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CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
WITH DRIVING
I: MANPOWER, ANIMAL POWER AND WIND POWER
TRANSPORTATION- is the movement or conveying of persons and goods from one location to
another.
NOMADIC- from the Greek word meaning “to pasture” was originally used to refer to
pastoralists-a group that in an established pattern to find pasture lands for their domestic
livestock.
 foraging populations-looking for food
 pastoral nomads- move with their families and belongings
 Gypsies, Tinkers, and itinerants in urban and complex societies
VARIOUS ANCIENT MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
1. MANPOWER
a. Carrying Pole- China and Far East; the carrying pole is balanced on one shoulder; the ends
of the pole are supported by two men with goods suspended from pole in between.
b. Back Load and Tumpline- goods are carried on the back
c. Sledge on rollers- heavy burdens are placed on sledge which rested on a series of rollers
d. Sledge on runners- simple sledge man-drawn used at the end of Stone Age in Northern
Europe as evidenced by fragments of wooden runners which survived.
e. Travois- pole arrangement, serves as a platform on which burdens are placed.
2. ANIMAL POWER
a. Ox- first domesticated animal at Mesopotamia and were used as draft animals to draw war
chariots
b. Reindeer-first domesticated in Siberia; ridden with saddles
c. Dog- first animal domesticated is too slight to carry heavy loads
d. Donkey- first domesticated in the Middle East; chief beast of burden among the farmers of
the near East.
e. Llama-only new world animal capable of domestication for use in transport; pack animal in
Incas
f. Elephant- used African Elephant in their war against Rome; n Burma and Thailand, these
huge animals are widely used in the lumber industry.
g. Horse- In Europe, horses were used to draw wheeled vehicles and for riding sometime until
the introduction of mechanized vehicles.
h. Camel
*2 humped Bactrian camel of Central Asia- used to draw carts
*1 humped Dromedary Camel of Arabia- less endurance but fleeter and special fast
paced riding camel.
i. Yak- long haired type of cattle that lives at Tibetan Plateau and used as pack animal at heights
where horses and ordinary animal could not live/survive.
3. WIND POWER- Man realized the energy from the mass of moving air and learned to utilize
such powers to lift rather than to drag. This paved to invention of air lifted transportation vessels.
a. Ancient Kite- Based on Korean Tradition, kite was first used when a Korean General
employed one in a Bridge Building. By means of a kite, a Cord was conveyed across the river
where heavier ropes were fastened and finally the bridge cable.
b. Da Vinci’s Ornithopter- Leonardo Da Vinci studied the Flight of Birds and sketched a
number of Ornithopter (aka Orthopter) which derives its principal support and propelling from
flapping wings like those of birds.
c. Montgolfier Balloon-France Joseph Michel and Jacques Entiene released several balloons when
they proposed to use two condemned prisoners for the first ascent with passengers(condemned
prisoners). PILATRE DE ROZIER protested and in 1783, he and Arlanoes became the first men to
make a free balloon ascent.
d. Siemens’ Rocket Plane- Ernst Werner Von Siemens designed a rocket plane which was to
be propelled by gunpowder. Siemens’ rocket was never carried beyond design stage.
CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS
e. Lilienthal Glider-Otto Liliental, a German Inventor who also made a study of birds and
experimented with ornithopters. His chief work was with gliders.
f. Santos Dumont’s Airship- Alberto Santos Dumont-a Brazilian who experimented with the
steam-powered balloon in Paris. In 1898 completed the construction of his first airship.
g. Wright Brothers’ Flying Machine- Orville and Wilbur Wright studying the problems of
heavier than air flight. They built biplane kite before they flew successfully their first man-
carrying powered machine.
h. Lindbergh’s Spirit of St. Louis-following the Wright brothers’ airplane, development of
aviation was rapid. The first airmail was delivered in 1911. An achievement which captured
popular imagination was the first solo flight from New York to Paris made by Capt. Charles
Lindbergh in May 1927 in a plane specially built for the flight, the Spirit of St. Louis.
II: ROADS AND VEHICLES HISTORY
WHEEL was invented probably in western Asia. Such invention was a milestone and a great step
forward in Transportation.
o Crude Carts and Wagons began to appear in Tigris-Euphrates Valley about 3500 BC.
o The wheel enables the man to transport burdens beyond his power or animals to carry or
drag
The following were some of the earliest types of wheeled carts:
o Solid wheels on fixed axle- this ancient cart represent an early step in the evolution
of wheeled vehicles. Its solid wheels, which were made of a single wood rotatedon single
axle.
o Sumerian Chariot with flank wheels- 2400 BC., had solid wheels built up of three
pieces and was more durable than the one-piece wheel.
o Greek Quadrica with spoked wheels- drawn by four horses was a light and elegant
vehicle for gentlemen about 50 BC. It had spoked wheels and axles of irons and bronze,
handles for aid in mounting, and seat formed by a board placed across the handles.
o Roman Carpentum- a closed two-wheeled cart was the favored vehicle of Roman
women.
o Italian Cocchio, 1288- a travelling wagon in which the passengers were protected by a
covering leather or cloth fixed over a wooden framework.
WHEELED VEHICLES could not use the narrow paths and trails used by pack animals, and
early roads were soon built.
THE ROMANS were the major road builders. The road reached a total of about 50 000 miles
(80,000 kms), with feeder roads branching out from the main highways.
JOHN L. MACADAM- did not abandon the theory of feeder road building and perfected the
macadamized road in England about 1815.
AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMANS 5th
century, land haulage generally declined because
highways suffered from inadequate maintenance.
SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT OF ROAD VEHICLE began with the adaptation of Coach
Spring about 1650.
MID 18th
CENTURY- English Roads were so bad that the coaches could average only about
4mph (6.4 km/h) and mail was usually carried by boys on horses.
