Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Closure Experiences. Why a simple goodbye could help climate change.

2,485 views

Published on

As designers we are active in the creation of services, products and digital products; making them attractive, engaging and usable for consumers. The work we create tends to concentrate on the on-boarding of customers, with clients focusing on the acquisition of customers over long term responsibility or neutralisation of these experiences - the off-boarding.
In short, we are good at creating experiences around the beginning of the customer life-cycle, but terrible at creating a coherent, neutralised ending. As designers we need to engage in this and think beyond the happy customer and start designing the end of the experiences that we create. We need to start to create Closure Experiences.
This presentation argues that we have lost touch with ‘closure' over recent generations and are in a state of denial. The argument is established through historic changes in society, evidence from academia, and our changing relationship with death. Further examples go into details from product, service and digital sectors as well as our wider society.

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

Closure Experiences. Why a simple goodbye could help climate change.

  1. 1. Closure Experiences Joe Macleod. @mrmacleod @ClosureExp
 www.closureexperiences.com IXDA Helsinki. March 2016
  2. 2. What What a Closure Experience is Why the customer life cycle is biased What created this situation How it has impacted us Good and bad Closure Experiences Techniques and models
  3. 3. “The satisfactory conclusion to a product or service relationship. Each party feeling satisfied with the completed transaction, it being a fair, just conclusion without negative consequence.” Closure
  4. 4. The Consumer Experience
  5. 5. 1. 2. 3. Any consumer experience can be broken down into 3 stages On-Boarding Off-BoardingUsage The stable, committed relationship between the user and the service they use, or the product they own. It is the effort it takes to get the customer to commit to the product or service relationship. The start of the relationship. It is the effort it takes to neutralise the effects of the engagement. To complete the agreed engagement. It is the conclusion of the relationship.
  6. 6. engagement time Starting Experiences Closure Experiences Fuelled by commerce Fuelled by society Language of self actualisation Language of safety and security On-Boarding Off-BoardingUsage The stable, committed relationship between the user and the service they use, or the product they own. It is the effort it takes to get the customer to commit to the product or service relationship. The start of the relationship. It is the effort it takes to neutralise the effects of the engagement. To complete the agreed engagement. It is the conclusion of the relationship. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  7. 7. Packaging Advertising Marketing engagement time Examples include… T&Cs Inactivity / dormancy Break the contract Examples include… Recycle Starting Experiences Closure Experiences Fuelled by commerce Fuelled by society Language of self actualisation Language of safety and security On-Boarding Off-BoardingUsage The stable, committed relationship between the user and the service they use, or the product they own. It is the effort it takes to get the customer to commit to the product or service relationship. The start of the relationship. It is the effort it takes to neutralise the effects of the engagement. To complete the agreed engagement. It is the conclusion of the relationship. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  8. 8. engagement time The interest gap Packaging Advertising MarketingExamples include… T&Cs Inactivity / dormancy Break the contract Examples include… Recycle Starting Experiences Closure Experiences Fuelled by commerce Fuelled by society Language of self actualisation Language of safety and security On-Boarding Off-BoardingUsage The stable, committed relationship between the user and the service they use, or the product they own. It is the effort it takes to get the customer to commit to the product or service relationship. The start of the relationship. It is the effort it takes to neutralise the effects of the engagement. To complete the agreed engagement. It is the conclusion of the relationship. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  9. 9. engagement time The interest gap Packaging Advertising MarketingExamples include… T&Cs Inactivity / dormancy Break the contract Examples include… Recycle Starting Experiences Closure Experiences Fuelled by commerce Fuelled by society Language of self actualisation Language of safety and security On-Boarding Off-BoardingUsage The stable, committed relationship between the user and the service they use, or the product they own. It is the effort it takes to get the customer to commit to the product or service relationship. The start of the relationship. It is the effort it takes to neutralise the effects of the engagement. To complete the agreed engagement. It is the conclusion of the relationship. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  10. 10. The customer life cycle is biased There is a gap of interest Consumers and industry in codependent denial Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  11. 11. services products digital …the consequences we see in Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  12. 12. The Social context of Closure
  13. 13. Life was hard, El Ángelus. Jean-François Millet. CCJoe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  14. 14. death was familiar, Ars Moriendi. Meister E.S.Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  15. 15. heaven was an attractive reward, Belshazzar’s Feast. John MartinJoe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  16. 16. religion owned the rule book to get in. A Burial at Ornans by Gustave Courbet. CCJoe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  17. 17. Comfort came with industrialisation, Eisenwalzwerk. Adolph MenzelJoe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  18. 18. and Heaven emerged on earth for many. Luncheon of the Boating Party. Pierre-Auguste RenoirJoe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  19. 19. Medicine learnt to control death, Portrait of Dr. Samuel D. Gross.Thomas EakinsJoe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  20. 20. and hid it away. Gross Clinic on display at the Army Post HospitalJoe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  21. 21. Freeing us to indulge Heaven on earth without end. Chanel Shopping CentreJoe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  22. 22. Heaven was after life Death was controlled and managed by religion Death was an expected part of life Heaven is life Medicine now controls death Death is hidden from life So… Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  23. 23. Closure was respected, familiar and expected. Closure is distant, alien and avoided …and consumer experiences have mimicked this. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  24. 24. The Consumer Lifecycle. A short history of unbalancing
