Become an eco-innovative city by 2030

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The MULTINOV full proposal to turn Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines local authority into the european heart of eco-innovation by 2030. (MULTINOV team, July 2010, Econoving)

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Become an eco-innovative city by 2030

  1. 1. * Communauté d'agglomération Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines SQY* THE EUROPEAN HEART OF ECO-INNOVATION IN 2030 З By MULTINOV Team July 2010
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Need/problem PARTICIPATION TEAM. Funds for this program will come from various providers, from local to European level. For example, SQY will take part in Saint Quentin en Yvelines (SQY) is both a rural and urban area shared by a ‘European Initiative on Smart Cities’ which will test innovative ways of local citizens and commuters, companies and local authorities. It is a place funding programs. Finally, an adaptive management will adjust this plan which can fulfil a vast diversity of expectations. But if it is to remain according to the evolution of the context and to the results of its attractive, SQY will have to succeed in dealing with two main challenges: experimentations. • Environmental challenge, becoming sustainable or even better having a positive footprint Returns/benefits • Economical challenge, enhancing its attractiveness and competitiveness In the future, SQY will not only rely on taxes, a major part becoming very Becoming the European heart of eco-innovation thanks to MULTINOV’s aleatory with the changes going on right now in France, but will also plan, SQY has the opportunity to meet both these challenges. generate its own revenues. SQY will also be more resilient to the evolution of external factors, especially on the energy front where primary sources Recommendations supply will become more and more difficult and expensive. Building on its current assets, SQY will also study and improve very much people’s well This proposal recommends first to improve the efficiency of SQY’s being and become a place well known for its quality of life. Finally, one of processes which rely on natural resources. The main change will lie in the the major benefits is that SQY will become the leading European place in mutualisation of the use of resources, which will turn into a much less the creation, testing and implementation of eco-innovations. MULTINOV’s demanding system from this point of view. It implies important evolutions plan is going to create an environment attractive to investment, SMEs and which will only happen through a strong involvement of the population. creative people. Thus, SQY will become a dynamic economic area where SQY should also change its financial model, from a community which is people enjoy a healthy pleasant life. not only a tax collector but also generates profits from activities run by its sub-divisions. Finally, SQY will develop its competitiveness becoming Why MULTINOV? attractive to stakeholders who will be able to create, test and implement As a multidisciplinary team, MULTINOV has a wide diversity of skills, from the next cutting edge eco-innovations there. technical and architectural to commercial and managerial, which are very Methods strong assets when dealing with a project of this extent. This diversity will allow to deal with various issues which will rise along the project in the SQY will use a range of methods, going from the implementation of most efficient way. Being at the forefront of what is happening in research current leading edge technologies to the creation of Pilot Projects where centres thanks to its network, it is a chance for SQY to be ahead of its time innovations of the future will be developed, before being extended at implementing the latest technologies and processes. It is a chance to build larger scale. The management of this plan will be carried out by a new on this advanced knowledge to go further ahead and develop its structure called INTEGRATION TEAM. Moreover, new tools for stakeholder competitiveness through the solutions which will be used in the next involvement will be created and regrouped in what will be called -2- decades.
  3. 3. OUTLINE INSPIRING FUTURE 4 WHY MULTINOV? 5 DRIVERS & CHALLENGES 6 VISION AND GOALS FOS SQY IN 2030 8 MULTINOV OVERALL STRATEGY 12 WHAT? THREE PILOT PROJECTS 12 WHO? INTEGRATION TEAM 13 WHO? PARTICIPATION TEAM 15 HOW? MONITORING & DECISION-MAKING TOOL 17 HOW? FINANCE STRATEGY 19 HOW? QUADRI-HELIX SYSTEM 22 HOW? BY LEARNING FROM BEST PRACTICES 24 WHEN? PROJECT TIMELINE 25 WELL-BEING RESEARCH CENTRE 26 PILOT PROJECT 1. LOW WASTE COMMUNITY 27 PILOT PROJECT 2. CLEAN MOBILITY SYSTEM 35 PILOT PROJECT 3. SMART BUILDINGS 42 CONCLUSION 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY 49 APPENDIX 1. INVESTMENTS COMPARISON 56 APPENDIX 2. CLEAN MOBILITY CHART 57 REFERENCES & POTENTIAL PARTNERS 58 -3-
  4. 4. INSPIRING FUTURE [What do people want?] [Why multi eco-innovation?] People want to live in a sustainable city that is vibrant and affordable. We chose multi eco-innovation as a key enabler to the green future we They want to benefit from green spaces while having access to cutting desire. We chose eco-innovation as a relevant answer both to the edge infrastructures and facilities. They want a healthy and wealthy city. urgency of climate change mitigation and to the current financial and They want jobs close to their home. They want a city adapted to their economic crisis. We propose SQY to build its own new resilient future, needs. We propose SQY to become an even better place to live and inspiring change in France and in Europe. work. [MULTINOV "Make it Happen"] [A real potential in SQY] Between now and then are some challenges which MULTINOV team SQY has already positioned itself as a green and blue territory with 62% proposes to take up. The attached report is a pathway to this desirable of natural areas. SQY has a strong potential to go beyond this current future. This «Make It Happen» is authored by the MULTINOV state as it benefits first from 8 existing clusters(1) which create jobs and multidisciplinary team which was proposed the audacious and exciting synergies between private and public R&D as well as universities, and challenge of developing a plan to make of SQY the European Eco- also from the connection to innovative structures such as Grand Paris innovative city by 2030. It is about proposing a plan for the next 20 years and the OIN Paris-Saclay. Walking the talk of the green growth is an with a range of different inter-operable and cutting-edge proposals. 14 incredible opportunity for SQY and for the Ile-de-France region to long-term goals have been identified, supported by a set of measurable valorise their dynamic potential and become a distinctive leading place in and attainable targets that will lead SQY on its way to 2030. This plan will eco-innovation implementation, demonstrating that a shift is possible. It cement SQY position as a European heart of eco-innovation: a people- is urgent to make trials. The time for observation of climate change centric place, a European accelerator of multiple eco-innovations, and an impacts is over. It is time for action. We envision SQY as a sustainable operator of its territory. territory that initiates action and « walks the talk ». Citizens and commuters will not be the witnesses of the deterioration of their environment; they will be actors of the improvement and renewal of their community. Living in SQY will become a great new kind of urban experience. (1) 8 clusters: AsTech, Cap Digital, Cosmetic Valley, Finance Innovation, Medicen, Mov’eo, System@tic, Advancity. Sources: Réseau Observatoire de la Ville ; KPMG « Assurer durablement la réussite du territoire », février 2008 -4-