JOHN PALMER- introduced the first fast mail coach
THE INVENTION OF BICYCLE -19th
century served as a nursery of automobile builders.
o HOBBY HORSE/DAN HORSE- ancestor of modern bicycle. The wheels were made of
wood with tires of iron and the riders pushed themselves along with their feet on the
ground.
o KARL VON DRAIS-introduced steerable wheel creating “draisienne” or “Dandy Horse”.
o KIRK PATRICK MACMILLAN- first machine with pedals which were attached to and
drove the rear wheel by means of cranks.
PNEUMATIC TIRE- (inflated by air)- by SCOT JOHN BOY DUNLOP appeared in late 19th
century
(about 1888).
MOTOR VEHICLE- first mode of transportation to challenge the railroads.
o Frenchman Etienne Lenoir introduced the motorized carriages by his invention in the
1860s and 70s of the Internal Combustion Engine.
o Nicolaus Otto and Gottlieb Daimler pioneered the manufacture of gas engines and
later Daimler became a successful automobile manufacturer.
CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS
o Rudolf Diesel- developed an internal combustion engine which is similar with the
gasoline engine but requires no electrical ignition system or carburetor and uses other
form of liquid fuel, the diesel fuel.
o AUTOMOBILE found its greatest popularity in the US., where the first horseless carriage
appeared in 1890s.
o HENRY FORD- In 1908, he introduced the MODEL T which was proven so popular that
by 1914, Ford had adopted MASS PRODUCTION methods to meet the demand.
o FELIX WANKEL- In 1956, he developed an advanced-type of engine named after him,
that operates very differently from gas and diesel engines. It is started by moving the
crankshaft.
From Ford Era, the demand of vehicles became great for the transportation of goods, products,
communications and people.
Presently, the introduction of the Light Rail transit (LRT) , Metro Rail Transit (MRT),
flyovers, pedestrian and vehicle culverts contributed to the movement of traffic users.
UNIT II: TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
I: FUNDAMENTALS OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT It refers to the skillful use of means to accomplish a purpose.
OPERATION- Pertains to a course or series of acts o effect a certain purpose, manner of action;
or a vital or natural process of activity.
ROADWAY- Refers to that part of the traffic way over which motor vehicle pass.
SHOULDER- It refers to either side of the roadway, especially along highways.
TRAFFIC- it refers to the movement of persons, goods, or vehicles, either powered by
combustion system or animal drawn, from one place to another for the purpose of travel. (from
the Italian word “trafficare”-to carry on trade.)
TRAFFIC WAY- refers to the entire width between boundary lines of every way or place of
which any part is open to the use of the public for the purposes of vehicular traffic as a matter of
right or custom.
***WHY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IS NECESSARY?
It is designed to make the traffic way safer for travelers, expedite the movement
of traffic and to provide convenience to the traffic facilities users.
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT is an exclusive function such as planning, organizing, and directing,
supervising, coordinating, operating, recording and budgeting traffic affairs.
 TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MEASURES- these measures are aimed at improving
vehicular flow and increasing the efficiency of existing road space, thereby avoiding the
need for major road expansion.
o Traffic Control Utilizing Signal Coordination, pavement markings, delineators,
traffic sig ns and lighting to promote safe and smooth flow of traffic.
o Flow regulations are used to increase the capacity of roads particularly during
the peak periods without road expansion.
o Minor improvements of the road system by means of channelization, road
widening and intersection design are carried out whenever traffic management
schemes fail to increase the road efficiency.
o Conduct continuing researches on the improvement of transport and traffic
system and facilitate to achieve the required standards of performance for the
entire road network.
o Develop and administer for the entire area of transport operation in an
integrated program that shall cover the operation, design, coordination and
administration of all public and private transport.
o Undertake a continuing information program of transport problem and
identification of transport problem and identification of traffic congestion areas.
o Establish coordinative linkages with other government agencies and private
sector groups relating to transport, mobility and traffic management program.
 MAJOR CAUSES OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION
o Physical Inadequacy-characterized by lack of roads, narrow bridges, railroad
crossings, lack of traffic facilities, etc.
o Poor Control Measures- characterized by ineffective mechanical control
devices, inefficient traffic officers and poor implementation of traffic laws, rules
and regulations.
CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS
o Human Errors- Most traffic congestions are caused by slow drivers or poor
driving habits, pedestrian mistakes, officer’s errors, poor planning, poor
legislation.
o Poor Maintenance- characterized by unrepaired diggings, cracks on the
pavements or unfinished road pavement concreting. This can be attributed to
inappropriate budget for the maintenance of the traffic facilities.
 SCOPES OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
o All public surface facilities traversing and parking and all other types of
conveyances for the movement of persons and things.
o All agencies having responsibilities for ascertaining traffic flow requirements,
planning, approving, funding, construction, and/or maintaining these public
facilities for such movements.
o All agencies responsible for licensing, approving, restricting, stopping, prohibiting
or controlling the use of facilities.
 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
o Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC)-through Land
Transportation Office is responsible for the implementation of RA 4136 Land
Transportation Code of Philippines and Land Transportation Franchising and
Regulatory Board (LTFRB)
o City/Municipal Engineers’ Office –planning, construction and maintenance of
traffic facilities within respective locality
o Department of Public Works and Highways(DPWH)- main executive
department which is responsible for the planning, construction and maintenance
of traffic facilities particularly categorized as national highways and other major
arteries.
o Legislative (Congress/ City or Municipal Boards)- They are not only
responsible for the passing or amendment of laws concerning traffic but also
they involved in the planning and approval of government projects.
o Philippine National Police –through Traffic Management Group (TMG) is
responsible primarily for the direct enforcement of traffic laws, rules and
regulations.
o Academic Institutions
o Courts
o Public Information Offices
o Citizen Support Groups
o Media
o Other Agencies
 TRAFFIC RESTRAINTS measures and limits vehicular traffic by imposing some charges
for the use of the transportation system. The charges could take the form of payment for
the use of the transportation system and also charges in the form of penalty. Specific
measures include:
o Traffic sell solution involves the division of the central area into cells or zones
with one way street system and turn regulations to prohibit inter-zonal or
through traffic.
o Road pricing aims to reduce the overall cost of travel by reducing congestion and
favoring the more efficient public transport modes.
o Pricing charges discourage long-term parking and provide venues for the
construction of additional parking facilities.
