Principles of Editing There are three sub genres in the principles of editing, creating meaning throughcollage, tempo & timing, Story – centered editing & the construction of meaning &creating meaning outside the story.Collage – a collage is the way in which the video clips are put together to put thepoint across in the film, switching between content on screen and characters in arelevant formation. Such as in Lord of the rings edited by Hitchcock where theswitching between the reflection of Golumn and himself creating two differentpersonas for the character, one being his alter ego the other being itself whichconfuses the audience but the flow of conversation is never broken between them, itshot reverse shots continuously like it would in a normal conversation. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhF060VmS1gTempo – This is the length of the clip, adjusted to create a different atmosphere, ashort sequence of clips for tension and a long clip if more detail is needed to be paidattention to. The average length of a shot is 4.75 seconds compared to how it usedto be 5.15 seconds which shows that editing styles have changed to be muchquicker, the film industry is a lot more fast paced, viewers wanting more action,action needing quicker editing. With the speed of clips becoming shorter someviewers may not be able to adjust to what is going on on-screen quick enough due tothe human eye needing 3 seconds to adjust to a picture change, some in recent filmsbeing shorter than that.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P0RFWOfZtq4In this clip of the 400 blows the clips when watching the overview of the carouselstay for longer, trying to gather more information of what is going on on-screen butwhen from another view such as looking up at the audience it does not stay for aslong because little focus and knowing is known as to what is going on, the close upsstay for a longer period of time then the reverse shots.Another way of adjusting the tempo of a film is the transitions in which are usedwhich can depict the time between each clip, a straight cut without a editingtransition would be thought as a immediate change but with a fade that takes you toanother scene or location meaning that the time frame would have had to beenadjusted. Using the fade to black transition could be there to show a gap of a sleep,so when a character goes to sleep it fades to black and reopens the shot in anotherday.When editing the tempo can be adjusted by how the shots are filmed before theediting process, if a two shot of some characters is filmed and then somethinghappens another shot of a close up of one of the characters reactions could beswitched to, still remaining in the same time but making the clip more personal. Inthe film bonnie and clyde this is used, when the woman is walking down the stairs itis unclear what she has, but then switches to a different perspective now showingher with a gun.Story – Centered editing & construction and meaningsThe way the film is put into the timeline in editing can completely change theaudiences perception of what is going, if your telling a normal story using a linearediting style will make it straight forward, sequencing them in order as to how theyhappen but in films such a fight club this does not happen, the order in which thingshappen is altered so the motive of the film is not made clear until the end this is nonlinear editing or media res.Condensing or expanding time is by putting clips together and using fade ins and out,it creates the thought in the audiences mind of time passing by such as in spidermanwhen he designs his costume it makes it look as if he has been trying to come upwith ideas for hours by putting all his drawings across the screen that is called
expanding. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFYHMfF4oIYunderstanding what it going on on-screen is key, the special awareness f the editingmust be taken into account, if there is something which is being spoken about incontext and is not made clear on screen the audience will not be able to make thecomparison or judgment of the item, so zooming in, in the editing process or filminga close up is what should be done in the situations where something in thebackground or of small resemblance needs to be made clearer.During conversation between two characters as well as using two shot, shot reverseshot is used frequently, as in the Golumn clip where it switches between thereflection and the character as they in turn speak. This is used to reveal the reactionof a character in response to what someone is saying. Not usually from a point ofview of the character shown as if you were a by stander behind the character,usually using the over the shoulder shot.When trying to make the audience think on the same wavelength as the character orfeel involved in the scene the clip switches to what the character is looking at as helooks at it so the audience feel as if they can see what the character is seeingWhere as a cutaway is when whatever is going on on-screen may have relevance butnot character orientated, more to set the scene that to explain to audience.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1qIYWt1OOECreating meaning outside the storyThe props are a very important part of the layout of a film and keeping them thesame throughout is to, if something moves between the time it has been shot lastthis may make the film look weird because something may be there one minute andgone the next, that is called a continuity error like in ace ventura half way throughthe scene the chess pieces which were at one point on the table then dissapear. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uaVdFdb-KyQWhen establishing a scene with a few characters in the establishing shot shows thecharacters on the side they are on there orientation in response to the camera, oncethe establishing shot has been made you cannot go over the 180 degree markotherwise the characters will be facing in different directions as to how they wereoriginally, this is the 180 degree rule in filming.
http://vimeo.com/videoschool/lesson/52/180-degree-rule-explainedIn 1924-25 the montage was a very popular editing technique used in films and thesoviets embraced communism so a lot of films had clips of the soviet way of life ,usually military related jumbled together into there films, sergei Eisenstein was arenowned director known for his montages and in his film ‘Oktober’ his use of themontage creates and atmosphere of hard work and determination which was howthe soviets wanted to depict themselves, this movement only lasted 5 years until1930. http://cinetext.philo.at/reports/sv.html http://au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100811025929AAgLa6G http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0QAjpeosgU
Attribute to editing Techniques used Collage A lot of different shots and types are used, opening up and gaining more information about the scene, 25 different shots are used in the opening minute ranging from extreme long shots, tracking shot, ground shots & medium shots are all used to show the audience the build up to the fight, including other characters in the scene who will be arriving on the location, establishing the final part of the clip. Tempo The clips range from one second to 7 seconds, depending on the type of shot, when establishing an object it stays on the subject for 1 or 2 seconds, but with the tracking shots last for longer because more is to be shown. When involving the main characters the clips focus for longer. The longest clip is as they walk through the gate and the camera is panning up as there walking in establishing the surroundings. Timing During this scene there is little speech most is fighting so reactions to speech is not a problem but during the fight scenes everything is in sync, when a character is hit the shot either changes to a different shot once they had been hit or of the blood coming out of there face. Continuity Due to a lot of action going on at the same time and many characters being involved in the fight, focus is kept on the main characters because the extras in the film will be moving around, it is not made clear that characters are in the same position because positional understanding is not kept in the clip so you do not need to understand where the extras will be in the clip. 180 degree rule This apply mostly in conversation but between characters fighting the camera stays on one side of does not switch between when a character is doing something, but does change when there are establishing shots and eyeline matches, but this does not happen in the 1 clip so the 180 rule does not apply. Order of events Everything is kept in a linear style, everything happens in the order in which
it would normally, cutting far way to another character on route to the location, supposed to stay within the timing of what’s going on. Green Street Hooligan – Final Fighthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=APb7TeeN8Tg