  5. 5. MULTINOV TEAM Claire DUSONCHET Professional background: Sustainable Architecture degree COORDINATION TEAM Alexandre GHEDIN Claire DUSONCHET - Stéphane MASSOT - Rachel GUILLOTEAU - Elizaveta KUZNETSOVA Professional background: Project leader in car industry Report layout Inspiring future Rachel GUILLOTEAU Claire DUSONCHET Elizaveta KUZNETSOVA Rachel GUILLOTEAU VISION DEVELOPMENT Professional background: Innovative project leader in car industry Executive summary Drivers & challenges Alexandre GHEDIN Alexandre GHEDIN Joseph ITURBIDE Professional background: Business school degree MULTINOV vision OVERALL STRATEGY Alexandre GHEDIN Claire DUSONCHET: Integration team Claire DUSONCHET Rachel GUILLOTEAU: Participation team Alexandre GHEDIN: Finance strategy Elizaveta KUZNETSOVA (with Elizaveta KUZNETSOVA), Quadri- Professional background: Energy Engineer degree helix system (with Christophe ROBILLARD) Well-being research centre Elizaveta KUZNETSOVA: Monitoring & decision-making tool, Timeline Rachel GUILLOTEAU Florence LECOMTE Professional background: International Project management degree PP1. Low waste PP3. Smart community PP2. Clean mobility buildings Stéphane MASSOT Claire DUSONCHET Elizaveta KUZNETSOVA Stéphane MASSOT Professional background: Engineer degree Rachel GUILLOTEAU Joseph ITURBIDE Florence LECOMTE Christophe ROBILLARD Professional background: 20 years in telecommunication Conclusion industry Stéphane MASSOT -5-
  6. 6. DRIVERS & CHALLENGES The creation of the OIN Paris–Saclay is expected to bring around 3000 DRIVERS: people in the region (Les Enjeux, 2009), part of it probably settling in SQY. The rise of single occupancy flats also brings the need for more housing of smaller sizes (L'Observatoire de la ville, 2009) (Communauté POPULATION d'Agglomération de Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 2007) Challenge #2 Increased population ENERGY o housing needs ENVIRONMENT o energy needs o mobility needs GLOBALIZATION Moreover, these people working in SQY may be willing to live somewhere else, which will add on to the current flows of labour force in and out of SQY. The Grand Paris may also impact the population of the region. The transportation infrastructure will be improved, not only towards Paris, but also in a circular fashion to create links between areas THE FIRST DRIVER which needs to be considered is population, of the Ile-de-France (Transport et mobilité, 2009). It could be an opportunity for people to settle in a mixed urban and rural area while which is going to evolve both in terms of quantity and of characteristics. reaching more easily their working places in other parts of the Ile-de- One third of the population is between 40 and 60 years old, and this France. number has been increasing over the past few years (L'Observatoire de la Ville, 2008, 2009). Therefore, it is likely that an important part of SQY’s Challenge #3 High level of commuting inhabitants will be retired in 2030, or close to retirement if the legal age is moved forward. Moreover, because of the progress of health care, people will have longer, healthier lives. THE SECOND DRIVER to deal with is energy. It is widely admitted that oil resources will decrease within the next 20 years and are likely to Challenge #1 Older population be depleted around 2060 if the worst scenario is considered. The data for gas is roughly the same. It is pretty likely that other sources of fossil o Health offer fuels will be found over this period but the cost for their extraction will o Services become incredibly higher than what it is today (Oil depletion, 2010), o Leisure (Bentley, 2002). -6-
  7. 7. The energy supply of SQY is totally dependant on suppliers settled FINALLY, from an economical prospect, globalisation is often outside its territory and based on nuclear, heavy fuel and gas power. If considered as a threat, but we should try to get the most out of it. On nuclear fusion happens to work quickly, energy supply will not be a the other hand, the trend may change, and if re-localisation happens, problem anymore. However, the chances for this technology to turn to SQY will have to be ready and take advantage of the opportunities which routine production before 50 or 60 years are very low (D'haeseleer, will rise. Also, economic barriers may rise again and change the impact of 2003). Hence, it is of major importance to act towards energy efficiency globalisation. and to reach the highest possible level of self sufficiency, but remaining connected to the global grid. This also applies to mobility. Challenge #11 Economical competitiveness Challenge #4 Energy consumption o from buildings o from transportation systems Challenge #5 Energy dependency Challenge #6 Energy infrastructure security THE THIRD DRIVER is our planet environment. Climate change, depletion of raw materials, supply of quality food and water are global issues which will impact SQY. The agriculture in SQY covers slightly more than 14% of the total area of the territory (Communauté d'Agglomération de Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 2009), but it is getting more and more difficult everyday for farmers. Talks around the reductions of subsidies from the EU and a strong pressure on prices make it hard for them to make a living. Also, future events like heat waves, storms could make things worse for this field. Challenge #7 Green house gases and pollutant emissions Challenge #8 Resource depletion Challenge #9 Resiliency to extreme weather events Challenge #10 Resiliency to transportation failures -7-
  8. 8. VISION AND GOALS FOR SQY IN 2030 SQY THE EUROPEAN HEART SQY PEOPLE-CENTRIC PLACE, where a well-being culture will be created and people will be involved in OF ECO-INNOVATION IN 2030 the development of their city. We want SQY to go beyond technological innovation successes, which means going further than current eco-cities like Freiboug or Malmö that SQY PEOPLE-CENTRIC PLACE are more “techno-centric”, by generating and implementing social innovations. In parallel, one of our main ambitions is to be the first European city implementing functional economy which is a new responsible SQY EUROPEAN consumption mode tackling the scarcity of resources and fostering existing and new businesses. To reach that goal, we chose to encourage ACCELERATOR OF MULTIPLE the citizen to be actor of its daily consumption, while offering him easy ECO-INNOVATION access to high quality products to rent. SQY OPERATOR OF ITS TERRITORY From ‘Diaporamas’ www.saint-quentin- en-yvelines.fr/ -8-
  9. 9. SQY EUROPEAN SQY OPERATOR OF ITS ACCELERATOR OF MULTIPLE TERRITORY ECO-INNOVATIONS SQY will establish sustainable connections to tackle the different challenges described above. A place where a self-learning innovation system will be developed. A place where green innovations will be implemented in the fields of SQY will become a territorial operator and a local green energy producer energy, buildings, mobility, waste and water resources, based on the heading toward energy self-sufficiency. following 3 principles: This new situation will enable to connect people, businesses and • Be the first European city to implement waste as resource infrastructures for a sustainable city. innovations • Connected buildings leading the way to sustainable city • Clean mobility system in which every need meets a service Taking advantage of SQY's geographical position, of its proximity to the OIN Paris-Saclay and to Paris, and of the projects we propose, we want to build the conditions to create an attractive place for people and businesses where multi-innovations will be catalyzed, implemented, tested and adopted in order to reduce SQY’s ecological footprint. -9-
