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Operations research - an overview

This presentation gives in a nutshell the scope and applications Models in OR

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Operations research - an overview

  1. 1. An Overview JOSEPH G. KONNULLY
  2. 2. • Modern technological advance growth of scientific techniques • Operations Research (O.R.) recent addition to scientific tools • O.R. outlook to many conventional management problems • Seeks the determination of best (optimum) course of action of a decision problem under the limiting factor of limited resources
  3. 3. • Developed in military context during world war II, pioneered by the British scientists – Research on military operations • US military management was motivated by – Development of new flight pattern – Planning sea mining – Effective utilization of electronic equipment • Similar operations in Canada and France • Till 50’s: use of O.R. confined to military purposes
  4. 4. • After World War II: success attracted industrial managers to solve complex managerial problems •1950: O.R. began to develop in industrial field in US •1953: Operations Research Society of America was formed •1957:International Federation of Operational Research Society
  5. 5. • Operational Research can be considered as being the application of scientific method by inter-disciplinary teams to solve problems involving the control of organized (man-machine systems) so as to provide solutions which best serve the purposes of the organization as a whole.
  6. 6. • Inter-disciplinary team approach • Systems approach • Helpful in improving the quality of solution • Scientific method • Goal oriented optimum solution • Use of models • Require willing executives • Reduces complexity by use of computers
  7. 7. Finance Budgeting and investments Purchasing Procurement and Exploration Production Management Marketing Management Personal Management SCOPE
  8. 8. SCOPE
  9. 9. Better Control Better Co- ordination Better Decisions Better Systems Role in Managerial Decision Making
  10. 10. • Judgment phase – Determination of the problem – Establishment of the objectives and values – Determination of suitable measures of effectiveness • Research phase – Observation and data collection – Formulation of hypothesis and models – Observation and experimentation to test the hypothesis -– Prediction of various results, generalization, consideration of alternative method • Action phase – Implementation of the tested results of the model
  12. 12. • Formulating the problem • Constructing the model • Deriving the solution – Analytical methods – Heuristic methods – Simulation method • Testing the validity • Implementing the solution • Modifying the model
  13. 13. I. BASED ON STRUCTURE (1) Physical Models: These models give a physical appearance of real object in reduced or scaled up form .These are further divided into two categories: a) Iconic Models: Physical or Pictorial representaion of the various aspects of the system. Ex. Blue Prints, Globe, Templates etc. b) Analogue Models:These models represent a system by a set of proerties different from the original system. Ex. .Ex: A network of water pipes to show flow of current in electrical network. Level Indicator in a automobile petrol tank (2) Symbolic Models : These models use symbols either in the form of letters or mathematical operators to represent the properties of the system. These are further classified into two types: a) Verbal Models: These models used to describe a situation in written or spoken language in form of letters , words or symbols. Ex: Differential Equations representing a Dynamic system. b) Mathematical Models: The decision variables of the system under consideration are represented by mathematical equations or inequations. Ex. Linear programming model to decide Product –Mix problem in manufacturing.
  14. 14. II. BASED ON PURPOSE AND NATURE (1)Descriptive Models: These models use surveys , questionnaire results, inference of of observations to describe the situation. Ex. Plant Layout diagram. Block diagram of an algorithm. (2)Predictive Models : These models are the results of query: “ What will follow if this occurs or does not occur?”. Ex. Preventive Maintenance Trouble Shooting chart or procedures. (3) Normative Model or Optimisation Models: These models are designed to provide optimal solution to the problem subject to a certain limitations or constraints on use of resources. Ex. LP Problem
  15. 15. III. BASED ON CERTAINITY (1)Deterministic Models: If all the parameters of decision variables, constants and their functional relationship are known with certainity, then the model is said to be deterministic. Eg. Games with saddle points (2)Probabilitic or Stochastic Models: This is the model in which atleast one of the decision variable or parameter is random in nature.Ex. Queuing Models; Games without saddle points.
  16. 16. IV. BASED ON TIME REFERENCE (1) Static Models: These models present a system at a specfied time, which do not account for changes over a certain period of time.Ex. Replacement of Machines when money value is not changing with time. (2) Dynamic Model: Time is considered as one of the variables and impact of changes generated by time is . accounted while selecting optimal course of action. Ex. Replacement Models where money value changes with time.
  17. 17. V. BASED ON METHOD OF SOLUTION (1) Analytical Model: These have a specific mathematical structure and can be solved by analytical and mathematical techniques. Ex. Any optimisation model such as inventory models, waiting lines etc. (2) Iterative or Heuristic Model: In these models solution is obtained from the conclusion of previous step.Ex. Simplex Method for LPP. (3) Simulation Models: A computer assisted mathematical representation of real life problem under certain assumptions. Ex. Monte-Carlo Simulation , Use of Random Numbers, Forecasting Models.
  18. 18. Consider making a maximum area rectangle out of a piece of wire of length ‘L’ inches. What should be the width and height of the rectangle. – Let ‘W’ be the width of the rectangle in inches and – ‘H” be the height of the rectangle in inches Based on these – Width + Height = Half the length of the wire – Width and Height can not be negative Algebraically – 2(W+H)=L – W ≥ 0; H ≥ 0
  19. 19. What is the objective? – Maximization of the area of the rectangle. Let ‘Z’ be the area of the rectangle. – Then the model becomes Maximize Z =WH Subject to 2(W+H) = L W,H ≥ 0
  20. 20. • Allocation models • Inventory Models • Replacement Models • Sequencing Models • Competitive(Game Theory) Models • Waiting Line or Queuing Models • Network Models • Simulation Models
  21. 21. • Non-linear programming • Dynamic programming • Heuristic programming • Integer programming • Algorithmic programming • Quadratic programming • Parametric programming • Probabilistic programming • Search theory
  22. 22. • Provides a tool for scientific analysis • Provides solution for various business problems • Enables proper deployment of resources • Helps in minimizing waiting and servicing costs • Enables the management to decide when to buy and how much to buy? • Assists in choosing an optimum strategy • Renders great help in optimum resource allocation • Facilitates the process of decision making • Management can know the reactions of the integrated business systems • Helps a lot in the preparation of future managers
  23. 23. • The inherent limitations concerning mathematical expressions • High costs are involved in the use of O.R. techniques • O.R. does not take into consideration the intangible factors • O.R. is only a tool of analysis and not the complete decision-making process • Other limitations – Bias – Inadequate objective functions – Internal resistance – Competence – Reliability of the prepared solution
  24. 24. • Operations Research – An Introduction :Taha (PHI) • Operations Research – Theory andApplications : J. K. Sharma (Macmillan) • Introduction to Operations Research : Hillier,Lieberman (TMH) • Operations Research : P.K.Gupta, D.S.Hira(S.Chand) • An Introduction to Operational Research :C.R.Kothari (Vikas Publications) • Operations Research – Methods and Practice: C.K.Mustafi (New Age)

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This presentation gives in a nutshell the scope and applications Models in OR


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