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University Library Services during COVID-
19 Pandemic: An Investigative Study
Presented by
Amritha U
MPhil Scholar
Department of Library and Information Science
INTRODUCTION
 Library services provided to the users of three Universities during the Covid-
19 pandemic.
 When information outbreak is enormous, it is the time to remind the society of
the importance of libraries and the role of librarians in organizing and
disseminating the information.
 Accurate information is the key to handle the chaotic situation.
 Due to the information explosion and technological outbreak in this
competitive world, the libraries are forced to provide up to date information
services to the respondents.
INTRODUCTION…….
 It is high time for the librarians to strengthen the resources and services to satisfy the
information needs of users. As a result, many librarians, irrespective of their grade,
have built up collections and started offering services.
 Special services were also provided to the users in order to fulfill their needs.
RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
 In response to COVID-19 mandates, teachers, students, and librarians globally are being forced to
transition to an online-only environment through this transition, all parties within the educational
system are being challenged to quickly adapt to this new environment, with librarians being
responsible for ensuring all library resources are available from a remote location.
 Now a day at this pandemic situation most of the users use the library services for their research
purpose, mostly in digital format for a variety of factors. There has been an increase in research
related data.
 Academic libraries are responsible for collecting, preserving, and disseminating intellectual output.
Today's output includes both printed and digital versions of the same.
RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY……
 Librarians may support researchers with data management problems by assisting with
metadata assignment, teaching data management best practices, guiding data transfer into a
data repository, and outlining a data preservation plan to assure long-term access to data.
 Today the COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a corona virus. The study is mainly
intended to know about the library sources during the COVID-19 period.
 In this situation the library has provided e-resources services to different categories of the
library users including students, scholars, faculty etc.
 The study is dedicated to understanding the usage, awareness about the online information
sources of the library users during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The main objectives of the study are :
1. To find out the chance of visit and time spent in the library.
2. To identifying the safety and preventive measures taken to combat corona virus by the authorities
3. To explore the information needs of users during pandemic period
4. To identify staff’s response to pandemic prior to closure
5. To study the type of facilities and services provided to the users
6. To know the most preferred e-resources used during pandemic
7. To the levels of satisfaction problems of e-resources
8. To find out adhoc services provided
9. To find out barriers in delivering services
10. To offer suggestion to overcome pandemic period
HYPOTHESES
The study proceeds on the following assumptions:
 H1: There is significant reduction in the chance of visit and time spent in the library during COVID-
19
 H2: There is significant reduction in the newspaper reading during pandemic.
 H3: There is significant difference in help provided in the library helping during the pandemic with
regards to universities
 H4: There is significant difference in the services provided after the lockdown period with regards to
universities
 H5: There is significant variation in the level of satisfaction of e-resources with regards to user’s
discipline
 H6: There is significant variation in the level of barriers in delivering services faced by users with
regards to their characteristics
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
 The study is conducted in three University Libraries in Kerala. That is University of
Kerala, University of Calicut and MG university.
 In today’s environment it is necessary to study the library users during the COVID-19
period their needs, the level of their awareness about the e-resources, services, search
patterns, use of various sources and their skills in using and retrieving the information
during this pandemic.
 The result of the study can help the library professionals to reconstruct its services to
deliver it in more effective way towards fulfilling the needs of the users.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
 The study focuses the users on only three University Libraries selected for the study.
 Sample population selected for the study is small due to COVID-19 pandemic.
 Professionals working on daily wage, contract basis, adopted through employment
exchanges are not covered in the study.
 The study is limited to the professionally qualified and permanent library and
information science professionals working in the universities.
 Questionnaire method and interview method has been adopted for data collection and
the opinion of the respondents may vary at different universities.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Descriptive Research
To find out the library services provided during the pandemic
Population
 The population consisted of graduate, public, students, teaching, research scholars, non-teaching
staff of Universities. The total number of users in the Universities are University of Kerala 9000,
University of Calicut 5000, Mahatma Gandhi University 4000. Total Population = 18000
 Sample size was determined by Kukeran Formula at 5% margin error with confidence level of 95% and
response distribution at 89%.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…..
 Kukeran Formula
 Z = statistic for a level of confidence (e.g. 1.96 for 95 percent)
 p & q = Expected proportion (0.7 used for sample needed)
 n = sample size with definite population
 d = precision (0.05 used for sample needed)
 N = Whole Statistical population
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…..
