In order to further enhance collaboration, coordination, harmonization and mainstreaming of issues initiatives within the various ministries, an Inter-Ministerial Policy Committee should be instituted at the national level. • Similarly at the local level, it’s questionable whether Natural Resources Department has the authority to ensure that climate change issues are fully integrated in DDP or this role should be re-allocated to the office of the District Chief Administrative Officer with technical input and guidance from the District Natural Resources Department. 1/10/2014 43
  44. 44. Other strategies which the current draft climate change policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation and mitigation at community level Agriculture sector • More targeted awareness and training of smallholder framers about climate change impacts, possible adaptation and mitigation techniques/practices and early warning actions; • Research – early maturing and drought resistant crop varieties; • Support farmers to access and multiply these technologies; • Promote and support indigenous drought resistant crop varieties (arrow roots, yams…); • Support farmers to access appropriate technologies for irrigation; 1/10/2014 44
  45. 45. Other strategies which the current draft climate change policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation and mitigation at community level • Support trees on farm (for instance planting trees along/around farm boundaries) and agro-forestry (trees, crops, livestock, apiary based on an appropriate farm land use plans); • Support and promote soil and water conservation techniques and practices on farm; • Support and promote improved fertilizer (both organic and inorganic) management and application techniques and practices; • Support and promote household water harvesting during the rainy season including water tanks, construction of water points for livestock 1/10/2014 45
  46. 46. Other strategies which the current draft climate change policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation and mitigation at community level • Strengthen early warning early action – systems at community , local and national levels; Health • Advance targeted awareness about climate variability induced diseases (malaria, cholera) among stakeholders; • Advance preparedness and early warning for control and management of climate variability induced diseases (malaria, cholera) among stakeholders. 1/10/2014 46
  47. 47. Other strategies which the current draft climate change policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation and mitigation at community level • Support community innovative initiatives that turn waste into wealth while cleaning the environment thus making the environment free from diseases and pathogens; and reduction of green house gas emissions – carbondioxide, methane and nitrous oxide from biodegradable waste. • Such initiatives include charcoal briquettes making; commercial compost making; tree nursery management; crafts and jewel making from plastics; packaging banana peelings for livestock feed. 1/10/2014 47
  48. 48. Other strategies which the current draft climate change policy should consider to advance climate change adaptation and mitigation at community level Water • Support domestic water harvesting at household level using appropriate technologies; • Support and promote urban forestry – by setting aside/gazatting land for forestry in urban areas. Secondly, house plans in the city and urban centers should integrate a certain percentage of land to be occupied by trees (for fruit trees), otherwise they should not be approved; 1/10/2014 48
  49. 49. Implementation of the NAPAs in Uganda • NAPA is a National Adaptation Programmes of Action • It provides a framework for programs/projects with actions to address and adapt to the impacts of climate change in Uganda. • NAPAs are quick channels of communicating urgent and immediate adaptation needs to COP 7 of the UNFCCC. COP 7 adopted a decision to establish an LDC fund to support the preparation and implementation of NAPAs. In Uganda, the preparation of NAPA was completed. 1/10/2014 Q1-2007 49
  50. 50. Implementation of the NAPAs in Uganda • A strategy was developed and it informed piloting implementation of the NAPA in 4 districts (Bundibugyo, Nakansongola, Apac and Pallisa) – coordinated by Climate change Unit in Collaboration with NGOs Key Issues to reflect on - NAPA implementation requires 39.8 USD – these resources are not yet available thus the pilot in 4 districts! - Considering the climate change effects/impacts, does a pilot response/approach work? - What about considering use of a business unusual concept by all stakeholders during planning and implementation of development program? This approach would help in supporting climate adaptation and mitigation in program implementation at local and national levels 1/10/2014 50
  51. 51. IITA UCDA URCSF ADEKE DTC FAO