  10. 10. VISION AND GOALS FOR SQY IN 2030 Where SQY is European TO ACHIEVE MULTINOV'S # 2030 GOALS today? level VISION AND TO BECOME A 2,5 to 3,5 hag/h ecological 5,2 hag/h ecological 1 The Netherlands (4,1 hag/h) EUROPEAN HEART OF footprint footprint ECO-INNOVATION WE HAVE Reduce energy consumption by 52% (Woking, United Annual consumption is DEFINED LONG-TERM GOALS 2 40% cut in energy about 0.38 Mtoe Kingdom) For Buildings the best: consumption 1.5%/year estimated Cutting home energy increase in energy needs consumption by 80% IN ORDER TO EVALUATE THE (Freiburg, Germany ) Less than 5% of the CURRENT SITUATION 3 40% clean energy production energy consumed in SQY is produced by ‘green’ 51% clean energy production (Växjö, Sweden) LINKED TO EACH GOAL WE energy sources La Réunion : 1MW COMPARE SAINT-QUENTIN-EN- 20% of energy electrochemical storage YVELINES' MEASURES TO THE 4 consumption in storage capacity No energy is stored today capacity since 23/11/2009, (Beutin, 2010), (Public institutions, 2008) BEST PRACTICES IN Half of the territory EUROPE 5 connected to multiple types of smart networks No smart network today Amsterdam smart city Reduce by 50% SQY’s 8,7 Million m3 in 2005, BedZed(UK) : 30% reduction 6 pressure on water slow decrease, rainwater during the project resources collection program -10-
  11. 11. Where SQY is European Where SQY is European # 2030 GOALS # 2030 GOALS today? level today? level Lille: pioneer in No data on road safety Comfortable & secure Luxembourg has Compost bag in Voisin le urban methanisation per city (National level 100% organic waste transportation system reduced the yearly Bretonneux in France (2008): 16th place 7 recovered (50% less of traffic number of road No common action plan Germany: the 11 between 30 world related death and deaths by 49% in in the 7 towns European leader in countries by road death injuries then national 2008 compared to methanisation per 100 000 inhabitants level) 2001 Applied to industrial (IRTAD, 2009) eco-parks like Transport system in No bike-sharing system, In 2009, London has Kalunborg (Denmark) which every need no renting of kick- First French city with achieved a 5% shift Nothing developed in Venlo region meets a service scooter possible, no 8 urban circular from the private car SQY territory (Netherlands): 100% 12 (transport offer carpooling parking economy to public transport, circular economy in diversity & accessibility places. But well walking and cycling 2012 (cradle to – up to 80,000 daily networked with buses since 2000 cradle principle) registered users) and trains European leader in London for the functional economy Connection to OIN & Only B to B model: integrative approach by B2C mode Nothing developed in Grand Paris networks OIN & Grand Paris 9 for example truck 13 developed by TfL European observatory SQY territory for better access to under planning tires by Michelin (Transport for for functional larger areas London) economy 3 train stations, a bus Research network as Stockholm (Sweden): European research 80% of people use (fuel) network SEnT (Santé city fleets 100% project called ‘Well- clean mobility modes Auto-solism, Environnement, 10 clean, 5% of all Well-being Research being 2030 project’ 20% of zero fossil fuel no bike-sharing system 14 Toxicologie) vehicles either hybrid Centre by the European transport Discontinuions bike coordinated by PRES or using biofuels Policy Centre (EPC, lanes & tracks UniverSud Paris, (SEnT, 2009) 2009) -11-
  12. 12. MULTINOV OVERALL STRATEGY WHAT? ► MULTINOV WILL WHAT? THREE PILOT PROJECTS REALIZE ITS VISION THROUGH 3 & a well-being research centre PILOT PROJECTS As explained in a previous part SQY is facing a series of challenges which need to be addressed strongly. The three following Pilot Projects have been defined aiming at continuously testing multiple innovations which are WHO? ► NEW STRUCTURES - ► technological, social and organizational answers to these issues. INTEGRATION TEAM & PP1. LOW WASTE COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION TEAM PP2. CLEAN MOBILITY SYSTEM HOW? ► USING QUADRI-HELIX SYSTEM, MONITORING & PP3. SMART BUILDINGS DECISION-MAKING TOOL, We propose SQY to develop a well-being research centre to be able to foster and measure SQY people’s well-being through the pilot projects. FINANCE STRATEGY, AND Moreover, to achieve SQY's long-term goals for 2030, each pilot project has been assigned targets for 2014 and 2020. LEARNING FROM BEST Pilot projects will help SQY in taking the best out of our ideas and PRACTICES propositions. While "learning by doing" with the PARTICIPATION TEAM devoted to citizens’ involvement and with the INTEGRATION TEAM ensuring the coherence and transversal thinking, SQY will run these pilot projects on a small scale. WHEN? ► ACCORDING TO In a second phase and depending on the results obtained, these experiences will be extended to the whole territory of Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines and PROJECT TIMELINE beyond, in partnership with other regional or European local authorities. -12-
  13. 13. WHO? INTEGRATION TEAM Turning SQY into a leading Eco-city requires multi-level governance (Corffe-Morlot, Kamal-Chaoui, Donovan, & Teasdale, 2009) and MULTINOV proposes to create a ‘PARTICIPATION TEAM’ which would be organizational innovations: the integration of multi-competencies is key dedicated to public engagement inside the INTEGRATION TEAM. This to the success of sustainability planning (Brownill & Carpenter, 2009), special team is detailed in the following pages. This is the first time that MULTINOV proposes to create an 'INTEGRATION TEAM' (InT). such a team focused on participation will be implemented in an eco-city project. As a new territorial actor genuinely anchored to worldwide sustainable logics, from the Kyoto protocol to the Grenelle de l’Environnement, it advocates an increasing role of local entities in climate change action. This new local-scale facilitator called Integration Team will develop an integrated planning framework to ensure that proposed actions, policies and strategies will contribute to achieve the common vision, i.e. “SQY the European heart of Eco-Innovation in 2030”. Its main purpose is operational: successful implementation of the three pilot projects: “1- Low waste community”, “2- Clean mobility system and “3 - Smart buildings” and duplication on SQY’s territory of the best actions. INTEGRATION TEAM STATUS • Municipal limited company founded by the SQY • Mostly financed by public forces: EU funds such as "intelligent energy", and "smart cities", national and regional funds. • The team members: 50% will be employees from public services and departments from the SQY, depending on the competencies required by the projects, and 50% from UVSQ and Econoving Chair. -13-