1.962×0.9×0.1
0.052
1+
1
18000
1.962×0.9×0.1
0.052 −1
= 150
Recommended sample size = 150
Sampling Design
It is very difficult to collect data from the entire population. Hence, for this study a
representative part of the population is selected using “Simple Random Sampling”.
 In order to cover non-response and incomplete response, 10% was added to the
recommended sample size. Thus, 165 questionnaires were distributed following the
simple random sampling method. Fifteen questionnaires were found to be incomplete
and they were discarded. So, 150 were selected for the analysis.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…..
 By using Simple Random Sampling method 180 respondents are selected for the study, thus 157
questionnaires were returned back. Three questionnaires were found to be incomplete and they
were discarded. Hence, 150 were selected for the analysis.
VARIABLES
Two categories of variables such as “Dependent variables and Independent variables”
Major Independent variables used are
*Age
* Gender
* Place of Residence
DEPENDENT VARIABLES
Dependent variables are selected with respect to the charactertics and the response of the users
and librarians of the libraries under study. The following variables are cross tabulated as per the
objectives of the study.
 Frequency of visit
 Information needs
 Services
 Level of satisfaction
 Problems of e-resources
 Safety measures
 Barriers
DATA COLLECTIONS TOOLS
 This is an investigative study based on survey method.
 Major respondents for the study are UG, PG, Research scholars and librarians
who are using library.
Important tools for the survey are:
 Questionnaire method
 Interview method
DATAANALYSIS
Analysis of Background Data
 The background data collected through literature reviews of related studies conducted in
the field of the library users during the COVID-19 pandemic. Various sources and services
were consulted like, Emerald, Google scholar, Proquest, Web of science, DOAJ, DOAR, Jgate,
LISA Ingenta, EBSCO, primary journals, conference proceedings and dissertations and thesis
in library and information science, books etc.
Analysis of Library Data
 The details of the library regarding the collection and the adhoc services were
analysed based on the librarians response through data sheets.
DATAANALYSIS……..
Analysis of questionnaire
 The respondents responses towards the library resources and services were
analysed on the Dependent and independent variables.
STATISTICAL TOOLS
Statistical software
 The edited and processed data was analyzed and validated through the
statistical software SPSS Version 22.
Important Statistical tools
 χ²Test
The test is used to explain whether or not two attributes are associated. If the calculated
value of x2 is less than the table value at a certain level of significance for given degrees of
freedom. which states that the two attributes are independent or not associated. This is used as a
technique for judging the significance of such association or relationship between two attributes.
IMPORTANT STATISTICAL TOOLS
 F test
An F-test is any statistical test in which the test statistic has an F-distribution under
the null hypothesis. It is most often used when comparing statistical models that have been
fitted to a data set, in order to identify the model that best fits the population from which
the data were sampled.
ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE
 Background characteristics ( Age, Gender, Place of residence, course)
 Need
 Frequency of visit to the library
 Staff support
 Type of sources preferred
 Latest collection in the library
 Services offered
 Adhoc services
 Online library services
 Access to e-resources
 Level of satisfaction problems of e-resources
 Safety measures
 Barriers
 Suggestions
MAJOR FINDINGS
INFORMATION NEEDS OF USERS DURING PANDEMIC PERIOD
 In the early stages of Covid’s widespread, there were no restrictions on the use of
services as open access, but gradually library materials become in accessible as open
access.
 In the months of Jan-March, 74% of the respondents used the library materials as open
access as there were less restriction on the use of materials by the respondents as open
access. But as part of restriction, the library staff took the materials to 26% of the
respondents.
 April-June the number of respondents using the book as open access decreased.
Month N
Open access/Self
Library staff will
issue
the needed book
n % n %
Jan-
March
100 74 74.00 26 26.00
April-
June
14 2 14.29 12 85.71
July-Sep 42 7 16.67 35 83.33
Oct-Dec 62 15 24.19 47 75.81
SOURCES AND SERVICES
 Search engine was the most used service followed by online journals.
 Most of the users made use of search engines.
 No users made use of audiobook
Parameters
Number
of
Responde
nts
Percentage
(%)
Online journal 65 43.33
Search Engine 67 44.67
e-book 13 8.67
audiobooks 0 0.00
Others 5 3.33
Total 150 100.00
PREFERRED E-RESOURCES USED DURING
PANDEMIC
 The mostly preferred e-resources were Jstore followed by JGate. ProQuest (Thesis,
Dissertation) were also made used by the users.