HOW DO WE SOLVE OUR TRAFFIC PROBLEMS?
 TRAFFIC ENGINEERS- help to improve our street and highway system through:
 Use of signs, traffic signals, and control devises
 Design and construction of more roads, bridges, flyovers, tunnels, and update
infrastructures to lessen congestion.
 Focus on the comprehensive objectives of mobility, safety, energy, efficiency,
and the environment through application of scientific methods based on the
principles of system engineering and planning.
 EDUCATORS- schools in many cities and towns are teaching young new drivers –
sometimes older ones too- to know how to handle a car and to behave on streets and
highways.
 LAWMAKERS make the basic rules for using roads
CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS
 POLICEMEN are the front liners and implementers of traffic rules and regulation.
II. THE PILLARS OF TRAFFIC
1. TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
 It is the science of measuring traffic and travel the study of basic laws relative to the
traffic law and generation
 Deals with the planning and geometrical designs of streets, highways, and abutting lands
and with operation thereon.
 It is basically concerned with the efficiency of road design.
FUNCTIONS OF TRAFFIC ENGINEERING:
 fact-finding, surveys and recommendations of traffic rules and regulations;
 supervisions and maintenance to the application of traffic control devices
 planning of traffic regulations
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
o Any signs, signal marking placed exerted for the purpose of regulating, warning or
guiding traffic.
 TRAFFIC SIGN- This is the oldest traffic control device used to guide the safe
and orderly movement of traffic
 This contains instructions, information about routes, directions
designations and point of interest must be recognizable as such the
means to convey the intended message consists of either a legend or
symbol or a combination of both.
o Traffic Control Device are installed to control traffic and contribute indirectly to assurance
of traffic safety. They are means by which the road user is advised as to detailed
requirements or conditions affecting road use.
o Traffic Signs should be installed only with the approval of a public authority. Authorized
Construction Contractors and Public Utility Companies may install temporary warning
signs at work sites to protect workmen, equipment, and the public provided that such
conform to the standard.
TYPES OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
o TRAFFIC SIGNALS
 Signal Operated manually, electrically, or mechanically by which traffic is
alternately commanded to stop and permitted to proceed.
RED-stop-no entry into intersection
Yellow/Amber- permit the driver to proceed but requires intersection to be cleared
o TRAFFIC SIGNS-
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rt whereby official
notice is given in the form of symbol for purpose of regulating traffic, warning and
guiding.
o SYMBOL SIGNS-Upon which words are completely omitted, they have marked
ability to compel attention and to rapidly communicate the planned message.
o There are few signs which do not conform to this rule. It is important to note that
contrast in color is necessary in order to achieve these two (2) basic requirements:
 The sign stands out from its background
 The legend stands out form the sign board.
CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS
o TRAFFIC SIGNS MAY BE CLASSIFIED IN THE FOLLOWING GROUPS
ACCORDING TO THEIR USE.
o NUMBERING SYSTEM
 The numbering system for signs is as follows: A letter prefix, as shown
below, denoting class of sign;
 R - Regulatory signs
 G - Guide signs
 W - Warning signs
 GE - Freeway and Expressway signs
 S - Special Traffic Instruction Signs
 HM - Hazard Markers
 REGULATORY SIGNS (TYPE R)-regulate the movement of traffic and
traffic to comply with their directions constitute and offense.
A. PRIORITY SIGNS-these are signs intended to regulate priority
over a particular road section or roadway.
B. PROHIBITORY SIGNS OR RESTRICTIVE SIGNS- shall be
used in specified section of the road which will be easily seen by
motorist to indicate regulation which is prohibitive or restrictive and
nature.
C. MANDATORY SIGNS- These shall be used to notify the road
users of special rules in which they must comply for the safety,
convenience and smooth flow of traffic.
 SPECIAL MANDATORY SIGNS (TYPE S)
-instruct users to meet certain traffic rule requirements or road
conditions that ordinary guide or regulatory signs do not achieved the
desired result.
LANE DIRECTION SIGN
MOVEMENT INSTRUCTION SIGN
 WARNING SIGNS (TYPE W)-warn road users of condition on or
adjacent to the road which may be unexpected or hazards to traffic
operation.