  14. 14. INTEGRATION TEAM EXPERTISE (InT) • FEDERATES. As a public body independent to the changes of political REFERENCES leadership, the InT will deliver coherence of sustainable policies among the 7 communes of SQY. It will bring all urban development stakeholders • Amsterdam: the Amsterdam Innovation Motor (AIM), a city around a common vision, benefiting from a privileged position between agency that promotes cooperation between the public and the public sector strategy and the private sector needs. private sectors (See: http://www.aimsterdam.nl/amsterdam- innovation-motor-2 ). • OPERATES. The InT will lead the operational plan of the 3 pilot projects for the 2010-2014 period of time and manage the broader duplication of successful actions up to 2030. To ensure that, it will develop and apply • Barcelona: the worldwide recognized Local development monitoring and decision making mechanisms described in the following Agency that has mostly brought success to the District of pages, as well as a project timeline. Innovation 22@bcn. (See:http://www.barcelonactiva.cat, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/2/33/43505170.pdf ). • COORDINATES. The InT will develop an innovative culture crossing competencies and advocating collaborative approaches. It will be a central body for the various urban actors and will ensure the equilibrium • Breda (NL): autonomous multi-disciplinary cell of 300 people between top-down and bottom-up methods, when facilitating the up created in Breda, a worldwide model of urban sustainability streaming and down streaming of information and emerging ideas. Netherlands (MASBOUNGI A., 2008). The cell is only devoted to manage and give coherence to all the different sustainable • COMMUNICATES. The InT will open SQY to Europe. It will promote its policies and projects. climate objectives and programs at local and European levels through permanent share of best urban practices, and diffusion of incentives to join recognized networks such as the 'Covenant of mayors'(http://www.eumayors.eu). The InT will implement tools to share these best practices and lessons learned from the pilot projects with other countries and towns: web platform, launch of bids in order to be recognized as one of the Europe's most sustainable cities. -14-
  15. 15. WHO? PARTICIPATION TEAM To build the future eco-city, MULTINOV bases its vision on a "well-being The participation team will include developers and the existing pillar", in which public engagement and active participation play a key development council of SQY (CODESQY) which is composed of different role. Indeed MULTINOV proposal is set up with public participation to stakeholders nominated by the president of SQY. The developers of the define and build up the project for SQY 2030. PARTICIPATION TEAM are people from SQY and private experts in social participation. The first year of the MULTINOV plan consists in the project definition with the different stakeholders, which means inviting citizens to SQY VOLUNTEERS CONCIL participate to this definition. According to Braun (2010) social participation succeeds when stakeholders’ opinions and People of CODESQY are 85 volunteers and come from different activities: recommendations are taken into account. Thus, it is necessary to consult economic, social, cultural. They are like consultants for any project people before making decision and to get them to participate in the proposed in SQY giving advices and remarks, and observing project analysis and development of the plans. implementation. http://www.saint-quentin-en-yvelines.fr/communaute- dagglomeration/le-conseil-de-developpement-codesqy/presentation-du- codesqy/ “Developers at this stage should not only incorporate stakeholder’s suggestions into the planning process but also indicate how stakeholders can participate in carbon-neutral actions” (Braun, 2010). Each pilot project (or sub-project) will happen in a district of SQY. Therefore each pilot project will have its own place for information and participation District MULTINOV will present propositions for SQY in 2030 based on 3 pilot information about its definition and its development. This place projects. A social participation process will be introduced to get centre of is called ‘district information centre’. The pilot project 1 PARTICIPATION TEAM will coordinate the different feedbacks and recommendations on MULTINOV’s proposals and to make the project become stakeholders’ project and no longer MULTINOV’s district information centres. project. Thus, this first year will put a strong emphasis on the development of the social participation process. RESEARCH CENTER Participation team: For this purpose a global information and participation Public engagement can be part of Developers well-being in SQY, involving citizens centre will be set in SQY, located at the Musée de la ville in Montigny-Le-Bretonneux. This centre is what + in the future of their city and MULTINOV calls ‘PARTICIPATION TEAM’. It will coordinate CODESQY getting them to become more District District responsible. The participation team the social participation process, being also a place for information information information, communication, claims and debates. This centre of pilot centre of pilot will be a good media to exchange PARTICIPATION TEAM is part of the integration team project 3 project 2 with the new well-being research which is the developer entity. -15-
  16. 16. The different district information centres will either be existing MULTINOV wants to involve most citizens, and not only early adopters of committees like “conseil de quartier”, or new committees. They will sustainable principles or people that are already convinced. The include local representatives from local associations, town council, young PARTICIPATION TEAM, through its district information centres, will be people council, and any volunteer. able to develop different ways of involving citizens, like the Forum Vauban in Freiburg (Forum Vauban, 2004), or the KUKA mediation These centres will be the places where future end-users, developers, agency in Hannover. We will use the pilot projects and their district researchers and other stakeholders (such as external organisations) will information centres as test beds for innovative participation method. have the possibility to meet and co-operate, in so called co-building groups, during the development of the pilot projects (Ornetzedera & The social participation process will be used for each pilot project and Rohrarcherb, 2006). developed as often as necessary to shape the final proposal for SQY along the years. It is divided into 4 parts: public consultation and The district information centres can also host self-organising groups (also planning definition, monitoring for proposals incorporation, known as self-builders) which will create and manage evaluation project development of actions, and monitoring and evaluation of the process. of innovations (Ornetzedera & Rohrarcherb, 2006). The aim is to involve future users from the beginning of project planning processes which should foster the adoption of innovations. These groups will be set at the early phase of a pilot project or of an innovation development. REFERENCE Nantes is a French pioneer in putting in place innovative social participation processes. They developed a specific workshop called “Atelier Climat” which consists in evaluating citizens about how they can reduce their ecological footprint in a daily life (KOSTRECHE, 2010). They also implemented a new method to involve inhabitants in the water management, which is called “dem’eau” (Un atelier citoyen autour de l'eau, 2009). MULTINOV, with stakeholders’ approval, could propose this kind of participation methods for any particular innovation. -16-