 The least preferred e-resources were AAAS.
e-resources
Number of
Responden
ts
Percentage
(%)
JGate 43 31.39
Jstore 54 39.42
IOP Publishing 0 0.00
IEEE Xplore 9 6.57
WILEY 12 8.76
Royal society of chemistry
(RSC)
16 11.68
Sci Finder 25 18.25
ProQuest (Thesis, Dissertation) 39 28.47
Science Direct (ELSEIVER) 34 24.82
Springer 28 20.44
AAAS 2 1.46
Scopus 11 8.03
EBSCO 22 16.06
EBSCO discovery service 12 8.76
Emerald e-journal (Library
science)
34 24.82
Web of science 28 20.44
SERVICES PROVIDED AFTER THE
LOCKDOWN PERIOD
 Reference service, information about library events, news on library services,
information about new arrivals, access to open access resources and link to web OPAC
etc. were the commonly provided from libraries during the pandemic period.
 The mostly used services during lockdown period were the information about the
library events followed by information about new arrivals.
 Only 7% of respondents used the link to web OPAC.
Services
Number of
Respondents
Percentag
e (%)
Reference services 18 13.85
Information about library
events
61 46.92
News on library services 32 24.62
Information about new
arrivals
46 35.38
Access to open access
resources
28 21.54
Link to web OPAC 7 5.38
ONLINE LIBRARY SERVICES USED
DURING THE PANDEMIC PERIOD
 It has been a few years since online services began to help the library user, but online
sources have become the only source of information during the current epidemic. Many
online live services are used to provide services such as library seminars.
 The mostly used online library services were google meet, followed by YouTube
channel, some users made use of webinar followed by Zoom meeting.
 Some of the online library services were not used by the respondents.
Services
Number of
Responden
ts
Percenta
ge (%)
Google meet 111 81.02
Go to meeting 9 6.57
Business hangouts 0 0.00
Join me 1 0.73
Blogs 56 40.88
Microsoft team 3 2.19
My own conference 0 0.00
Skype for business 0 0.00
CISCO Webex 26 18.98
Zoho meeting 3 2.19
Zoom meeting 58 42.34
YouTube channel 85 62.04
Webinar 79 57.66
WebEx 12 8.76
ADHOC SERVICES IN LIBRARIES
 The main objective of all libraries is the distribution of information. Therefore,
education purpose is the primary function of the library. Adhoc service is a service
which is provided to the users for a period of time.
 Adhoc refers to actions taken to address a specific situation, circumstance, or problem,
and not usually intended to address other or ongoing issues.
 Webinar is the mostly used Adhoc services by the users and followed by workshop
were also made used by the users.
 Remote login services were also used by the respondents.
 Less used services were newspaper clipping.
Adhoc services
Number of
Respondents
Percentage
(%)
Webinar 90 65.69
Access to COVID-19 resources 9 6.57
Remote login 36 26.28
Newspaper clipping 3 2.19
Online course 9 6.57
Workshop 48 35.04
Orientation program 32 23.36
Education and tutorial sites 20 14.60
Training 10 7.30
Others 14 10.22
LEVELS OF SATISFACTION
 61%-80% of the users were satisfied while using the e-resources
 Above 80% only some were satisfied with the use of e-resources.
Parameters
Number of
Respondent
s
Percentag
e (%)
Less than 20% 17 12.41
20%-40% 19 13.87
41%-60% 42 30.66
61%-80% 49 35.77
Above 80% 10 7.30
Total 137 100.00
BARRIERS IN DELIVERING SERVICES
 During the Covid-19 period, all areas were facing many problems. Since the library is a
public institution, the impact of the problems is huge. The library sector is facing a
number of problems such as the inability to open the library, limiting working hours,
and lack of library staff etc.
 Difficulty in finding relevant information was the most barrier in delivering services.
 Limited working hours of library was also a barrier.
Problems
Number of
Responden
ts
Percentage
(%)
Slow access speed while
using a resource
97 70.80
Difficulty in finding
relevant information
109 79.56
Limited working hours of
library
107 78.10
Lack of support from
library staff
71 51.82
Digital illiteracy 54 39.42
Others 7 5.11
TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES
Hypotheses 1:There is significant reduction in the chance of visit and time spent in the library during
COVID-19
 The background data and chi square values During April-June and July-September, number of visits is
comparatively low. The result indicates that the chance of visit in the library during COVID-19 significantly
reduced.
