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“Pioneering” Your
Career Life Cycle
NAGAP 2012
Joshua LaFave
Director of Graduate
Enrollment
Whitman School of Management
...
Agenda
• Introduction
• Origination of Study Idea
• Initial Assumptions and Rationale
• Goals of our Study
• Literature Re...
Origination of Idea
From one end of the scale to…
“Young Buck”?
“Old Timer”?
Introduction
What is a
career?
Who owns your
career?
Some Fun With
Metaphors
• A career is a “climbing ladder”
Some Fun With
Metaphors
• A career is a “game”
Some Fun With
Metaphors
• A career is a “rat race”
Some Fun With
Metaphors
• A career is a “minefield”
Some Fun With
Metaphors
• A career is a “timetable”
“So, instead of looking for keys to
successful careers, we’ve settled on
careers as keys to success.”
-The Career Manageme...
Initial Assumptions and
Rationale
• Hypothesis:
o There are numerous influences that interact
within the realm of our prof...
Initial Assumptions and
Rationale
• There is a perceived career “life-cycle” of an
enrollment management professional
• In...
Initial Assumptions and
Rationale
• Explore further:
o What are the influences?
o What is the interpretation of these infl...
Visual Model:
Influences and Career Progression
Exploring Stage Confidence Stage Protecting Stage
Internal Balance
Profess...
Goals of Our Study
• Identify influences that shape internal and external
decisions in one’s career
• Understand how we mo...
Literature Review
What models/theories are there that would help
identify career stages, influences and how/why we
make de...
Developmental Theory
• An evolution
• Levinson, et al., describes adulthood is a series of
stable and transitional periods...
Vocational Choice: "Life Stages and Life
Roles” (Donald Super)
• As we move through different stages in our lives, we
also...
Life Career Rainbow
• Super’s main concepts:
o Influences
o Balance
o Career Maturity
o Self Concept
• People go through c...
Social Cognition Career
Albert Banduras
• Addresses culture, gender, genetic endowment,
social context and unexpected life...
Role Taking
George Herbert Mead
• Role taking has two components:
1. Thinking about oneself from the perspective of others...
Lifecycle Career Management
Adizes
• “Growing up doesn’t mean getting past all the
problems. Growing up means being able t...
Vroom’s Three Tenants:
Expectancy Theory
1) Valence:
o The value of perceived outcomes. What’s in it for me?
o The value p...
Vroom’s Three Tenants:
Expectancy Theory
2) Instrumentality:
Performance (P) → Outcome (O)
o Belief that a person will rec...
Vroom’s Three Tenants:
Expectancy Theory
3) Expectancy:
Effort (E) → Performance (P)
o The belief that one's effort will r...
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:
Motivational Force
• Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancy X
Instrumentality X Valence
o Behavio...
Other Theories Considered
• Motivation Theories
o Acquired Needs : we seek power, achievement, affiliation and
needs are s...
Key Takeaways from Literature
Review
Influences
Self-
Awareness
and Balance
•Lifestyle
•Personal Needs
•Quality of Life
• ...
Applications to Enrollment
Management Stages
• Influences
o Within each stage
o Career spanning
• Balance
o Demands of per...
Applications to
Enrollment Management
Finding Personal Equilibrium and
Balance
• Personal
• Occupational
• Institutional/Employer
• Professional Involvement
Invitation for Continued
Study
• Construct a study to identify possible career stages and
applications to a model
• Learn ...
“Find a job you love and you’ll never work a
day in your life.” ~ Confucius
Pioneering Your Career Lifecycle
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Pioneering Your Career Lifecycle

  1. 1. “Pioneering” Your Career Life Cycle NAGAP 2012 Joshua LaFave Director of Graduate Enrollment Whitman School of Management Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY Kristen Trapasso Director of Graduate Admissions LeMoyne College Syracuse, NY
  2. 2. Agenda • Introduction • Origination of Study Idea • Initial Assumptions and Rationale • Goals of our Study • Literature Review • Key Takeaways from Literature Review • Finding Personal Equilibrium and Balance • Applications to Enrollment Management • Invitation for Continued Study
  3. 3. Origination of Idea From one end of the scale to… “Young Buck”? “Old Timer”?
  4. 4. Introduction What is a career? Who owns your career?
  5. 5. Some Fun With Metaphors • A career is a “climbing ladder”
  6. 6. Some Fun With Metaphors • A career is a “game”
  7. 7. Some Fun With Metaphors • A career is a “rat race”
  8. 8. Some Fun With Metaphors • A career is a “minefield”
  9. 9. Some Fun With Metaphors • A career is a “timetable”
  10. 10. “So, instead of looking for keys to successful careers, we’ve settled on careers as keys to success.” -The Career Management Challenge Balancing Individual and Organizational Needs by Peter Herriot
  11. 11. Initial Assumptions and Rationale • Hypothesis: o There are numerous influences that interact within the realm of our professional career. The perceived significance of these influences in each stage shapes the decisions we make in a continual search for professional equilibrium.
  12. 12. Initial Assumptions and Rationale • There is a perceived career “life-cycle” of an enrollment management professional • Internal and external influences affect personal and professional commitment to one’s job/motivation for excelling • As one’s “life cycle” advances, the impact of these influences change
  13. 13. Initial Assumptions and Rationale • Explore further: o What are the influences? o What is the interpretation of these influences as they relate to balance? o Are there established tracks or are they personally motivated? o At what point does someone move into a different career stage? o How do we use this information to make informed decisions for ourselves and for those around us?