  17. 17. HOW? QUADRI-HELIX SYSTEM SQY will apply this extended system to the field of Eco-Innovations, and PEOPLE-CENTRIC INNOVATION more particularly on the following specific competencies which fall in a wider list edited by EURADA (EURADA, 2009): SYSTEM • New products through constant innovation, technology leaps or new uses for existing products (eco-construction, bio-fuels, etc.); Innovations systems have evolved with time. First models were driven by • New business models including low cost, low energy states and then centred on firms. A third type of institution, universities, consumption, maximum reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, was assigned the task of research after the cold war in addition to their organic farming, and specialist venture capital funds; original goal of teaching. Since then, they have taken even more importance in the innovation system and have become a cradle for small • New administrative and legislative models through use of companies. Hence, we are now dealing with Triple Helix systems where differentiated taxation, incentives, public procurement, spatial universities, firms and government work together in a more efficient planning, building and operating licenses for industrial – and innovative environment (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 2000). possibly commercial – activities, etc. Studies show that innovation is more often generated by independent inventors and small companies rather than by big firms (in terms of R&D The following development towards an efficient quadri-helix system will expenditures) and that it is important to distinguish the concepts of be carried out: invention and innovation (innovation is the process of putting invention on the market, and requires specific tools and competencies) (NELSON, Attractiveness to innovative stakeholders 1967). • Creation of an office which will centralize inventions waiting for Finally, research has recently theorised that regional system of managing competencies to become innovations innovations are a good level of analysis compared to NIS (Cooke, Gomez • Reduced taxes for eco-innovative companies thanks to SQY’s new Uranga, & Etxeba, 1997) (Doloreux & Parto, 2005). economical model which will generate revenues instead of only being a tax collector Based on this set of information, as well as on its strengths and • Stakeholder involvement will allow to have early feedback and weaknesses, SQY is going to implement the next step of development of adapt innovations to the market innovation systems by creating a quadri-helix system, in which local • Real scale test beds available thanks to the Pilot Projects, which governance and citizenry participation will come on top of the three will allow companies to drastically reduce failures due to the standard layers of the triple-helix. This fourth layer will mainly be transition from lab to market organised around the structures called INTEGRATION TEAM, which will • Enhanced support from SQY’s Maison de L’entreprise (Maison de coordinate the different actions, and PARTICIPATION TEAM through l'entreprise, 2010), thanks to wider networks (financial, which SQY’s stakeholders will be involved in framing the success of this organisational, technological) plan for 2030. More details on these structures are given in the report. -17-
  18. 18. • Creation of an ‘observatoire des meilleures pratiques’ to provide 2010 (Jenkinson, 2010) to devise a new framework of indicators will be SQY with first-hand, up-to-date sources of inspiration and available. It is important for the future European Heart of Eco- improvement. Innovations to use the standards shared at European level in order to easily demonstrate the success of the plan. Promote innovations • SQY will show the way being first to implement effective new technologies created in-house • Promote commercial opportunities at privates' level through local regulations, incentives • Create common marketing strategies based on ‘SQY town scale showroom’, which will benefit both to SQY and companies. PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT • Partner with the OIN and other neighbour areas to spread new technologies and increase the first customer potential UNIVERSITY Develop competitiveness • Fill in the gap between gazelles and big firms (85% are small enterprises) (L’Observatoire de la Ville, 2010) INDUSTRY • Partner with other cities, institutions. • Only promote economically viable large scale project, on the same basis as in the Amsterdam Smart City programme. STATE/LOCAL AUTHORITIES The first mission of the ‘observatoire des meilleures pratiques’ will be to monitor the outcomes of the KIC program, supported by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT, 2010). One of its aims being to foster entrepreneurship and new business creation, some of its conclusions could be interesting for SQY to remain at the leading edge of system organisation. Our initial metrics for the evaluation of the performance of SQY innovative system will use the European Innovation Scoreboard 2009 (PRO INNO EUROPE, 2009) as a basis, and will be upgraded once the conclusions of the European research group which was created in May -18-
  19. 19. HOW? MONITORING & DECISION-MAKING TOOL MULTINOV is working on a complex multi-criteria project with a high Moreover, this MULTINOV management strategy will ensure project degree of uncertainly and which relies on collaboration among a diverse resiliency, as defined by Berkers et al. (Berkes, Colding, & Folke, 2003) set of actors. Therefore, in order to establish a resilient system of through three system capacities: monitoring and decision-making, MULTINOV suggest the INTEGRATION TEAM to use an evaluation tool relevant to adaptive co-management at 1. the ability of a system to absorb or buffer disturbances and still each timeline milestone (see Project Timeline). As a social well-being maintain its core attributes; oriented project, the use of a collaborative monitoring tool will be the 2. the ability of the system to self-organize; most adapted strategy for MULTINOV. The main evaluation principle is 3. the capacity for learning and adaptation in the context of change. “associated with increased levels of co-operation and therefore social capital between actors, transparency, sharing of information, and the Therefore, based on the work of Ryan Plummer & Derek Armitage ability to feed information directly into management decisions, thereby (2007), MULTINOV will evaluate their adaptive co-management process tightening the adaptive management cycle and increasing adaptive around three components, developing several parameters for each of capacity” (Cundill & Fabricius, 2009). them. An ecological component will be the frame for a complex Assess project evaluation process including the following elements: ecological Problem components, their relationships and functions, diversity and ecological memory and continuity (“ability of the system to maintain itself through Adjust space and time and continue to self-organize” (Plummer & Armitage, Design 2007)). Adaptiive Management Adapt ve Management A livelihoods component will link economic and social outcomes 6--Step Process Cyclle 6 Step Process Cyc e by evaluating: social well-being, sustainable resource use, system vulnerability and security etc. Evaluate Implement A process component will be the key of MULTINOV adaptive co- management system through evaluation of collaborations/partnerships and social learning processes. Monitor -19-