  25. 25. Waste and Closure Waste and closure were actionable and attached to consumption. 15th century A simple world view. Consumer experiences Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  26. 26. 15th century life death rebirth use Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  27. 27. Industrial Revolution. 1760 Eisenwalzwerk. Adolph Menzel Lose control of work waste Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  28. 28. Department Stores. 1796 Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  29. 29. Dr John Snow. Cholera. 1854 Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  30. 30. Modern Advertising and Marketing. 1850 Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  31. 31. Progressive Obsolescence. 1929 Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  32. 32. Bank of America launch BankAmericard. 1958 Rolando Pujol Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away I don’t need money, just credit Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  33. 33. Silent Spring. 1962 Linda Lear Center for Special Collections & Archives Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away We can impact the food chain I don’t need money, just credit Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  34. 34. Apollo 8. Earthrise. 1968 NASA Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away We can impact the food chain We can impact whole Earth I don’t need money, just credit Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  35. 35. Public Internet services. 1980 www.thinglink.com Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away We can impact the food chain We can impact whole Earth A new infinite landscape to create in I don’t need money, just credit Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  36. 36. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1988 British Library Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away We can impact the food chain We can impact whole Earth We are heating the Earth A new infinite landscape to create in I don’t need money, just credit Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  37. 37. Amazon.com introduce “1-Click" 1999 Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away We can impact the food chain We can impact whole Earth We are heating the Earth A new infinite landscape to create in I don’t need money, just credit Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. 1 click shopping Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  38. 38. Global Financial Crisis. 2007-10 Occupy Wall Street Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away We can impact the food chain We can impact whole Earth We are heating the Earth Too big to failA new infinite landscape to create in I don’t need money, just credit Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. 1 click shopping Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  39. 39. 1.8 billion photos each day in 2014 Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away We can impact the food chain We can impact whole Earth We are heating the Earth Too big to failA new infinite landscape to create in I don’t need money, just credit Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Ease of sharing 1 click shopping Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  40. 40. Right to be forgotten. 2014 Lose control of work waste I can buy all my things in one place I can spread invisible germs I can live my dreams through products I can throw things away We can impact the food chain We can impact whole Earth We are heating the Earth Too big to fail I cant undo sharing A new infinite landscape to create in I don’t need money, just credit Consumption becomes easier Waste becomes less actionable. Closure becomes more difficult. Ease of sharing 1 click shopping Products produced at scale Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  41. 41. Consumer experiences are fluid Waste and closure are distant and less actionable 21st century Waste and Closure Consumer experiences Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  42. 42. This imbalance in the customer lifecycle has developed a psychosis that is represented in all of us by 2 selfs. Waste and Closure Consumer experiences Consumer Self Civil Self Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  43. 43. The Two Selves
  44. 44. Actionable waste Consumer experiences Consumer Self Civil Self Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  45. 45. The Psychological Impact of Closure
  46. 46. Ernest Becker Denial of Death Terror Management Theory “most human action is taken to ignore or avoid the inevitability of death” Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  47. 47. Terror Management Theory We are all in denial that things end. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  48. 48. Terror Management Theory Kasser and Sheldon 2000 Researchers attempted to connect consumption to Terror Management Theory Liberation. M.C. Escher 1955Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  49. 49. Terror Management Theory Kasser and Sheldon 2000 “suggested that concerns about mortality, although sub- conscious, strongly influence our behaviour and aspirations about material goods and economic status” Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  50. 50. Terror Management Theory Kasser and Sheldon 2000 “suggested that concerns about mortality, although sub- conscious, strongly influence our behaviour and aspirations about material goods and economic status” this impacts our relationship with consumption Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  51. 51. Peak End Rule “people judge experiences based on their Peak (an intense moment of the experience) and at their End” Daniel Kaheman 1990 Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  52. 52. time feeling in-different agony joy +peak end -peak Peak End Rule Daniel Kaheman. 1990 Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  53. 53. Peak End Rule Daniel Kaheman. 1990 Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  54. 54. Closure is a powerful memory moment Peak End Rule Daniel Kaheman. 1990 Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  55. 55. A good Closure Experience will be…