 As Significance level of F value is less than 0.05, there is significant variation in the time spent in the library
during the month of April-June and Oct-Dec. the result indicates that the chance of time they visited in the library
during COVID-19 significantly reduced. Hence the result accepts the hypotheses that there is significant reduction
in the chance of visit and time spent in the library during COVID-19.
There is significant reduction in the chance of visit and time spent in the library during COVID-19.
TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES…..
Hypotheses 2:There is significant reduction in the newspaper reading during pandemic
period
 There is significant difference in the number of samples reading newspaper during the
study period. The number is comparatively lower during April- June and July-Sep.
Hence the result accepts the hypothesis that there is significant reduction in the
newspaper reading during pandemic period.
There is significant reduction in the newspaper reading during pandemic period.
TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES……
Hypotheses 3: There is significant difference in help provided in the library helping during
the pandemic with regards to universities
 Significance level of chi-square of Friedman test is less than 0.05, there is significant
difference in help provided in the library helping during the pandemic with regards to
universities. Hence the result accepts the hypothesis that there is significant reduction in
the library helping during the pandemic with regards to universities.
There is significant reduction in the newspaper reading during pandemic period.
TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES………
Hypotheses 4: There is significant difference in the services provided after the
Lockdown period with regards to universities
 Significance level of chi-square of Friedman test is less than 0.05, there is significant
difference in the services provided after the Lockdown period with regards to
universities. Hence the result accepts the hypothesis that there is significant reduction in
the services provided after the Lockdown period with regards to universities.
There is significant difference in the services provided after the Lockdown period with
regards to universities.
TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES….
Hypotheses 5: There is significant variation in the level of satisfaction of e-resources
with regards to user’s discipline
 Level of satisfaction of e-resources with regards to user’s discipline is not same. Hence
the result accepts the null hypothesis that there is significant variation in the level of
satisfaction of e-resources with regards to user’s discipline.
There is significant variation in the level of satisfaction of e-resources with regards to
user’s discipline
TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES……
Hypotheses 6:There is significant variation in the level of barriers in delivering services
faced by users with regards to their characteristics
 As number of other problems is very low (7), it is eliminated from the analysis. As
number of samples below 22 years is very low (4), they were included in the adjacent
group
 The significance levels of chi-squares are less than 0.05, there is significant variation in
the level of barriers in delivering services faced by users with regards to their
characteristics.
There is significant variation in the level of barriers in delivering services faced by
users with regards to their characteristics.
AREAS FOR FURTHER STUDY
 University libraries and adhoc services in pandemic situation.
 Academic and public library’s virtual services during pandemic: A comparative Study.
 Library services provided for research scholars in Covid-19 pandemic
 Benefits of digital resources provided by University library in Covid-19 Situation: An
Investigative Study
SUGGESTIONS
 Encourage online webinars-resources etc. as it can be saved and utilized well even in the future.
 Current information is not available from online resources, so library management should ensure
that they provide full and informative sources to the effectively.
 Library should provide more e-services during pandemic time. Because without this we can’t cope
up with such a time for academic needs.
 Provide more sources for scholars and students. Lack of information was one of the main problems
at the time of Covid-19, so library should provide more online services.
 Provide an e-library where pdf, document files of study, reference materials, textbooks can be
downloaded.
 Should give more access to the library facilities for the students during the pandemic period
SUGGESTIONS…..
 It is relevant to aware about the digital platforms for accessing information through
internet. So, they should be able to use these facilities for the upcoming days otherwise
they will find difficult to cope up with the changes.
 Colleges and Universities must provide digital library.
 Library should provide online workshops, and must give information about e-resources.
 Increasing working hours, provide more safety measures, provide digital literacy.
 Colleges and Universities students need more technological literacy for accessing
information.
CONCLUSION
 The main objective of the study was to make a comprehensive study on the information
needs of users during pandemic. There is an imbalance between the rapidly developing
services and information available to the users. Universities and Departments should take a
lead role in spreading knowledge of new services.
 The present topic assumes utmost importance in accessing the needs of users of the
universities during the pandemic.
 The study reveals that most of the users are literate in using e-resources and also, they
consider e-resources as major source of information. Majority of the students seek
information for satisfying their academic needs.
CONCLUSION…..
 It reveals that most of the services are not provided to the users and most of the students
are not aware of new services.
