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Ubiquitous Computing and AmI Smart Environments

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Ubiquitous Computing and AmI Smart Environments

  1. 1. Ubiquitous Computing and AmI Smart Environments (From Human Computer Interaction to Human Environment Interaction) Joseph Howerton HCI 594 - Professor Adam Steele DePaul University 11/29/2011
  2. 2. The Evolving Information Society • Major advancements in the Internet and smart devices over the last two decades. • Societies appear ready to adopt new technology hardware and application advances just as fast as they emerge. • The result is profound advancements in the way humans communicate and interact.
  3. 3. Three major waves in computing • First Wave was many people per computer. • Second Wave was one person per computer. • Third Wave will be many computers per person. Also called The Now Economy.
  4. 4. Three major waves in computing
  5. 5. The concept of Moore’s Law • Says that the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years (or 18 months). • Result. Computing devices continue to become more and more miniaturized, while increasing in computing power and wireless connectivity.
  6. 6. Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp) • Mark Weiser, The Father of UbiComp, coined the term “ubiquitous computing” in his seminal article,The Computer For The 21st Century, Scientific American, September 1991. • Weiser asserts that, “the most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.
  7. 7. What is UbiComp? • Ubiquitous Computing pre-supposes the idea that: • “machines should fit into the human environment, instead of forcing humans to enter into the machine’s environment.”
  8. 8. What is UbiComp? • Embedded: many networked devices are integrated into the everyday objects in any given environment. • Context aware: these devices can recognize you and your situational context. • Personalized: they can be tailored to your needs. • Adaptive: they can change in response to you. • Anticipatory: they can anticipate your desires without conscious mediation.
  9. 9. Weiser’s Vision • “We are therefore trying to conceive a new way of thinking about computers, one that takes into account the human world and allows the computers to vanish into the background.” Mark Weiser
  10. 10. Ambient Intelligence (AmI) (A new computing paradigm) • A result of the increasing demand for ubiquitous and continuous access to information and services. • AmI refers to “electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people.”
  11. 11. The Roots of AmI • “AmI refers to a multi-disciplinary area of research and development which embraces a variety of pre-existing fields of computer science as well as engineering.” • AmI brings together all of these resources to provide flexible, intelligent services to users acting in their environments.
  12. 12. The Roots of AmI • AmI was first proposed by the consumer electronics company Philips in the late 1990s “as a novel paradigm for consumer electronics that are sensitive to, and responsive to, the presence of people.” • Philips’ HomeLab initiative, which was an advanced lab designed to conduct usability and feasibility studies in AmI that officially opened in 2002.
  13. 13. The Roots of AmI • This was accomplished first in the home lighting market, where lighting “systems” would turn on with the presence of people, or outdoor lights that turn on when the environment turns dark.
  14. 14. The Roots of AmI • The EU’s Information Society Technologies Program Advisory Group (ISTAG) “used the term Ambient Intelligence (AmI) to describe a vision where people will be surrounded by intelligent and intuitive interfaces embedded in everyday objects and environments.”
  15. 15. The Vision of AmI
  16. 16. The AmI Paradigm Shift “The AmI paradigm differs in two major ways from the previous two waves of computing.” • “The user interface has become reactive, that is actions are not explicitly requested but are the result of the mere presence of people or their avatars.” • “The meaning of computation can no longer be associated to a single device or a set of connected devices, but is located in the collection of devices.”
  17. 17. The foundations of AmI “Smart environments” • Integration of sensing capabilities • Processing power • Reasoning mechanisms • Networking facilities • Applications and services • Digital content • Actuating capabilities (to be distributed in the surrounding environment)
  18. 18. AmI Smart Objects • Environment characterized by invisible, embedded computational power in everyday devices and appliances. • Augmenting the physical properties and affordances of artefacts with the potential of computer-based support, i.e. creating “Smart Objects.”
  19. 19. The Constructs of AmI Smart Environments
  20. 20. Social Challenges and Implications • A world filled with AmI all knowing, all reporting objects. • Comprehensive monitoring and surveillance. • Total market transparency. • How much privacy are we willing to trade to achieve increased productivity.
  21. 21. Social Challenges and Implications • A world filled with AmI all knowing, all reporting objects. • Comprehensive monitoring and surveillance. • Total market transparency. • How much privacy are we willing to trade to achieve increased productivity.
  22. 22. Social Challenges and Implications • A world filled with AmI all knowing, all reporting objects. • Comprehensive monitoring and surveillance. • Total market transparency. • How much privacy are we willing to trade to achieve increased productivity.
  23. 23. Privacy • “Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others.” Alan Westin
  24. 24. Acceptance and Adoption • Acceptance and adoption of AmI Smart Environments will be founded in trust and privacy. • This will remain a paramount action item for proponents of emerging AmI landscapes.
  25. 25. Conclusion This question is addressed to UI and UX designers, as well as current and budding HCI professionals. • Will we address the impending pitfalls to AmI early in the design phase in order to shape the envisaged systems according to fundamental social and ethical requirements?

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