  56. 56. Visibly Connected to the rest of the experience through Emotional Triggers that are Actionable by the user in a Timely manner. A good Closure Experience will be… Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  57. 57. Visibly Connected Closure is Visibly Connected to the rest of the experience through Emotional Triggers that are Actionable by the user in a Timely manner.
  58. 58. Canon fail to link the starting experience, and the closure experience - despite having all the bits. Nearly 500ml of redundant space in Canon packaging. A printer pioneer, having operated a cartridge recycling program since 1990. Users don’t understand what ‘benzisothiazol’ means and therefore can’t action anything about it. On-Boarding Off-Boarding Fill in form, sign T&Cs - 2300 words. Usage Canon Ink Cartridge Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  59. 59. Zombie Apps Zombie App is an app that doesn’t appear in the top three hundred of any of Apple’s twenty three different genres lists. Adjust Last year zombie apps doubled from 657,778 to 1,136,5021. Out of 1.4 million on the app store. If you don't see it on the App Store, it isn't there. Over 80 percent of Apps on App Store are Zombies Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  60. 60. Pensions Pensions need to connect a Starting experience and a Closure experience over decades. 1 in 4 of these pension pots goes missing through lack of contact. Age Concern Average of 11 employers in our lifetime. Department for Work and Pensions UK 20s 65s40 years of v i s i b i l i t y lifespan Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  61. 61. CCO by Ryan Stone Epson’s PaperLab Keeps closure visible to the user. Makes them responsible for it. Recycle paper on site. Put old printed documents in one end - new paper comes out the other end. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  62. 62. Emotional Triggers Closure is Visibly Connected to the rest of the experience through Emotional Triggers that are Actionable by the user in a Timely manner.
  63. 63. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences. Starting Experience = 98% Closure Experience = 2% Starting Experience = 90% Closure Experience = 10% Starting Experience = 40% Closure Experience = 60% Starting Experience = 0% Closure Experience = 100% Starts to have emotional meaning 1972 1995 2006 2012 30% on front, 90% on back All brand elements removed - colour, typography, logo. Positive emotional message gone Emotions can be triggered to recognise closure Plain Cigarette Packs Research shown plain packaging makes the packets less appealing and helps reinforce health messages. BBC Darker colours - olive green is proposed - are favoured ahead of white, as they are perceived to signify more harm.”
  64. 64. Marie Kondo Tidying Technique New York Times Questioning: does a product ‘bring you joy?’ helps the owner understand the meaning if ownership and responsibility. Encourages emotional endings with the clutter in your home ‘Goodbye, and thank you for teaching me what doesn’t suit me’ Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  65. 65. Actionable Closure is Visibly Connected to the rest of the experience through Emotional Triggers that are Actionable by the user in a Timely manner.
  66. 66. Starting Experience = 100% Sharing and Right to be Forgotten? Article 17. European Union Right to be forgotten and to erasure 1. The data subject shall have the right to obtain from the controller the erasure of personal data relating to them BUT… “This IP License ends when you delete your IP content or your account unless your content has been shared with others, and they have not deleted it.” Facebook Terms and Conditions. Share… Share… Share… Closure Experience = 0% Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  67. 67. HTC One Mini Packaging Some packaging mis-places closure Starting experiences wrapped up as long term responsibility Closure experience overlooked as important or actionable Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  68. 68. Reference the product’s life in its form. Collapsable water bottle The end of the product’s life is inherent in its form. It shows potential. Encourages the user to consider and engage in the closure experience. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  69. 69. Terms & Conditions T&Cs that only allow the user to fail cannot end amicably 20,000 words
 12 mentions of “Termination”
 6 mentions of “Until”
 2 mentions of “Opt out” All reference Apple as decision maker in any situation. User has no apparent power Closure should be a… fair, just conclusion without negative consequence. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  70. 70. An antisocial photo-sharing app Anonymity makes closure simple, secure and automatic Rando—an app where serendipity rules the day and users send and receive random photos to and from random people all over the world. Closure Experiences. 8.1.2016 Rando Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  71. 71. Timely Closure is Visibly Connected to the rest of the experience through Emotional Triggers that are Actionable by the user in a Timely manner.