 During this pandemic the universities should provide them more services, latest trends
and developments to improve the existing library and information services based on the
feedback received from students.

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University Library Services during covid 19.pptx

  • 1. University Library Services during COVID- 19 Pandemic: An Investigative Study Presented by Amritha U MPhil Scholar Department of Library and Information Science
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Library services provided to the users of three Universities during the Covid- 19 pandemic.  When information outbreak is enormous, it is the time to remind the society of the importance of libraries and the role of librarians in organizing and disseminating the information.  Accurate information is the key to handle the chaotic situation.  Due to the information explosion and technological outbreak in this competitive world, the libraries are forced to provide up to date information services to the respondents.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION…….  It is high time for the librarians to strengthen the resources and services to satisfy the information needs of users. As a result, many librarians, irrespective of their grade, have built up collections and started offering services.  Special services were also provided to the users in order to fulfill their needs.
  • 4. RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY  In response to COVID-19 mandates, teachers, students, and librarians globally are being forced to transition to an online-only environment through this transition, all parties within the educational system are being challenged to quickly adapt to this new environment, with librarians being responsible for ensuring all library resources are available from a remote location.  Now a day at this pandemic situation most of the users use the library services for their research purpose, mostly in digital format for a variety of factors. There has been an increase in research related data.  Academic libraries are responsible for collecting, preserving, and disseminating intellectual output. Today's output includes both printed and digital versions of the same.
  • 5. RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY……  Librarians may support researchers with data management problems by assisting with metadata assignment, teaching data management best practices, guiding data transfer into a data repository, and outlining a data preservation plan to assure long-term access to data.  Today the COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a corona virus. The study is mainly intended to know about the library sources during the COVID-19 period.  In this situation the library has provided e-resources services to different categories of the library users including students, scholars, faculty etc.  The study is dedicated to understanding the usage, awareness about the online information sources of the library users during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 6. The main objectives of the study are : 1. To find out the chance of visit and time spent in the library. 2. To identifying the safety and preventive measures taken to combat corona virus by the authorities 3. To explore the information needs of users during pandemic period 4. To identify staff’s response to pandemic prior to closure 5. To study the type of facilities and services provided to the users 6. To know the most preferred e-resources used during pandemic 7. To the levels of satisfaction problems of e-resources 8. To find out adhoc services provided 9. To find out barriers in delivering services 10. To offer suggestion to overcome pandemic period
  • 7. HYPOTHESES The study proceeds on the following assumptions:  H1: There is significant reduction in the chance of visit and time spent in the library during COVID- 19  H2: There is significant reduction in the newspaper reading during pandemic.  H3: There is significant difference in help provided in the library helping during the pandemic with regards to universities  H4: There is significant difference in the services provided after the lockdown period with regards to universities  H5: There is significant variation in the level of satisfaction of e-resources with regards to user’s discipline  H6: There is significant variation in the level of barriers in delivering services faced by users with regards to their characteristics
  • 8. SCOPE OF THE STUDY  The study is conducted in three University Libraries in Kerala. That is University of Kerala, University of Calicut and MG university.  In today’s environment it is necessary to study the library users during the COVID-19 period their needs, the level of their awareness about the e-resources, services, search patterns, use of various sources and their skills in using and retrieving the information during this pandemic.  The result of the study can help the library professionals to reconstruct its services to deliver it in more effective way towards fulfilling the needs of the users.
  • 9. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY  The study focuses the users on only three University Libraries selected for the study.  Sample population selected for the study is small due to COVID-19 pandemic.  Professionals working on daily wage, contract basis, adopted through employment exchanges are not covered in the study.  The study is limited to the professionally qualified and permanent library and information science professionals working in the universities.  Questionnaire method and interview method has been adopted for data collection and the opinion of the respondents may vary at different universities.
  • 10. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Descriptive Research To find out the library services provided during the pandemic Population  The population consisted of graduate, public, students, teaching, research scholars, non-teaching staff of Universities. The total number of users in the Universities are University of Kerala 9000, University of Calicut 5000, Mahatma Gandhi University 4000. Total Population = 18000  Sample size was determined by Kukeran Formula at 5% margin error with confidence level of 95% and response distribution at 89%.
