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Margaret Newman's Health As Expanding Consciousness

Josephine Ann Necor
Josephine Ann Necor
Josephine Ann NecorJosa at Far Eastern University Diliman

Margaret Newman's Health As Expanding Consciousness

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Josephine Ann J. Necor, RN
Margaret Newman
Born on October 10, 1933.
Bachelor’s degree - University
of Tennessee in 1962
Master’s degree - University
of California in 1964
Doctorate - New York
University in 1971
She has worked in -
University of Tennessee, New
York University, Pennsylvania
State University, University of
Minnesotat, University of
Minnesota
“Health is the
expansion of
consciousness.”
- Newman, 1983
-Middle Range Nursing
Theory
THEORETICAL SOURCES
Martha Rogers -Theory of Unitary Human Beings
The main basis of the development of Newman’s theory.
The health of a human being is a unitary phenomenon, an
evolving pattern of human-environment (Rogers, 1970).
Itzhak Bentov – The concept of evolution of consciousness
“Life is a process of expanding consciousness. Consciousness
is the informational capacity of the system and can be seen in
the quality of interaction of the system with the
environment” (Bentov, 1978).
THEORETICAL SOURCES
Arthur Young – The Theory of Process
A person moves through stages of consciousness involving
the loss of freedom in the development of self-identity until a
turning point is reached when the ‘old rules’ don’t work
anymore. The life task is to discover the ‘new rules’ and move
toward increasing freedom and higher consciousness (Young,
1976).
David Bohm – The Theory of Implicate
The explicate order is a manifestation of the implicate order.
(Bohm, 1980)

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Margaret Newman's Health As Expanding Consciousness