Changes in Horizontal
Alignment

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TRAFFIC-MANAGEMENT-AND-ACCIDENT-INVESTIGATION-WITH-DRIVING.docx

  • 1. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION WITH DRIVING I: MANPOWER, ANIMAL POWER AND WIND POWER TRANSPORTATION- is the movement or conveying of persons and goods from one location to another. NOMADIC- from the Greek word meaning “to pasture” was originally used to refer to pastoralists-a group that in an established pattern to find pasture lands for their domestic livestock.  foraging populations-looking for food  pastoral nomads- move with their families and belongings  Gypsies, Tinkers, and itinerants in urban and complex societies VARIOUS ANCIENT MODES OF TRANSPORTATION 1. MANPOWER a. Carrying Pole- China and Far East; the carrying pole is balanced on one shoulder; the ends of the pole are supported by two men with goods suspended from pole in between. b. Back Load and Tumpline- goods are carried on the back c. Sledge on rollers- heavy burdens are placed on sledge which rested on a series of rollers d. Sledge on runners- simple sledge man-drawn used at the end of Stone Age in Northern Europe as evidenced by fragments of wooden runners which survived. e. Travois- pole arrangement, serves as a platform on which burdens are placed. 2. ANIMAL POWER a. Ox- first domesticated animal at Mesopotamia and were used as draft animals to draw war chariots b. Reindeer-first domesticated in Siberia; ridden with saddles c. Dog- first animal domesticated is too slight to carry heavy loads d. Donkey- first domesticated in the Middle East; chief beast of burden among the farmers of the near East. e. Llama-only new world animal capable of domestication for use in transport; pack animal in Incas f. Elephant- used African Elephant in their war against Rome; n Burma and Thailand, these huge animals are widely used in the lumber industry. g. Horse- In Europe, horses were used to draw wheeled vehicles and for riding sometime until the introduction of mechanized vehicles. h. Camel *2 humped Bactrian camel of Central Asia- used to draw carts *1 humped Dromedary Camel of Arabia- less endurance but fleeter and special fast paced riding camel. i. Yak- long haired type of cattle that lives at Tibetan Plateau and used as pack animal at heights where horses and ordinary animal could not live/survive. 3. WIND POWER- Man realized the energy from the mass of moving air and learned to utilize such powers to lift rather than to drag. This paved to invention of air lifted transportation vessels. a. Ancient Kite- Based on Korean Tradition, kite was first used when a Korean General employed one in a Bridge Building. By means of a kite, a Cord was conveyed across the river where heavier ropes were fastened and finally the bridge cable. b. Da Vinci’s Ornithopter- Leonardo Da Vinci studied the Flight of Birds and sketched a number of Ornithopter (aka Orthopter) which derives its principal support and propelling from flapping wings like those of birds. c. Montgolfier Balloon-France Joseph Michel and Jacques Entiene released several balloons when they proposed to use two condemned prisoners for the first ascent with passengers(condemned prisoners). PILATRE DE ROZIER protested and in 1783, he and Arlanoes became the first men to make a free balloon ascent. d. Siemens’ Rocket Plane- Ernst Werner Von Siemens designed a rocket plane which was to be propelled by gunpowder. Siemens’ rocket was never carried beyond design stage.
  • 2. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS e. Lilienthal Glider-Otto Liliental, a German Inventor who also made a study of birds and experimented with ornithopters. His chief work was with gliders. f. Santos Dumont’s Airship- Alberto Santos Dumont-a Brazilian who experimented with the steam-powered balloon in Paris. In 1898 completed the construction of his first airship. g. Wright Brothers’ Flying Machine- Orville and Wilbur Wright studying the problems of heavier than air flight. They built biplane kite before they flew successfully their first man- carrying powered machine. h. Lindbergh’s Spirit of St. Louis-following the Wright brothers’ airplane, development of aviation was rapid. The first airmail was delivered in 1911. An achievement which captured popular imagination was the first solo flight from New York to Paris made by Capt. Charles Lindbergh in May 1927 in a plane specially built for the flight, the Spirit of St. Louis. II: ROADS AND VEHICLES HISTORY WHEEL was invented probably in western Asia. Such invention was a milestone and a great step forward in Transportation. o Crude Carts and Wagons began to appear in Tigris-Euphrates Valley about 3500 BC. o The wheel enables the man to transport burdens beyond his power or animals to carry or drag The following were some of the earliest types of wheeled carts: o Solid wheels on fixed axle- this ancient cart represent an early step in the evolution of wheeled vehicles. Its solid wheels, which were made of a single wood rotatedon single axle. o Sumerian Chariot with flank wheels- 2400 BC., had solid wheels built up of three pieces and was more durable than the one-piece wheel. o Greek Quadrica with spoked wheels- drawn by four horses was a light and elegant vehicle for gentlemen about 50 BC. It had spoked wheels and axles of irons and bronze, handles for aid in mounting, and seat formed by a board placed across the handles. o Roman Carpentum- a closed two-wheeled cart was the favored vehicle of Roman women. o Italian Cocchio, 1288- a travelling wagon in which the passengers were protected by a covering leather or cloth fixed over a wooden framework. WHEELED VEHICLES could not use the narrow paths and trails used by pack animals, and early roads were soon built. THE ROMANS were the major road builders. The road reached a total of about 50 000 miles (80,000 kms), with feeder roads branching out from the main highways. JOHN L. MACADAM- did not abandon the theory of feeder road building and perfected the macadamized road in England about 1815. AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMANS 5th century, land haulage generally declined because highways suffered from inadequate maintenance. SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT OF ROAD VEHICLE began with the adaptation of Coach Spring about 1650. MID 18th CENTURY- English Roads were so bad that the coaches could average only about 4mph (6.4 km/h) and mail was usually carried by boys on horses. JOHN PALMER- introduced the first fast mail coach THE INVENTION OF BICYCLE -19th century served as a nursery of automobile builders. o HOBBY HORSE/DAN HORSE- ancestor of modern bicycle. The wheels were made of wood with tires of iron and the riders pushed themselves along with their feet on the ground. o KARL VON DRAIS-introduced steerable wheel creating “draisienne” or “Dandy Horse”. o KIRK PATRICK MACMILLAN- first machine with pedals which were attached to and drove the rear wheel by means of cranks. PNEUMATIC TIRE- (inflated by air)- by SCOT JOHN BOY DUNLOP appeared in late 19th century (about 1888). MOTOR VEHICLE- first mode of transportation to challenge the railroads. o Frenchman Etienne Lenoir introduced the motorized carriages by his invention in the 1860s and 70s of the Internal Combustion Engine. o Nicolaus Otto and Gottlieb Daimler pioneered the manufacture of gas engines and later Daimler became a successful automobile manufacturer.