  • 11. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…..  Kukeran Formula  Z = statistic for a level of confidence (e.g. 1.96 for 95 percent)  p & q = Expected proportion (0.7 used for sample needed)  n = sample size with definite population  d = precision (0.05 used for sample needed)  N = Whole Statistical population
  • 12. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY….. 1.962×0.9×0.1 0.052 1+ 1 18000 1.962×0.9×0.1 0.052 −1 = 150 Recommended sample size = 150 Sampling Design It is very difficult to collect data from the entire population. Hence, for this study a representative part of the population is selected using “Simple Random Sampling”.  In order to cover non-response and incomplete response, 10% was added to the recommended sample size. Thus, 165 questionnaires were distributed following the simple random sampling method. Fifteen questionnaires were found to be incomplete and they were discarded. So, 150 were selected for the analysis.
  • 13. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…..  By using Simple Random Sampling method 180 respondents are selected for the study, thus 157 questionnaires were returned back. Three questionnaires were found to be incomplete and they were discarded. Hence, 150 were selected for the analysis.
  • 14. VARIABLES Two categories of variables such as “Dependent variables and Independent variables” Major Independent variables used are *Age * Gender * Place of Residence
  • 15. DEPENDENT VARIABLES Dependent variables are selected with respect to the charactertics and the response of the users and librarians of the libraries under study. The following variables are cross tabulated as per the objectives of the study.  Frequency of visit  Information needs  Services  Level of satisfaction  Problems of e-resources  Safety measures  Barriers
  • 16. DATA COLLECTIONS TOOLS  This is an investigative study based on survey method.  Major respondents for the study are UG, PG, Research scholars and librarians who are using library. Important tools for the survey are:  Questionnaire method  Interview method
  • 17. DATAANALYSIS Analysis of Background Data  The background data collected through literature reviews of related studies conducted in the field of the library users during the COVID-19 pandemic. Various sources and services were consulted like, Emerald, Google scholar, Proquest, Web of science, DOAJ, DOAR, Jgate, LISA Ingenta, EBSCO, primary journals, conference proceedings and dissertations and thesis in library and information science, books etc. Analysis of Library Data  The details of the library regarding the collection and the adhoc services were analysed based on the librarians response through data sheets.
  • 18. DATAANALYSIS…….. Analysis of questionnaire  The respondents responses towards the library resources and services were analysed on the Dependent and independent variables.
  • 19. STATISTICAL TOOLS Statistical software  The edited and processed data was analyzed and validated through the statistical software SPSS Version 22. Important Statistical tools  χ²Test The test is used to explain whether or not two attributes are associated. If the calculated value of x2 is less than the table value at a certain level of significance for given degrees of freedom. which states that the two attributes are independent or not associated. This is used as a technique for judging the significance of such association or relationship between two attributes.
  • 20. IMPORTANT STATISTICAL TOOLS  F test An F-test is any statistical test in which the test statistic has an F-distribution under the null hypothesis. It is most often used when comparing statistical models that have been fitted to a data set, in order to identify the model that best fits the population from which the data were sampled.
  • 21. ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE  Background characteristics ( Age, Gender, Place of residence, course)  Need  Frequency of visit to the library  Staff support  Type of sources preferred  Latest collection in the library  Services offered  Adhoc services  Online library services  Access to e-resources  Level of satisfaction problems of e-resources  Safety measures  Barriers  Suggestions
  • 22. MAJOR FINDINGS INFORMATION NEEDS OF USERS DURING PANDEMIC PERIOD  In the early stages of Covid’s widespread, there were no restrictions on the use of services as open access, but gradually library materials become in accessible as open access.  In the months of Jan-March, 74% of the respondents used the library materials as open access as there were less restriction on the use of materials by the respondents as open access. But as part of restriction, the library staff took the materials to 26% of the respondents.  April-June the number of respondents using the book as open access decreased. Month N Open access/Self Library staff will issue the needed book n % n % Jan- March 100 74 74.00 26 26.00 April- June 14 2 14.29 12 85.71 July-Sep 42 7 16.67 35 83.33 Oct-Dec 62 15 24.19 47 75.81
  • 23. SOURCES AND SERVICES  Search engine was the most used service followed by online journals.  Most of the users made use of search engines.  No users made use of audiobook Parameters Number of Responde nts Percentage (%) Online journal 65 43.33 Search Engine 67 44.67 e-book 13 8.67 audiobooks 0 0.00 Others 5 3.33 Total 150 100.00