  52. 52. Briquettes making in Bwaise. ActogetherUg and EA Kinawattaka Women’s Initiative. EA, 2009 Kinawattaka Women’s Initiative Banana peels for sale in Bwaise. EA, 2009
  53. 53. Conclusions • Climate change and its impacts on livelihood and economic development are here with us and is not about to go. It is no longer a myth and a problem of the developed countries as some schools of thought purport to think. • Therefore, the time is now for different stakeholders including Government, Development partners, Civil Society both National and International and communities among others to act. • This should be through prioritizing climate change through long term planning and resource allocation to address the impacts of climate but also through undertaking appropriate strategies at different levels including local, national and regional and international levels. 1/10/2014 53
  54. 54. Conclusions • It is by now widely accepted that failure to include women in decision-making processes around climate change mitigation and adaptation at local, national, regional and international levels not only exacerbates gender inequalities, but also undermines the effectiveness of climate change responses. This should be addressed in policy formulation and implementation at all levels. • There is thus an urgent need to clearly identify obstacles to women’s participation in decision-making, and find ways to address these constraints through supporting grassroots awareness-raising, confidence-building and advocacy and leadership training programs. 1/10/2014 17 - 19 August 2009 54
  55. 55. Conclusions • The implementation of the climate change policy for Uganda after approval by the Cabinet should be fast tracked to advance community climate change adaptation and mitigation. • AWEPON and other stakeholder’s at different levels should actively and proactively take their roles and responsibilities as stipulated in the policy to support its implementation. 1/10/2014 55
  56. 56. Possible actions/strategies as responses to Climate Change • Adaptation and mitigation actions should be both at individual, community and organization levels ; • Behavior change in terms of practices for consumption and use of environment, for instance how do you manage waste at all levels? • Reviewing policies, plans and programs to integrate/mainstream climate adaptation/mitigation actions; • Reviewing/Clarifying climate change advocacy issues based on niche/interest, stakeholder mapping and development of advocacy strategy - AWEPON and partners 1/10/2014 17 - 19 August 2009 56
  57. 57. Possible actions/strategies as responses to Climate Change • Action research – climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, mitigation - across sectors – Bududa &Bwaise ; • Piloting adaptation and mitigation actions (technologies) – the NAPA, (2007) suggested 9 projects including: -Community tree growing; -Land degradation and management; -Strengthening Metrological services; -Community water and sanitation; -Water for production; -Vector, pests and diseases control; -Drought adaptation; -Indigenous knowledge and natural resource management ; -Climate change and development planning. 1/10/2014 17 - 19 August 2009 57
  58. 58. Possible actions/strategies as responses to Climate Change • Training and awareness for action targeting various stakeholders at all levels; • Policy dialogue at local and national levels; • Targeted awareness creation at all levels; • Practical training, mentoring
  59. 59. Possible actions/strategies as responses to Climate Change • Policy/program analyses and reviews; • Exposure learning visits involving different stakeholders (Policy makers, researchers, community….) to sites of impacts/pilots
  60. 60. Key strategies Area wide interventions for awareness on climate change impacts – adaptation and mitigation actions • Media engagement at local and national levels i.e. infomercials, interactive programs, news paper supplements and articles
  61. 61. Key strategies Area wide interventions for awareness on climate change impacts • Targeted documentation e.g. illustrative posters, Interactive CD-roms, fact sheets, Issues papers …
  62. 62. Thank you for Listening!! Mwebale nnyo!!
  63. 63. Timeline / Deadline for remaining Tasks – Climate change policy for Uganda 1st draft of Costed implementation strategy; October 19th, 2012 PS MWE & CCU; October 29th, 2012 Consultations with Civil Society and Private sector; October 30th, 2012 Expert meeting in Kampala; October 31,st 2012 CCPC TWG; November 1st, 2012 PS' forum; November 6th, 2012 Final Draft Costed Policy Implementation Strategy for consultation; November 23rd, 2012 • National consultation workshop on Costed Implementation Strategy; December 13th, 2012 • Cabinet Workshop on Draft Policy and costed Implementation Strategy; December 14th, 2012 • Final version of Comprehensive Costed Implementation Strategy; December 21st, 2012 • • • • • • • 1/10/2014 63

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