  • 1. Josephine Ann J. Necor, RN
  • 2. Margaret Newman Born on October 10, 1933. Bachelor’s degree - University of Tennessee in 1962 Master’s degree - University of California in 1964 Doctorate - New York University in 1971 She has worked in - University of Tennessee, New York University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Minnesotat, University of Minnesota
  • 3. “Health is the expansion of consciousness.” - Newman, 1983
  • 5. THEORETICAL SOURCES Martha Rogers -Theory of Unitary Human Beings The main basis of the development of Newman’s theory. The health of a human being is a unitary phenomenon, an evolving pattern of human-environment (Rogers, 1970). Itzhak Bentov – The concept of evolution of consciousness “Life is a process of expanding consciousness. Consciousness is the informational capacity of the system and can be seen in the quality of interaction of the system with the environment” (Bentov, 1978).
  • 6. THEORETICAL SOURCES Arthur Young – The Theory of Process A person moves through stages of consciousness involving the loss of freedom in the development of self-identity until a turning point is reached when the ‘old rules’ don’t work anymore. The life task is to discover the ‘new rules’ and move toward increasing freedom and higher consciousness (Young, 1976). David Bohm – The Theory of Implicate The explicate order is a manifestation of the implicate order. (Bohm, 1980)
  • 7. THEORETICAL SOURCES Prigogine – Theory of Dissipative Structure A system fluctuates in an orderly manner until the occurrence of a disruptive event, at which time the system moves in seemingly random, disorderly ways until it chooses a new direction at a higher level of organization (Prigogine, 1976). The theory of health as expanding consciousness was stimulated by concern for those whom health as the absence of disease or disability is not possible. Nurses often relate to such people: people facing the uncertainty, debilitation, loss and eventual death associated with chronic illness. (Newman, 2010).
  • 8. USE OF EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE Evidence for the theory of health emanated from Newman’s early personal family experiences. Her mother’s struggle with a chronic illness and her dependency on Newman sparked an interest in nursing. From that experience evolved the idea that “illness reflected the life patterns of the person and that what was needed was the recognition of that pattern and acceptance of it for what it meant to that person.” Research has been conducted on the theoretical sources used.
  • 10. HEALTH Rogers’ insistence that health and illness are simply manifestations of the rhythmic fluctuations of the life process is the foundation for viewing health and illness as a unitary process moving through variations in order-disorder. From this standpoint, one can no longer think of health and illness in the dichotomous way characterized by medical science; that is, health as absence of disease or health as a continuum from wellness to illness. Health and the evolving pattern of consciousness are the same.
  • 11. PATTERN A person is identified by her or his pattern, which reflects the pattern of the person within the larger pattern of the environment. The pattern is evolving through various permutations of order and disorder, including what in everyday language is called health and disease. Pattern recognition emerges from a process of uncovering meaning in a person’s life. Meaning is inherent in pattern, and vice versa.
  • 12. CONSCIOUSNESS defined as the informational capacity of the system (in this case, the human being); that is, the ability of the system to interact with the environment (Bentov, 1978). Consciousness includes not only the cognitive and affective awareness normally associated with consciousness, but also the interconnectedness of the entire living system, which includes physiochemical maintenance and growth processes as well as the immune system. This pattern of information, which is the consciousness of the system, is part of a larger, undivided pattern of an expanding universe.
  • 13. Three Correlates of Consciousness: MOVEMENT TIME SPACE The relevance of movement, time and space was part of the original explication and has re-emerged in the evolving patterning of unfolding consciousness.
  • 14. To see health as the pattern of the whole, one needs to see disease not as a separate entity but as a manifestation of the evolving pattern of person-environment interaction. The paradigm shift is: From treatment of symptoms to a search for pattern. From viewing disease and disruption as negative to viewing them as part of the self-organizing process of expanding consciousness. From viewing the nursing role as addressing the problems of disease to assisting people to get in touch with their own pattern of expanding consciousness.
  • 15. MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS 1. Health encompasses conditions heretofore described as illness, or, in medical terms, pathology 2. These pathological conditions can be considered a manifestation of the total pattern of the individual 3. The pattern of the individual that eventually manifests itself as pathology is primary and exists prior to structural or functional changes
  • 16. MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS 4. Removal of the pathology in itself will not change the pattern of the individual 5. If becoming ill is the only way an individual's pattern can manifest itself, then that is health for that person 6. Health is an expansion of consciousness.
  • 18. Nursing Nursing is “caring in the human health experience”. Nursing is seen as a partnership between the nurse and client, with both grow in the “sense of higher levels of consciousness”
  • 19. Person/Human “The human is unitary, that is cannot be divided into parts, and is inseparable from the larger unitary field” “Persons as individuals, and human beings as a species are identified by their patterns of consciousness”… “The person does not possess consciousness-the person is consciousness”. Persons are “centers of consciousness” within an overall pattern of expanding consciousness”
  • 20. Environment Environment is described as a “universe of open systems”
  • 21. Health “Health and illness are synthesized as health - the fusion on one state of being (disease) with its opposite (non-disease) results in what can be regarded as health”.
  • 23. “The theory has progressed to include the health of all persons regardless of the presence or absence of disease. The theory asserts that every person in every situation, no matter how disordered and hopeless it may seem, is part of the universal process of expanding consciousness – a process of becoming more of oneself, of finding greater meaning in life, and of reaching new dimensions of connectedness with other people and the world” (Newman, 2010).
  • 24. Humans are open to the whole energy system of the universe and constantly interacting with the energy. With this process of interaction humans are evolving their individual pattern of whole. According to Newman understanding the pattern is essential. The expanding consciousness is the pattern recognition. The manifestation of disease depends on the pattern of individual so the pathology of the diseases exists before the symptoms appear so removal of disease symptoms does not change the individual structure.
  • 25. According to her nursing is the process of recognizing the individual in relation to environment and it is the process of understanding of consciousness. The nurse helps to understand people to use the power within to develop the higher level of consciousness. Thus it helps to realize the disease process, its recovery and prevention.
  • 26. Newman also explains the interrelatedness of time, space and movement. Time and space are the temporal pattern of the individual, both have complementary relationship. Humans are constantly changing through time and space and it shows unique pattern of reality.
  • 28. Strengths Can be applied in any setting “Generates caring interventions”
  • 31. PRACTICE Newman’s model of Health is useful in the practice of nursing because it contained concepts used by the nursing profession. Movement and time are an intrinsic part of nursing intervention, that is, range-of- motion, ambulation, turning, coughing, and deep- breathing. These parameters are used each day by the nurse in practice.
  • 32. EDUCATION Newman did not advocate one model as the sole basis for curriculum. Rather, students should have the opportunity to study various approaches to health and nursing and to choose what is relevant to them in their practice and research.
  • 33. RESEARCH Some researchers have attempted to test Newman’s propositions of time, space, and movement. *A negative correlation was found between depression and subjective time – findings do not support an increasing level of consciousness with age. Cooperative inquiry or interactive, integrative participation - Newman stated that research should center around “participatory investigations in which subjects (clients) are our partners, our core-searchers, in our search for health patterns.”
  • 34. CRITIQUE Clarity - Semantic clarity is evident in the definitions, descriptions, and dimensions of the concepts of the theory. Simplicity – The deeper meaning of the theory of health as expanding consciousness is complex; The theory as a whole must be understood, not just the isolated concepts. Generality – generalizable; has been applied in several different cultures; applicable across the spectrum of nursing care situations.
  • 35. CRITIQUE Empirical Precision – aspects of the theory have been operationalized and tested within a traditional scientific mode. However, quantitative methods are limited in capturing the dynamic, changing nature of this model. Qualitative approaches are being developed for a full explication of its meaning and application Derivable Consequences – The domain of health is the nursing process. The model would be useful for guiding nursing practice and differentiating nursing’s area of concern; has received recognitions regarding application to practice
  • 36. References www.currentnursing.com Tomey, A.M., (1994). Nursing Theorists and Their Work. 3rd ed. Missouri: Mosby http://healthasexpandingconsciousness.org/