  • 3. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS o Rudolf Diesel- developed an internal combustion engine which is similar with the gasoline engine but requires no electrical ignition system or carburetor and uses other form of liquid fuel, the diesel fuel. o AUTOMOBILE found its greatest popularity in the US., where the first horseless carriage appeared in 1890s. o HENRY FORD- In 1908, he introduced the MODEL T which was proven so popular that by 1914, Ford had adopted MASS PRODUCTION methods to meet the demand. o FELIX WANKEL- In 1956, he developed an advanced-type of engine named after him, that operates very differently from gas and diesel engines. It is started by moving the crankshaft. From Ford Era, the demand of vehicles became great for the transportation of goods, products, communications and people. Presently, the introduction of the Light Rail transit (LRT) , Metro Rail Transit (MRT), flyovers, pedestrian and vehicle culverts contributed to the movement of traffic users. UNIT II: TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT I: FUNDAMENTALS OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT It refers to the skillful use of means to accomplish a purpose. OPERATION- Pertains to a course or series of acts o effect a certain purpose, manner of action; or a vital or natural process of activity. ROADWAY- Refers to that part of the traffic way over which motor vehicle pass. SHOULDER- It refers to either side of the roadway, especially along highways. TRAFFIC- it refers to the movement of persons, goods, or vehicles, either powered by combustion system or animal drawn, from one place to another for the purpose of travel. (from the Italian word “trafficare”-to carry on trade.) TRAFFIC WAY- refers to the entire width between boundary lines of every way or place of which any part is open to the use of the public for the purposes of vehicular traffic as a matter of right or custom. ***WHY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IS NECESSARY? It is designed to make the traffic way safer for travelers, expedite the movement of traffic and to provide convenience to the traffic facilities users. TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT is an exclusive function such as planning, organizing, and directing, supervising, coordinating, operating, recording and budgeting traffic affairs.  TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MEASURES- these measures are aimed at improving vehicular flow and increasing the efficiency of existing road space, thereby avoiding the need for major road expansion. o Traffic Control Utilizing Signal Coordination, pavement markings, delineators, traffic sig ns and lighting to promote safe and smooth flow of traffic. o Flow regulations are used to increase the capacity of roads particularly during the peak periods without road expansion. o Minor improvements of the road system by means of channelization, road widening and intersection design are carried out whenever traffic management schemes fail to increase the road efficiency. o Conduct continuing researches on the improvement of transport and traffic system and facilitate to achieve the required standards of performance for the entire road network. o Develop and administer for the entire area of transport operation in an integrated program that shall cover the operation, design, coordination and administration of all public and private transport. o Undertake a continuing information program of transport problem and identification of transport problem and identification of traffic congestion areas. o Establish coordinative linkages with other government agencies and private sector groups relating to transport, mobility and traffic management program.  MAJOR CAUSES OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION o Physical Inadequacy-characterized by lack of roads, narrow bridges, railroad crossings, lack of traffic facilities, etc. o Poor Control Measures- characterized by ineffective mechanical control devices, inefficient traffic officers and poor implementation of traffic laws, rules and regulations.
  • 4. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS o Human Errors- Most traffic congestions are caused by slow drivers or poor driving habits, pedestrian mistakes, officer’s errors, poor planning, poor legislation. o Poor Maintenance- characterized by unrepaired diggings, cracks on the pavements or unfinished road pavement concreting. This can be attributed to inappropriate budget for the maintenance of the traffic facilities.  SCOPES OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT o All public surface facilities traversing and parking and all other types of conveyances for the movement of persons and things. o All agencies having responsibilities for ascertaining traffic flow requirements, planning, approving, funding, construction, and/or maintaining these public facilities for such movements. o All agencies responsible for licensing, approving, restricting, stopping, prohibiting or controlling the use of facilities.  AGENCIES INVOLVED IN TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT o Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC)-through Land Transportation Office is responsible for the implementation of RA 4136 Land Transportation Code of Philippines and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) o City/Municipal Engineers’ Office –planning, construction and maintenance of traffic facilities within respective locality o Department of Public Works and Highways(DPWH)- main executive department which is responsible for the planning, construction and maintenance of traffic facilities particularly categorized as national highways and other major arteries. o Legislative (Congress/ City or Municipal Boards)- They are not only responsible for the passing or amendment of laws concerning traffic but also they involved in the planning and approval of government projects. o Philippine National Police –through Traffic Management Group (TMG) is responsible primarily for the direct enforcement of traffic laws, rules and regulations. o Academic Institutions o Courts o Public Information Offices o Citizen Support Groups o Media o Other Agencies  TRAFFIC RESTRAINTS measures and limits vehicular traffic by imposing some charges for the use of the transportation system. The charges could take the form of payment for the use of the transportation system and also charges in the form of penalty. Specific measures include: o Traffic sell solution involves the division of the central area into cells or zones with one way street system and turn regulations to prohibit inter-zonal or through traffic. o Road pricing aims to reduce the overall cost of travel by reducing congestion and favoring the more efficient public transport modes. o Pricing charges discourage long-term parking and provide venues for the construction of additional parking facilities. HOW DO WE SOLVE OUR TRAFFIC PROBLEMS?  