  • 24. PREFERRED E-RESOURCES USED DURING PANDEMIC  The mostly preferred e-resources were Jstore followed by JGate. ProQuest (Thesis, Dissertation) were also made used by the users.  The least preferred e-resources were AAAS. e-resources Number of Responden ts Percentage (%) JGate 43 31.39 Jstore 54 39.42 IOP Publishing 0 0.00 IEEE Xplore 9 6.57 WILEY 12 8.76 Royal society of chemistry (RSC) 16 11.68 Sci Finder 25 18.25 ProQuest (Thesis, Dissertation) 39 28.47 Science Direct (ELSEIVER) 34 24.82 Springer 28 20.44 AAAS 2 1.46 Scopus 11 8.03 EBSCO 22 16.06 EBSCO discovery service 12 8.76 Emerald e-journal (Library science) 34 24.82 Web of science 28 20.44
  • 25. SERVICES PROVIDED AFTER THE LOCKDOWN PERIOD  Reference service, information about library events, news on library services, information about new arrivals, access to open access resources and link to web OPAC etc. were the commonly provided from libraries during the pandemic period.  The mostly used services during lockdown period were the information about the library events followed by information about new arrivals.  Only 7% of respondents used the link to web OPAC. Services Number of Respondents Percentag e (%) Reference services 18 13.85 Information about library events 61 46.92 News on library services 32 24.62 Information about new arrivals 46 35.38 Access to open access resources 28 21.54 Link to web OPAC 7 5.38
  • 26. ONLINE LIBRARY SERVICES USED DURING THE PANDEMIC PERIOD  It has been a few years since online services began to help the library user, but online sources have become the only source of information during the current epidemic. Many online live services are used to provide services such as library seminars.  The mostly used online library services were google meet, followed by YouTube channel, some users made use of webinar followed by Zoom meeting.  Some of the online library services were not used by the respondents. Services Number of Responden ts Percenta ge (%) Google meet 111 81.02 Go to meeting 9 6.57 Business hangouts 0 0.00 Join me 1 0.73 Blogs 56 40.88 Microsoft team 3 2.19 My own conference 0 0.00 Skype for business 0 0.00 CISCO Webex 26 18.98 Zoho meeting 3 2.19 Zoom meeting 58 42.34 YouTube channel 85 62.04 Webinar 79 57.66 WebEx 12 8.76
  • 27. ADHOC SERVICES IN LIBRARIES  The main objective of all libraries is the distribution of information. Therefore, education purpose is the primary function of the library. Adhoc service is a service which is provided to the users for a period of time.  Adhoc refers to actions taken to address a specific situation, circumstance, or problem, and not usually intended to address other or ongoing issues.  Webinar is the mostly used Adhoc services by the users and followed by workshop were also made used by the users.  Remote login services were also used by the respondents.  Less used services were newspaper clipping. Adhoc services Number of Respondents Percentage (%) Webinar 90 65.69 Access to COVID-19 resources 9 6.57 Remote login 36 26.28 Newspaper clipping 3 2.19 Online course 9 6.57 Workshop 48 35.04 Orientation program 32 23.36 Education and tutorial sites 20 14.60 Training 10 7.30 Others 14 10.22
  • 28. LEVELS OF SATISFACTION  61%-80% of the users were satisfied while using the e-resources  Above 80% only some were satisfied with the use of e-resources. Parameters Number of Respondent s Percentag e (%) Less than 20% 17 12.41 20%-40% 19 13.87 41%-60% 42 30.66 61%-80% 49 35.77 Above 80% 10 7.30 Total 137 100.00
  • 29. BARRIERS IN DELIVERING SERVICES  During the Covid-19 period, all areas were facing many problems. Since the library is a public institution, the impact of the problems is huge. The library sector is facing a number of problems such as the inability to open the library, limiting working hours, and lack of library staff etc.  Difficulty in finding relevant information was the most barrier in delivering services.  Limited working hours of library was also a barrier. Problems Number of Responden ts Percentage (%) Slow access speed while using a resource 97 70.80 Difficulty in finding relevant information 109 79.56 Limited working hours of library 107 78.10 Lack of support from library staff 71 51.82 Digital illiteracy 54 39.42 Others 7 5.11
  • 30. TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES Hypotheses 1:There is significant reduction in the chance of visit and time spent in the library during COVID-19  The background data and chi square values During April-June and July-September, number of visits is comparatively low. The result indicates that the chance of visit in the library during COVID-19 significantly reduced.  As Significance level of F value is less than 0.05, there is significant variation in the time spent in the library during the month of April-June and Oct-Dec. the result indicates that the chance of time they visited in the library during COVID-19 significantly reduced. Hence the result accepts the hypotheses that there is significant reduction in the chance of visit and time spent in the library during COVID-19. There is significant reduction in the chance of visit and time spent in the library during COVID-19.