  14. 14. Visual Model: Influences and Career Progression Exploring Stage Confidence Stage Protecting Stage Internal Balance Professional Environment Personal/Social Environment
  15. 15. Goals of Our Study • Identify influences that shape internal and external decisions in one’s career • Understand how we move within our career and what influences are the catalysts for this movement • Benchmark lifecycles of other professions • Link previous research with survey findings and identify enrollment management specific findings
  16. 16. Literature Review What models/theories are there that would help identify career stages, influences and how/why we make decisions?
  17. 17. Developmental Theory • An evolution • Levinson, et al., describes adulthood is a series of stable and transitional periods • During stable periods, one follow fairly clear goals • Periodically, one must reorder priorities and change behavior in order to compensate for “neglected dimensions of the self”: unfulfilled ambitions, newly acquired interests, changes in family dynamics, etc.
  18. 18. Vocational Choice: "Life Stages and Life Roles” (Donald Super) • As we move through different stages in our lives, we also move through different stages in our careers • People don’t follow a straight path of career development. Super calls it the Life Career Rainbow o Identifies the different “life roles” we play at different times in our lives
  19. 19. Life Career Rainbow • Super’s main concepts: o Influences o Balance o Career Maturity o Self Concept • People go through changes as they mature and are affected by: o Socioeconomic factors o Mental and physical abilities o Personal characteristics o Opportunities
  20. 20. Social Cognition Career Albert Banduras • Addresses culture, gender, genetic endowment, social context and unexpected life events that may interact with and supersede the effects of career- related choices • Focuses on the connection of self efficacy, outcome expectations and personal goals that influence an individual’s career choice o We continue doing something because we had a good experience, proven success and high self esteem as a reward
  21. 21. Role Taking George Herbert Mead • Role taking has two components: 1. Thinking about oneself from the perspective of others 2. Regulating one’s behavior based on what one thinks others expect • “Maturity” is the ability to make the distinction between the actor’s and the observer’s view • Awareness and maturity are expected to change throughout a person’s individual life and lifestyle
  22. 22. Lifecycle Career Management Adizes • “Growing up doesn’t mean getting past all the problems. Growing up means being able to handle bigger and more complex problems.” • Becoming mature and aware of a need for career change; creating consciousness in order to make mature decisions • Maturity and awareness
  23. 23. Vroom’s Three Tenants: Expectancy Theory 1) Valence: o The value of perceived outcomes. What’s in it for me? o The value placed on the rewards respective to: personal needs, lifestyle, goals, values and sources of motivation o In order for the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it
  24. 24. Vroom’s Three Tenants: Expectancy Theory 2) Instrumentality: Performance (P) → Outcome (O) o Belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met: pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment o Clear path? o Instrumentality is low when the reward is given for all performances given o If individuals trust their superiors, they are more likely to believe their leaders’ promises.
  25. 25. Vroom’s Three Tenants: Expectancy Theory 3) Expectancy: Effort (E) → Performance (P) o The belief that one's effort will result in desired performance goals o The belief that one is able to complete the actions; capability o Beliefs usually based on an individual's past experience supporting self confidence/self efficacy
  26. 26. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: Motivational Force • Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence o Behavioral options: the option with the greatest motivational force (MF) o Expectancy and instrumentality are attitudes (cognitions) that represent an individual's perception of the likelihood that effort → performance → desired outcomes o Valence is rooted in an individual’s value system
  27. 27. Other Theories Considered • Motivation Theories o Acquired Needs : we seek power, achievement, affiliation and needs are shaped over time from experiences o Cognitive Dissonance: non-alignment is uncomfortable → change o Consistency Theory: we seek the comfort of internal alignment → change o Intrinsic Motivation: motivated by internal factors, as opposed to the external drivers of extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation drives me to do things just for the fun of it, or because I believe it is a good or right thing to do. • Maslow’s Study of Individual Needs
  28. 28. Key Takeaways from Literature Review Influences Self- Awareness and Balance •Lifestyle •Personal Needs •Quality of Life • Social Context/Relationships • Goals Valence •Instrumentality (Tangible returns) •Psychological Contract •Acquired Needs • Internal • Altruism Motivations •Life Experience •Professional Experience •Emotional Intelligence Self-Concept
  29. 29. Applications to Enrollment Management Stages • Influences o Within each stage o Career spanning • Balance o Demands of personal and professional life • Maturity • Self-Concept
  30. 30. Applications to Enrollment Management
  31. 31. Finding Personal Equilibrium and Balance • Personal • Occupational • Institutional/Employer • Professional Involvement
  32. 32. Invitation for Continued Study • Construct a study to identify possible career stages and applications to a model • Learn personal and professional influences • Assign values of influences and motivations as identified by sample of graduate enrollment managers • What do they mean? Anything? • Will we do our jobs differently? Will this improve the mentoring process? • Identify: o Influences o Motivations o Balance o Valence o Instrumentality o Expectancies
  33. 33. “Find a job you love and you’ll never work a day in your life.” ~ Confucius

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