TRAFFIC ENGINEERS- help to improve our street and highway system through:  Use of signs, traffic signals, and control devises  Design and construction of more roads, bridges, flyovers, tunnels, and update infrastructures to lessen congestion.  Focus on the comprehensive objectives of mobility, safety, energy, efficiency, and the environment through application of scientific methods based on the principles of system engineering and planning.  EDUCATORS- schools in many cities and towns are teaching young new drivers – sometimes older ones too- to know how to handle a car and to behave on streets and highways.  LAWMAKERS make the basic rules for using roads
  • 5. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS  POLICEMEN are the front liners and implementers of traffic rules and regulation. II. THE PILLARS OF TRAFFIC 1. TRAFFIC ENGINEERING  It is the science of measuring traffic and travel the study of basic laws relative to the traffic law and generation  Deals with the planning and geometrical designs of streets, highways, and abutting lands and with operation thereon.  It is basically concerned with the efficiency of road design. FUNCTIONS OF TRAFFIC ENGINEERING:  fact-finding, surveys and recommendations of traffic rules and regulations;  supervisions and maintenance to the application of traffic control devices  planning of traffic regulations TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES o Any signs, signal marking placed exerted for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding traffic.  TRAFFIC SIGN- This is the oldest traffic control device used to guide the safe and orderly movement of traffic  This contains instructions, information about routes, directions designations and point of interest must be recognizable as such the means to convey the intended message consists of either a legend or symbol or a combination of both. o Traffic Control Device are installed to control traffic and contribute indirectly to assurance of traffic safety. They are means by which the road user is advised as to detailed requirements or conditions affecting road use. o Traffic Signs should be installed only with the approval of a public authority. Authorized Construction Contractors and Public Utility Companies may install temporary warning signs at work sites to protect workmen, equipment, and the public provided that such conform to the standard. TYPES OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES o TRAFFIC SIGNALS  Signal Operated manually, electrically, or mechanically by which traffic is alternately commanded to stop and permitted to proceed. RED-stop-no entry into intersection Yellow/Amber- permit the driver to proceed but requires intersection to be cleared o TRAFFIC SIGNS- G A re d e e n- v G ic o e -P m ro o c u ee n d t ; e G d re o e n n a an ff d ix a e rr d ow or –d p i o re r c t t a s b m le ov s e u m p e p n o t rt whereby official notice is given in the form of symbol for purpose of regulating traffic, warning and guiding. o SYMBOL SIGNS-Upon which words are completely omitted, they have marked ability to compel attention and to rapidly communicate the planned message. o There are few signs which do not conform to this rule. It is important to note that contrast in color is necessary in order to achieve these two (2) basic requirements:  The sign stands out from its background  The legend stands out form the sign board.
  • 6. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS o TRAFFIC SIGNS MAY BE CLASSIFIED IN THE FOLLOWING GROUPS ACCORDING TO THEIR USE. o NUMBERING SYSTEM  The numbering system for signs is as follows: A letter prefix, as shown below, denoting class of sign;  R - Regulatory signs  G - Guide signs  W - Warning signs  GE - Freeway and Expressway signs  S - Special Traffic Instruction Signs  HM - Hazard Markers  REGULATORY SIGNS (TYPE R)-regulate the movement of traffic and traffic to comply with their directions constitute and offense. A. PRIORITY SIGNS-these are signs intended to regulate priority over a particular road section or roadway. B. PROHIBITORY SIGNS OR RESTRICTIVE SIGNS- shall be used in specified section of the road which will be easily seen by motorist to indicate regulation which is prohibitive or restrictive and nature. C. MANDATORY SIGNS- These shall be used to notify the road users of special rules in which they must comply for the safety, convenience and smooth flow of traffic.  SPECIAL MANDATORY SIGNS (TYPE S) -instruct users to meet certain traffic rule requirements or road conditions that ordinary guide or regulatory signs do not achieved the desired result. LANE DIRECTION SIGN MOVEMENT INSTRUCTION SIGN  WARNING SIGNS (TYPE W)-warn road users of condition on or adjacent to the road which may be unexpected or hazards to traffic operation. Changes in Horizontal Alignment
  • 7. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS Intersections Advance Warning of Control Devic Converging traffic Lanes Narrow Roads  GUIDE SIGNS OR INFORMATIVE SIGNS (TYPE G) -Inform and advise road users of directions, distances, and destination routes, location of services for road users and point of interest. They are subdivided into: o ADVANCED SIGNS- these inform the motorists or road users of the names and distances of the principal destination/s served by intersecting roads. o DIRECTION SIGNS- these shall be placed at the right of the intersection to show he direction and destination of route. Direction signs are different from special mandatory signs since this signs give only information as to direction and destination of a place while special mandatory signs require compliance. o PLACE IDENTIFICATION SIGN-these maybe use to show frontier between two (2) countries or for the purpose of showing the beginning and/or end of built-up area. o CONFIRMATORY SIGNS- these are used to confirm direction of the road. They shall bear the name of one or more places. When distances are shown, the figures expressing them shall be placed after the name of locality. o Other signs providing useful information for drivers of vehicles.