  20. 20. • Evaluation of performance/outcomes • Foundations for multi-site comparison ADAPTATIVE CO- REFERENCES MANAGEMENT • SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL RESILIENCE Currently, monitoring and adaptive management framework • SUSTAINABILITY is used with success in natural resources management: Ecological system Parameters examples: • Coastal Ecosystem Restoration project in Rhode air/water quality, species Island (USA). (See: interaction, concentration of http://www.csc.noaa.gov/coastal/management/mana pollution, ‘resource’ diversity, ecosystem gement.htm) protection etc. • Water (everglades ecosystem) management project Livelihoods for South Florida (USA). (See: Parameters examples: http://www.ucowr.siu.edu/updates/pdf/V113_A6.pdf natural or social capitals, financial resources market [6]) changes, institutions and policies, decision-making • Parsons Slough (USA) ecosystem management. (See: context etc. http://www.elkhornslough.org/tidalwetland/downloa Process ds/Adaptive_Management_of_Parsons_Slough.pdf) Parameters examples: multiple types of Alexandria is the first eco-city using this framework for their stakeholders, dialogue builds consideration and strategy development. (See: appreciation, diverse inputs http://www.nvc.vt.edu/uap/docs/EcoCity/EcoCityAlex- present in decision-making, p1ppt.pdf) shared actions are undertaken etc. (Plummer & Armitage, 2007) -20-
  21. 21. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS To emphasize the benefits of MULTINOV Pilot Projects, we plan to perform a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). The main difference between eco- innovative projects’ assessment and standard projects lies in the need for a detailed analysis of each phase of their life, and more specifically manufacturing and end-of-life. For low pollutant systems (renewable energies, compressed-air vehicles etc.), emissions during the operation phase are negligible, whereas a considerable amount of emissions is associated with material procurement, manufacture and transportation (Gagnon et al., 2001). For our project we will evaluate two approaches: a process-based model developed by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the 'Ecobilan d’ACV' developed by the ADEME (ADEME, 2005). The first method is widely used for innovative projects assessment for example in the field of renewable energies (Khan et al, 2005). The most appropriate methodology will be chosen after this evaluation phase. This analysis will be used by the INTEGRATION TEAM during the project design and validation stage, which will facilitate early-project decision making by evaluation of performance, cost implications and environmental impacts (Kam et al., 2004). Moreover we propose to evaluate the innovations using a range of indicators suggested by H. Kobayashi in its Life Cycle Planning Methodology (Kobayashi, 2006). Some of them are presented below: • Project eco-efficiency - ‘product value per environmental impact’; • Factor-X - the improvement ratio of the eco-efficiency. Furthermore this approach will be used to assess all new innovative From ‘Diaporamas’ www.saint-quentin-en-yvelines.fr/ products, processes or activities which could be adopted by SQY. -21-
  22. 22. HOW? FINANCE STRATEGY Vauban district in Freiburg, which relative price is 4000 € per resident, PROJECT KEY FIGURES: are not included. The budget of SQY consists of two parts, one operational which deals 4 YEARS – FIRST STAGE with funding daily activities and the investment one which is used for financing important long term projects (Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 2009). 260 M€ - ESTIMATED COST The operational budget is based for nearly 60% on the ‘taxe professionnelle’, a tax paid by companies to the local authorities. However, this tax is going to disappear from 2010. The French state will For the next 4 years, the total cost of the project is estimated to be compensate for the loss of income for this year and a new mechanism about 260 M€ (see Financial aspects part in each Pilot Project). This should be created and normally implemented from 2011 (Ministère du amount is coherent with initial investments estimated in other world Budget, des Comptes publics et de la Réforme de l'Etat, 2009). eco-cities, which lie in a range between 64 M€ for Oslo and 868 M€ for Copenhagen, depending on the project complexity, dimensions, However, this new mechanism is still under construction, and it is potential etc. (see Appendix 1). impossible at this point to forecast the income which will be generated from this new system. In this context of uncertainty, one aspect of our However, MULTINOV relative project cost (1760 € per resident) is project is to switch SQY’s economical model from one of a tax collector considerably higher than the relative cost of other projects chosen for to a different one where the city will most likely collect less taxes and comparison. This could be explained by: generate revenues from its ownership of the grids which will be • high discount rate(2), which reaches the level of 2.04 for some developed throughout the community. Based on the principle of the comparative projects; Régie d'exploitation de la fibre optique de Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, SQY • different level of project complexity, meaning that current will build, own and maintain the different networks, and also run the solutions for eco-cities like Smart Grids or Mobility Advanced commercial activity towards private operators which will use these Systems are more costly, than technologies already used in network to sell their services (Communauté d'Agglomération de Saint- other cities; Quentin en Yvelines, 2009). This global activity will generate revenues for • different areas of application, which could vary from several the community. hundreds of m2 to several thousands of km2. In order to fund our projects, SQY will take the most possible advantages It is important to know that the eco-cities chosen for comparison have from shared investments, mainly with the state, the region, the Conseil been selected for their similarities with SQY (existing infrastructure, eco- Général and even with private partners under appropriate agreements. It strategy, number of projects etc.). Eco-projects built from scratch like the will also apply to national and European funding programs dedicated to sustainable development projects. (2) The interest rate used in determining the present value of past cash flows -22-