  • 31. TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES….. Hypotheses 2:There is significant reduction in the newspaper reading during pandemic period  There is significant difference in the number of samples reading newspaper during the study period. The number is comparatively lower during April- June and July-Sep. Hence the result accepts the hypothesis that there is significant reduction in the newspaper reading during pandemic period. There is significant reduction in the newspaper reading during pandemic period.
  • 32. TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES…… Hypotheses 3: There is significant difference in help provided in the library helping during the pandemic with regards to universities  Significance level of chi-square of Friedman test is less than 0.05, there is significant difference in help provided in the library helping during the pandemic with regards to universities. Hence the result accepts the hypothesis that there is significant reduction in the library helping during the pandemic with regards to universities. There is significant reduction in the newspaper reading during pandemic period.
  • 33. TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES……… Hypotheses 4: There is significant difference in the services provided after the Lockdown period with regards to universities  Significance level of chi-square of Friedman test is less than 0.05, there is significant difference in the services provided after the Lockdown period with regards to universities. Hence the result accepts the hypothesis that there is significant reduction in the services provided after the Lockdown period with regards to universities. There is significant difference in the services provided after the Lockdown period with regards to universities.
  • 34. TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES…. Hypotheses 5: There is significant variation in the level of satisfaction of e-resources with regards to user’s discipline  Level of satisfaction of e-resources with regards to user’s discipline is not same. Hence the result accepts the null hypothesis that there is significant variation in the level of satisfaction of e-resources with regards to user’s discipline. There is significant variation in the level of satisfaction of e-resources with regards to user’s discipline
  • 35. TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES…… Hypotheses 6:There is significant variation in the level of barriers in delivering services faced by users with regards to their characteristics  As number of other problems is very low (7), it is eliminated from the analysis. As number of samples below 22 years is very low (4), they were included in the adjacent group  The significance levels of chi-squares are less than 0.05, there is significant variation in the level of barriers in delivering services faced by users with regards to their characteristics. There is significant variation in the level of barriers in delivering services faced by users with regards to their characteristics.
  • 36. AREAS FOR FURTHER STUDY  University libraries and adhoc services in pandemic situation.  Academic and public library’s virtual services during pandemic: A comparative Study.  Library services provided for research scholars in Covid-19 pandemic  Benefits of digital resources provided by University library in Covid-19 Situation: An Investigative Study
  • 37. SUGGESTIONS  Encourage online webinars-resources etc. as it can be saved and utilized well even in the future.  Current information is not available from online resources, so library management should ensure that they provide full and informative sources to the effectively.  Library should provide more e-services during pandemic time. Because without this we can’t cope up with such a time for academic needs.  Provide more sources for scholars and students. Lack of information was one of the main problems at the time of Covid-19, so library should provide more online services.  Provide an e-library where pdf, document files of study, reference materials, textbooks can be downloaded.  Should give more access to the library facilities for the students during the pandemic period
  • 38. SUGGESTIONS…..  It is relevant to aware about the digital platforms for accessing information through internet. So, they should be able to use these facilities for the upcoming days otherwise they will find difficult to cope up with the changes.  Colleges and Universities must provide digital library.  Library should provide online workshops, and must give information about e-resources.  Increasing working hours, provide more safety measures, provide digital literacy.  Colleges and Universities students need more technological literacy for accessing information.
  • 39. CONCLUSION  The main objective of the study was to make a comprehensive study on the information needs of users during pandemic. There is an imbalance between the rapidly developing services and information available to the users. Universities and Departments should take a lead role in spreading knowledge of new services.  The present topic assumes utmost importance in accessing the needs of users of the universities during the pandemic.  The study reveals that most of the users are literate in using e-resources and also, they consider e-resources as major source of information. Majority of the students seek information for satisfying their academic needs.
  • 40. CONCLUSION…..  It reveals that most of the services are not provided to the users and most of the students are not aware of new services.  During this pandemic the universities should provide them more services, latest trends and developments to improve the existing library and information services based on the feedback received from students.