  72. 72. Carbon off-setting on flights. As part of the customer lifecycle worked. Carbon off-setting for flights was part of the customer purchase lifecycle. Sadly it has moved into the background, and airlines do it as part of their Social Responsibility. Carbon off-setting for your flight A perfect moment to ask about a Closure Experience Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  73. 73. Snapchat A video capturing app that has timed access Timed closure helps people feel in control. Enjoy fast and fun mobile conversation! Snap a photo or a video, add a caption, and send it to a friend. They’ll view it, laugh, and then the Snap disappears from the screen – unless they take a screenshot! Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  74. 74. A commitment to the perceived lifetime of the product CCO by Ryan Stone Traditional approaches of warranty aim to reassure against failures in the product. KIA aims to deliver assurance to the lifetime of the product. Kia KIA 7 year warranty disrupted the market when it first launched. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  75. 75. Sony’s robot dog, Aibo Sony no longer repairs broken Aibo dogs. Owners have a strong bond with the robot. 75 Make robots last as long as real pets. Owners are now looking at the death of a beloved household robot pet. Similar emotions to real pet death are being experienced. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  76. 76. Mortgages Jameslwoodward There should be a period of reflection and celebration.30 years of payback shouldn't end in a moment Sadly debt is only celebrated, when more debt is added. Paying off debt is not celebrated, avoiding a Closure experience for the user. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  77. 77. DNR. Do Not Resuscitate Jameslwoodward Occasionally resuscitation takes place despite the existence of a DNR. Prompting many elderly people to get their first tattoo. DNR is over burdened as an interface. A DNR document is a humble A4 piece of paper that informs medical staff about the life and death intentions of the user. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  78. 78. Techniques and Models
  79. 79. life death rebirth Usage customer life cycle system life cycle reclaiming resources dis-assembly neutralise distribution of resources assembly, position, develop design Closure Experiences Starting Experiences Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  80. 80. customer life cycle life death On-Boarding Off-BoardingUsage Packaging Important points in the customer life cycle First time use Transaction point SERVICES PRODUCTS DIGITAL Time out Credit out Task /Event completion Withdrawal Lingering Broken Paused Forgotten Undead Giving Stolen Fear Bullied Context change Exit Forgotten Closure Experiences Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  81. 81. Obsolescence is to industry endings. Closure is to user endings. They both bring the end, but from different points of view. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  82. 82. Closure Experienced by the User Obsolescence created by industry Broken Paused Forgotten Undead Giving Stolen Exhausted (functional) Outdated (technical) Contractual (service) Uncool (stylistic) Snapped heel on a shoe, engine blown on a car. Product not in use but can be used. Books on bookcase. Suitcase stored in loft. Christmas decorations. Item at the back of the cupboard. Miscellaneous bits and bobs in a drawer. Not used, not remembered. E-Waste. Complex to dispose of. Has some perceived value. Parts under monopoly from manufacture. Am intending to give this item away at some point. Bike left at train station is not there any more. Batteries dead, toilet roll used up. Jumper has holes in it. Fruit is now rotten. Diary from previous year. Betamax tapes. SLR cameras. Polaroid cameras. Yellow Pages Phonebook Mobile out of contract. Car lease up. Wide leg trousers when straight leg ones are in. Has close links to Branding 82 Closure model: Products There are 6 main types of closure experiences the user has with products. And a further 4 of Obsolescence driven by industry. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  83. 83. Closure Experienced by the User Obsolescence created by industry Time out / limited duration Credit out Task/Event completion Withdrawal Lingering Exhausted (functional) Outdated (technical) Uncool (stylistic) 2 week holiday, 3 year degree, 1 year software subscription, Pay As You Go, Points on your driving license Parcel delivered, boiler fixed, car serviced, concert watched, operation successful, money transferred Break the contract, leave the film early, end the relationship, A pension that you no longer pay into. An unused gym membership a number of visits to the osteopath granted by your doctor. 3 year degree has come to an end, Coffee loyalty card used up. PPI, Hovercraft, Blockbusters, Film processing, Travel agents Myspace, Has close links to Branding 83 Closure model: Services There are 5 main types of closure experiences the user has with products. And a further 3 of Obsolescence driven by industry. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  84. 84. Closure Experienced by the User Obsolescence created by industry Fear Bullied Context Change Exit Forgotten Exhausted (functional) Outdated (technical) Contractual (service) Uncool (stylistic) Paranoid that the digital service provider knows too much about you, that too much personal information has been disclosed to them. Trolled off, individuals in the community have attacked the user. User’s context has changed, which has an impact on what digital services they use. Having kids, moving home, changing jobs. Provider has shut down, sold out, gone bust. A more successful product has superseded it. App deleted off phone but account still active, unused email accounts that you have forgotten about. Gems in Clash of Clans, PAYG credits. Game completed. Bit Rot’ - out dated computer applications and their offspring files. ‘Vint Cerf, the Vice President at Google’ Flash, Silverlight. T&Cs. Ending the provision of a service at the completion or termination of a contract. Skeuomorphic GUI interface versus flat. Has close links to Branding 84 Closure model: Digital There are 5 main types of closure experiences the user has with digital. And a further 4 of Obsolescence driven by industry. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  85. 85. So…
  86. 86. Balancethe l i f e c y c l e Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  87. 87. value life, in death. Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  88. 88. for every start, Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  89. 89. design an end Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  90. 90. every emotional Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  91. 91. HELLO!
  92. 92. deserves Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences. a
  93. 93. grateful Joe Macleod. Closure Experiences.
  94. 94. Goodbye Joe Macleod. @ClosureExp @mrmacleod www.closureexperiences.com

×