  23. 23. The most recent ones are the Grand Emprunt (Direction de l'information The 260 M€ global investment budget is shared between the various légale et administrative, 2009) and the Grenelle de l’Environnement in projects defined in each work-package. The first concern will be to France, as well as the European Initiative on Smart Cities which will ensure the fundraising for every single project. As explained before, it dedicate up to 12 Billion Euros to projects in the field of buildings (new will rely for its most important part on funding programs and and refurbishment), energy and mobility (European Commission, 2010). partnerships. Regarding the implementation of projects, the civil engineering work will But these funding programs are dedicated to specific kinds of projects, only be done once. All the sheaths will be laid at the same time, even if which means that all of our propositions are not eligible to every they are not used straight away, in order to reduce the cost to the investment scheme. Moreover, grants provided by a program may not maximum. This way of doing will also reduce the inconveniences for the cover all of the expenses of the associated project. population during the work, which is an important factor even though not directly linked to finance. In order to get around these issues, we’ll use the following alternatives: SQY’s investment budget for 2010 is around 173 Million Euros. Following • Each project will apply to as many funds which they are eligible to an interview with the local authorities, we should consider that the as possible. budget will lie around 100 Million Euros. What is still unclear at this point • When necessary and possible, the plan will be divided in sub- is the amount of money that will be available each year, because the parts which may prove to meet the specificities required for a reimbursement of some projects will finish and also because SQY has submission. other projects being defined right now. Of course, this global budget can • Implementations could be stepped according to the amount of be increased if external funds are gathered. money raised. • The Integration Team will prioritise our propositions and actions according to the importance of their outcome. In case we FINANCIAL MECHANISM manage to build a budget which will not be affected to a specific • NEW ECONOMIC MODEL purpose, the Integration Team will be able to use that money to O COMBINATION OF TAX COLLECTION AND REVENUE fill in the fund gaps of interesting projects, according to their GENERATION prioritisation. • It is finally important to know that the pilot projects could be • PROJECT FUNDING launched for a minimum cost of 130 million euros. But in that O INSTITUTIONAL CO-FUNDING case, they will be considerably simplified. O NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL FUNDING PROGRAMMES The ultimate alternative will be to postpone a project -23-
  24. 24. HOW? BY LEARNING FROM BEST PRACTICES ‘OBSERVATOIRE DES MEILLEURS PRATIQUES’ WILL BE A KEY SOURCE FOR BEST INNOVATION PRACTICES CATCH-UP FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD. THIS WAY OF LEARNING FROM BEST PRACTICES, PARTICULARLY ACCENTUATED DURING THE FIRST 4 YEARS, WILL ENABLE SQY TO BECOME A RECOGNIZED ECO-CITY IN EUROPE. Curitiba, BRASIL Copenhagen, DENMARK Curitiba is worldwide known for its Boulder, USA life quality coping with population growth and environment protection. People involvement Ale and well being promotion are at A third of people already cycle to SINGAPORE the core of any urban planning. work, school or university. There A program called cambio verde is are about 350km (217 miles) of set in shanty towns which cycle routes around the city. principle is to exchange sorted Cyclists have priority over cars and garbage bags against gifts like pedestrians at many major The oldest cities in green transport tickets. junctions and traffic lights. Since technologies implementation in the mid-1990s, Copenhagen US (positive housing, mobility reduced the risk of having an projects), environmental policies accident when you travel by bike NEWater plants allow creation (first local tax carbon), by 65%. complete water reuse: in 2008 had became first Smart conversion of waste waters Grid City. into drinkable water that is In addition, this project must added to rainwater collection provide installations for fully -24- systems. automated home energy use.
  25. 25. WHEN? PROJECT TIMELINE During the first stage MULTINOV pilot projects will be developed independently SMART BUILDING from each other. Over the second stage, mutual interactions and interdependencies could be created by the 2010 CLEAN multi-project environment establishment. In this case the INTEGRATION TEAM will MOBILITY SYSTEM manage projects’ inter-relationships, adaptability, self-organization and feedbacks. LOW WASTE COMMUNITY Moreover, during the whole life of this lan, the ‘Observatoire des meilleurs pratiques’ will contribute to continuous monitoring of world eco-innovation The first year will consist in pilot 2014 practices. Best ideas will be implemented At each in SQY or transfer from SQY to other cities. projects definition in milestone, pilot collaboration with projects will be the different assessed by the stakeholders. Over INTEGRATION this period the TEAM according SAINT-QUENTIN-EN- INTEGRATION TEAM to the monitoring YVELINES - THE 2030 will be set up, the & decision- strategy for 2014 fixed and public making EUROPEAN framework, and engagement the strategy and HEART OF fostered. goals will be ECO-INNOVATION adapted. 2020 -25-
  26. 26. WELL-BEING RESEARCH CENTRE 2030 GOAL: WELL-BEING between 75000 and 200000 inhabitants, the gold medal was delivered to Melville (Australia) and Broadland (England), and the CERGY PONTOISE RESEARCH CENTER FOUNDATION agglomeration got a bronze medal. The MERCER consultancy agency created an international city ranking for firms that want to expat French HUMAN WELL BEING, a core indicator for the eco- people to other countries (MERCER, 2008). Those different rankings assess cities of tomorrow the cities on life quality including ecological indicators. However, do they Nowadays, most cities in the world aim to tackle climate change using provide an adequate evaluation of urban well-being? new technologies and slightly involving citizens. Very few of them consider the issue of resource depletion linked to our economical model No well-being indicators for eco-cities recognised where “the conventional formula for achieving prosperity relies on the worldwide pursuit of economic growth. Higher incomes will increase well-being and A. Sen, the 1998 Noble prize in economics, together with J. Stiglitz and J.P. lead to prosperity for all, in this view” (Jackson, 2009). However the Fitoussi, was asked in February 2008 by Nicolas Sarkozy to create “The correlation between increased well-being with wealth is not true once a Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social level of income is reached (Layard, 2003). Thus, cities must study new Progress” (CMEPSP) which aim was to identify the limits of GDP as an parameters to increase well-being in their future development. London indicator of social progress (STIGLITZ, SEN, & FITOUSSI, 2008). He had co- (City of London, 2009), Copenhagen (City of Copenhagen, 2009), or developed the HDI indicator in 1990 (Human Development Index) to Vancouver (City of Vancouver, 2009) consider life quality through green replace the GNP indicator, but it is better suited to evaluate well being in spaces, easy access to any point in the city, effects of greenhouse gases poor countries (Le Monde, 2008). on human health. But this looks a narrow approach, whereas Curitiba has increased well-being while coping with population growth and SQY at the cutting edge of well being research and environment protection. “Residents of Curitiba, Brazil, think they live in implementation the best city in the world, and a lot of outsiders agree. Curibita has 17 In order to work on the basis of the CMEPSP, we will propose the French new parks, 90 miles of bike paths, trees everywhere, and traffic and government, through the UVSQ, to create a research centre for urban well- garbage systems that officials from other cities come to study” being gathering the competencies of different laboratories or research (Meadows, 2004). network as SEnT (Santé Environnement, Toxicologie) coordinated by PRES UniverSud Paris, (SEnT, 2009). We will take advantage of the future UFR Cities ranking, a way to assess life quality of cities Médecine in SQY to set up this new centre. Well-being definitions and The French newspaper ‘Le Point’ set a best town to live in ranking, indicators will be developed with international recognition, for example (Philippe Houdart, 2008). ‘Nantes’ reached the first place thanks to working with the European Policy Centre (EPC, 2009) which started in leisure and public spaces, cultural events, a large old industrial area October 2009 a European research project called ‘Well-being 2030 project’. transformed in a district, 5000 jobs created per year, real estate projects, SQY will develop social innovations in a European and French context to easy access to town and its centre, and mass transport. Each year an enlarge the city well being concept developing it beyond the urban quality international awards event focuses on environmental management and of life. Those innovations coming out of the researches will be first applied creation of liveable communities (Livcom awards 2010), with criteria -26- in SQY and might turn into spin outs in the social field. about sustainable development and life quality. In 2009, for cities