  • 8. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS o Other signs indicating facilities which may be useful to road users. STANDARD APPLICATION OF TRAFFIC SIGNS o It should fulfill a need. o It should command attention. o It should clearly relay a simple message. o It should be so located that a motorist would have time to respond to its message. o It should command respect. UNIFORMITY OF DESIGN o Uniformity can simply be defined as treating similar situations in the same way. o The following are the standard shapes adopted by the International Standards:  OCTAGON-reserved exclusively for STOP SIGN.  EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE WITH ONE POINT VERTICALLY DOWN reserved for GIVE WAY SIGN. o  CIRCLE-Regulatory sign o  CIRCLE SYMBOL-may sometimes be mounted on a regular base either for easy recognition or for additional information. o  EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE with one point vertically upward-used for warning signs
  • 9. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS o  RECTANGLE- with long axis horizontal is used for directional signs, signs for road works and special purposes and supplementary plates to warning signs; for facility information signs and destination of point of interest. o THE STANDARD COLOR FOR SIGNS ARE AS FOLLOWS: o RED- background for stop signs and as border color for give way signs, warning signs and prohibitive signs in regulatory series.  o BLACK- used as background color signs having a white, yellow, yellow-orange background, and as background color for hazard markers.  o YELLOW- is used as background color for warning signs, advisory speed signs and for most road work signs whose legends relate to personnel working.  o GREEN-is used as background color for most direction signs and legends for parking signs.  o BLUE- for facility information signs and to indicate point of interest.   WHEN and WHERE THE OBJECTIVES OF TRAFFIC ARE APPLIED?  Habitually Congested commercial areas  Heavily Traffic thoroughfares  Congested local areas and intersections  During special occasions and events  During disasters and emergencies  At school crossings METHODS IN ACHIEVING THE OBJECTIVES OF TRAFFIC ENGINEERING o Planning and Geometric Design- factor employed in planning  Composition of traffic streams  Traffic volumes for capacity  Origin and destination
  • 10. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS o Factors Influencing Design  Composition of Traffic  Volume of traffic  Speed of vehicles  The starting, turning and stopping abilities of traffic units.  Performance values of road users o Regulation and Control-Traffic Regulation  Based and Confined within the boundaries of safety, public welfare and convenience.  Limitations imposed on road users and their load  Basic general rule of road use and conduct  Prohibition and Restrictions. 2. TRAFFIC EDUCATION  It is the process of giving training and practice in the actual application of traffic safety knowledge. The following are the agencies and offices responsible for traffic education: o SCHOOLS (Public and Private) o Public Information Programs o Citizen Support Groups 3. TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT  This field deals mostly on the implementation and enforcement of traffic laws and rules and regulations. The following are the various agencies/offices involved in enforcement of traffic laws: o Land Transportation Office (LTO) This office is responsible for the following:  Vehicle registration  Vehicle Inspections  Driver’s Licensing  Public to police on stolen or wanted vehicles o Legislative Bodies-included are the senate, congress, provincial boards, and city and municipal councils. They are responsible for the passing and /or amending of laws and/or ordinances. o Police Traffic Enforcement- This pillar is not limited to PNP-TMG but includes all government personnel who are duly authorized for the direct enforcement of traffic rules and regulations such as:  Metropolitan Manila Development Authority(MMDA) for NCR  Police Auxiliaries  LTO Flying Squad 4. TRAFFIC ECOLOGY OR TRAFFIC ENVIRONMENT  This pillar is very recent which includes the study of potentially disastrous population explosion, changes in urban environment due to the scale and density of new urban concentration and new activities carried out, air pollution, water pollution and crowding, especially transport congestion which result therein.  The following are the environmental effects: o Noise o Vibration o Air Pollution o Dirt o Visual Intrusion o Loss of Privacy o Changes in amount of light o Neighborhood Severance o Relocation o Distraction during planning and construction o Accident Experiences o Pedestrian Journey o Congestion and Other benefits to vehicles  Laws and Statutes concerning Traffic Ecology o PD 1181- Providing for Prevention, control, abatement of Air Pollution from motor vehicles o LOI 551- Directing Law Enforcement Agencies to implement the pollution control programs o RA 8749- Clean Air Act
  • 11. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS 5. TRAFFIC ECONOMY  This is the most recent of the pillars of traffic which deals with the benefits and adverse effects of traffic to our economy. Primarily, Traffic Operation is designed to expedite the movement of traffic. However with the prevailing traffic congestion during rush hours in a given locality, traffic adversely affects the economic status of the commuting public.  One aspect affecting our economy is the unending increase of oil prices in the world market. Somehow, programs must be instituted in order to minimize the ill effect of rising prices of basic commodities. III. TRAFFIC SAFETY EDUCATION Concept: o Traffic Safety Education –It is the process of training road users in avoidance and prevention of traffic-related accidents. o Road Safety- It refers to the reduced risk of accident or injury on the roads, achieved through multidisciplinary approaches involving road engineering and traffic management, education and training of road users, and vehicle designs. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ACCIDENTS o HUMAN ERRORS:  going too fast or excessive speed  failing to give at junctions  overtaking improperly  following too closely  misperceiving or misjudging the road situation ahead  lack of skill o ROAD DEFICIENCIES THAT ARE MAIN CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS  Poor design of lay-out and control at junctions  inadequate signing, road marking, lighting,  Slippery roads  Obstructions on the road such as parked vehicle, ongoing road construction, etc., o MAIN VEHICLE FACTORS  defects and tires, brakes, and lights  absence or non-using of seatbelts  poorly maintained motor vehicles The three principles that have been emphasized as effective in the prevention of traffic accidents are known as the three (3) E’s or pillars of traffic. Recently however Traffic Environment and Traffic Economy were added to complete the 5 Pillars of Traffic. o ENGINEERING (Traffic Engineering) –Effective construction and maintenance of traffic facilities which does not only expedite the movement of traffic but also prevents the occurrence of traffic accidents. Successful treatments have included:  changes in layout at junctions to define priorities more clearly (use of roundabouts, or traffic circles);  more wide use of road markings to delineate traffic lanes and waiting areas for turning vehicles  improvements in skidding resistance of wet roads  more uniform street lighting  more highly visible and legible direction, information and warning signs o EDUCATION (in traffic safety)- When road users are informed of the traffic laws, rules and regulations, accidents are likely prevented. This is also an integral part of curriculum. Included are:  New approach on training and educating young drivers;  Training in hazard perception  Changing of attitudes o ENFORCEMENT (of Traffic Rules)- The following are highly recommended in areas of traffic enforcement:  strengthening and simplifying the application of law  new technology to aid traffic  enhanced publicity  education of teenagers in schools  the development of rehabilitation course like seminars for apprehended traffic violators o ECOLOGY/ENVIRONMENT- People should be educated regarding the adverse effect of traffic to our environment that directly or indirectly affects the population’s health.