  27. 27. PP1. LOW WASTE COMMUNITY CHOOSE THE WAYS YOU ARE Supported by regional data announcing a 1.2% waste reduction between 2007 and 2008 (ORDIF Publications, 2009), MULTINOV proposes an GOING TO REDUCE YOUR WASTE ambitious pilot project to innovate for a low waste community. SQY will combine two very promising breakthrough approaches to its territory: PRODUCTION! circular economy and functional economy, which will bring SQY at the first step of the podium in the change from pollution management CONTEXT towards resources management. Scarcity of resources is becoming critical worldwide as some materials are likely to disappear in less than 20 years. This is the driver that brings CURRENT WASTE STRATEGY waste reuse and recycling strategies at the forefront of policies. At SQY scale, waste policies are organized differently among the 7 The European waste directive of 2008 considers waste management at 5 different communes. Although SQY’s waste sorting strategy is mostly levels: prevention, reuse, recycling, with incineration and disposal being based on citizen voluntary approaches, recent and original initiatives the last resorts which are also pushed by the French plan called Grenelle have been created. For instance, ‘sorting ambassadors’ check the de l'Environnement. Following the PREDMA (Plan Régional d'Elimination sorting quality of household, and help them to improve it if necessary des Déchets Ménagers et Associés), SQY will have to integrate the (in Guyancourt), and Voisins-le-Bretonneux has developed a domestic following waste prevention objectives (ADEME, 2009): composting plan • Reduction of the household waste by 7%/year during 5 years • Reduction of the waste treated by incineration or land filling by 15% until 2012 • Increase of the recycling and composting up to 35% of household waste in 2012 and up to 45% in 2015 • Increase of the recycling of packaging waste and industrial non- hazardous waste up to 75% in 2012 • 50kg/year/hab of waste for 2019 SQY obviously needs to handle a new waste management strategy which should be coherent between the 7 cities (see Current waste strategy), with the recent European, national and regional orientations, as well as with the challenges of GHG, of pollutants emissions reduction, and of resources depletion reduction. -27-
  28. 28. GOALS 2014 GOALS 2020 GOALS 2030 LONG Citizen behaviour is a key point for any action in waste management. TERM GOALS Then through its district information centre, strong citizen participation FOR THE SQY will be encouraged to aim at an "integrated waste management" TERRITORY (Kollikkathara, Feng, & Stern, 2008) based on three major plans: • Organic waste • Methanisation plant • 100% organic “methanisation & composting plan”, “circular economy plan”, and collection system supplying the new waste recovered METHANISATION PLAN “functional economy plan”. Each plan proposed has goals for 2014, (household and local electrical and 2020, and 2030. food sector) heat grids • Sustainable landfill • Compost system in 1) COMPOST & site (temporary all residential areas TECHNOLOGIES AND INITIATIVES storage for further waste treatment) 1. COMPOST AND METHANISATION PLAN • Compost system in residential area for In France, organic wastes represent 30% of our total waste (ADEME, several districts 2007) and 100kg/year/inhabitant can be converted to methane (CNIID, • “Ressourcerie” for • Demonstrator for • First French city 2) CIRCULAR ECONOMY PLAN 2010). In SQY, household organic waste are collected and treated by WEEE water to water with urban incineration, a process which emits very much CO2 and is very energy- • Waste as resource system circular economy greedy. As there are no industries on SQY's territory, organic waste is loops: plastic, • New waste as also the first waste stream cycle which can be rapidly implemented. paper and textile resource loop Hence we propose to divert all of SQY's organic waste from incineration waste streams and landfill while offering the choice to people to transform it into • Research program energy or compost thanks to a methanisation plant or to micro- about territorial composting units. ecology • Citizen awareness web platform EXPERT VIEW ECONOMY PLAN • Demonstrator • New B2B leasing • European leader Literature and interviews namely with Aurélien Lugardon, the main platform in CASQY systems with local in functional 3) FUNCTIONAL associate of the French company Naskeo specialized in organic waste for product service companies economy by B2C treatment, is highlighting this underexploited source as a real niche. system in a B2C • Several platforms to mode mode cover the whole • European territory of CASQY observatory for -28- for B2C leasing functional mode economy
  29. 29. 2. CIRCULAR ECONOMY PLAN EXPERT VIEW Alan Fustec (Conference ProDurable 2010, Paris) promoted the “Waste is simply resources out of place” says a common adage. functional economy, which is already adopted by large worldwide companies such as Michelin and Xerox (COMBE, Perrier, Pireyn, & Richard, 2008), and showed that 40% of household expenditure could We want to propose cutting-edge waste as resource cycles at the city be transformed into service economy. scale, managing the city as an ecosystem involving all citizens, from institutions to companies and inhabitants. The ambition is to offer people the choice between different innovative "waste as resources" cycles for their waste, based on their need and consumption habits. Easy first recycling loops are proposed in the first pilot years in order to encourage the movement to the whole territory of SQY. It will gather all stakeholders around the question of implementation of a circular economy: producer, distributor, consumer, expert, recycling and treatment actors. 3. FUNCTIONAL ECONOMY PLAN Eco-conception was a great improvement towards the integration of environmental issues into product design. But it is still a classical model ‘Waste as Art’ of economy. Purchasing an eco-product still leads to mass production to From keep the business profitable. We propose to go beyond eco-design to www.hweg.com.au/was make people consume less or differently through the functional te-as-art/waste-as-art economy. The concept is to pay for the use of a product instead of the product itself. We want SQY to be: • a leader in functional economy for the citizens, from B2B to B2C schemes • a leader in the test/experimentation of innovative and high quality sustainable modes of consumption -29-

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