  • 12. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS o ECONOMY- People should also learn to develop schemes that do not only lessen expenses but also accident-free. LEVELS OF TRAFFIC SAFETY EDUCATION o Imparting Knowledge concerning traffic safety o Training and practice in the actual application of traffic safety knowledge o Developing traffic safety morality TRAFFIC SAFETY FOR CHILDREN- This is highly unsystematic and is usually carried out in the home through parental education and in kindergarten and nurseries. This is now necessary to make it systematic to lessen the number of children fatalities and injuries. o Elementary- Pupils are usually educated by stressing on traffic safety and guides, classroom discussions of accidents, incidents and other traffic safety rules. o Secondary- This level initiates driver education program because students have reached the age to drive, hence, proper driving should be stressed. It also includes school safety organizations. o Higher Education- Some universities and colleges offer and conduct courses to private and public agencies regarding traffic safety subjects. TRAFFIC SAFETY EDUCATION FOR ADULTS- This is easier compared to the education designed for younger children since the adults are in a better position to understand what is being taught to them. o It is a general belief that by being a better driver, it follows that one becomes a better pedestrian. By knowing the limitations of the driver and the vehicle as a driving student, one learns to watch out for dangerous cues such as pedestrians. o Driver education is carried out in secondary schools and in private and government sponsored driving school. The basic purposes of this education are:  To develop good traffic citizens who are equipped to live in motorized society and achieving traffic safety.  To develop drivers who are eligible to have their driver’s license. DRIVER’S EDUCATION In general, Driver instruction aims primarily to teach the rudiments of driving. Secondary aims are as follows: o To install awareness of one’s legal and moral responsibilities in traffic o To teach the abilities required for one to be eligible for a driver’s license. FOUR BASIC TYPES OF INSTRUCTION METHODS used in Driver Education Programs: o Comprehensive-This method places the student into real life of driving situations from beginning. o Traditional Instruction- This depends on instructor-student communication. o Commentary Driving Method- The student-driver accompanied by an instructor. As the student-driver drives, the instructor has to give a commentary on his driving- what he sees, what he does, why he does, what he proposes to do, etc., o Simulated Conditions (On and Off Training)- The premise of simulated conditions training is that the behavior of the driver-subject placed in condition will be relatively analogous to normal behavior.  SIMULATOR- is a static machine with all the important features of a car used in driving method or driver training. There are two methods of simulation presently adopted:  Partial Simulation Method- this method has the specific aim of training for the “subtasks” of the driving task.  Global Simulation- It may be classified into two (2) specific groups which are: training, simulated in traffic conditions and situations. Simulators are most commonly use for the following types of training: o Training in basic car-control skills o Perceptual Training o Emergency Training  Classification of Films as shown by the simulators: o Analytical Film- Which provides an objective analysis of the driving situation presented to the subject. o Didactic Film- aims to show good driving behavior o Simulation Film- offers “visual realism” to driving situations and therefore aid in actual practice. ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF DRIVING TASKS- Driver Education includes: o Collection of Information which includes:  Perceptual Scanning and  Identification o Process of Information which includes:  Predicting and
  • 13. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS  Decision-making o Action which is focused on:  Motor Skills and control of vehicles and  Knowledge and subjective Interpretation. BIORHYTHM- It is a theory which asserts that man exhibits a constant variation of the energy and mood states. Men’s theorized cycles and interpretations rhythm is peculiar characteristics of most natural phenomenon like: o the dilurnar exchange of light and darkness o four seasons o wet and dry seasons o waxing and waning of moon  The observation of the rhythm mentioned and their possible correlation with the habits of man has led to a host of different theories that tried to explain this correlation in terms of physical, psychological, etc. The following are the most controversial theory of biorhythm: o 23 day cycle a.k.a our cycle of strength, endurance and courage (male component of a person) o 28 day emotional cycle (equivalent to female’s 28 day menstrual cycle) is a.k.a our cycle of sensitivity, love and intuition (female component) o 33 Day Intellectual cycle  All of these are present at the time we are born. When the curve is above the center line, the biorhythm value is said to be “high” or a person has more energy to spare: o Physical High o Emotional High o Intellectual High  When the curve is below the centerline, the biorhythm is said to be “Low” or in a recharged period.: o Physical Low o Emotional Low o Intellectual Low  Importance of Biorhythm in the field of study. It should be borne in mind that biorhythm does not predict what actually happen. All it does is to give us a hint on how we tend to feel in a certain day. o The theory asserts that people are accident prone if their biorhythm crosses the centerline on a certain day or is totally below the line. o Theoretically, if we know our biorhythm for a certain day, we can psychologically cope up with any situation.  The idea has been put into use in different countries in the world, and the result helps reduce accident rates until it is totally refuted. SAFETY CAMPAIGN. This is a mass publicity aimed to make road users behave more safely. These basically focus on public information attitudes, and particular or specific behaviors, or combination of these. Safety Campaign- is also known as road propaganda which may be intended simply to inform or it may be felt that the public is already aware of the recommended behavior by need to be persuaded into adopting it. o SAFETY CAMPAIGN CLASSIFICATIONS:  According to purpose-maybe categorized as informational, attitudinal and behavioral  According to kind of appeal- used to reason by simply feeding the public with authenticated factual data o SAFETY CAMPAIGN DESIGN:  Initial campaign planning  Final campaign design  Campaign evaluation o PRIVATE and GOVERNMENT ENTITIES FOR SAFETY CAMPAIGN:  Newspapers  Radio Broadcasting Networks  Television Broadcasting Networks  Public Information Agencies
  • 14. CONCEPCION HOLY CROSS COLLEGE WSPNICOLAS