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OS Bootcamp Workshop v1.4 - MR-5CN-GSAPICSOS


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OS Bootcamp Workshop v1.4 - MR-5CN-GSAPICSOS

  1. 1. EMC Education Service Operating System Bootcamp Workshop April 2013
  2. 2. EMC Education Service Copyright Copyright © 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. EMC believes the information in this publication is accurate as of its publication date. The information is subject to change without notice. THE INFORMATION IN THIS PUBLICATION IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” EMC CORPORATION MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WITH RESPECT TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PUBLICATION, AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Use, copying, and distribution of any EMC software described in this publication requires an applicable software license. EMC2, EMC, Data Domain, RSA, EMC Centera, EMC ControlCenter, EMC LifeLine, EMC OnCourse, EMC Proven, EMC Snap, EMC SourceOne, EMC Storage Administrator, Acartus, Access Logix, AdvantEdge, AlphaStor, ApplicationXtender, ArchiveXtender, Atmos, Authentica, Authentic Problems, Automated Resource Manager, AutoStart, AutoSwap, AVALONidm, Avamar, Captiva, Catalog Solution, C-Clip, Celerra, Celerra Replicator, Centera, CenterStage, CentraStar, ClaimPack, ClaimsEditor, CLARiiON, ClientPak, Codebook Correlation Technology, Common Information Model, Configuration Intelligence, Configuresoft, Connectrix, CopyCross, CopyPoint, Dantz, DatabaseXtender, Direct Matrix Architecture, DiskXtender, DiskXtender 2000, Document Sciences, Documentum, elnput, E-Lab, EmailXaminer, EmailXtender, Enginuity, eRoom, Event Explorer, FarPoint, FirstPass, FLARE, FormWare, Geosynchrony, Global File Virtualization, Graphic Visualization, Greenplum, HighRoad, HomeBase, InfoMover, Infoscape, Infra, InputAccel, InputAccel Express, Invista, Ionix, ISIS, Max Retriever, MediaStor, MirrorView, Navisphere, NetWorker, nLayers, OnAlert, OpenScale, PixTools, Powerlink, PowerPath, PowerSnap, QuickScan, Rainfinity, RepliCare, RepliStor, ResourcePak, Retrospect, RSA, the RSA logo, SafeLine, SAN Advisor, SAN Copy, SAN Manager, Smarts, SnapImage, SnapSure, SnapView, SRDF, StorageScope, SupportMate, SymmAPI, SymmEnabler, Symmetrix, Symmetrix DMX, Symmetrix VMAX, TimeFinder, UltraFlex, UltraPoint, UltraScale, Unisphere, VMAX, Vblock, Viewlets, Virtual Matrix, Virtual Matrix Architecture, Virtual Provisioning, VisualSAN, VisualSRM, Voyence, VPLEX, VSAM-Assist, WebXtender, xPression, xPresso, YottaYotta, the EMC logo, and where information lives, are registered trademarks or trademarks of EMC Corporation in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. © Copyright 2013 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Published in the USA. Revision Date: DATE 04/01/2013 Revision Number: MR-5CN-GSAPICSOS.1.2
  3. 3. EMC Education Services written by 3 Document Revision History Rev # File Name Date 1.0 OS Bootcamp Workshop v1.0 - MR-5CN-GSAPICSOS.docx 1/9/2013 1.1 OS Bootcamp Workshop v1.1 - MR-5CN-GSAPICSOS.docx 2/21/2013 1.2 OS Bootcamp Workshop v1.2 - MR-5CN-GSAPICSOS.docx 4/1/2013
  4. 4. EMC Education Services written by 4 Table of Contents COPYRIGHT ................................................................................................................................. 2 DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY............................................................................................ 3 PREFACE: HISTORY OF UNIX.................................................................................................. 5 PREFACE: HISTORY OF BSD .................................................................................................... 6 PREFACE: HISTORY OF LINUX ............................................................................................... 7 PREFACE: COMMAND STRUCTURE....................................................................................... 8 LAB EXERCISE 1: NAVIGATION ............................................................................................ 12 LAB 1: PART 1 – THE MAN & METACHARACTERS .......................................................................13 LAB 1: PART 2 – PROCESSES – PS, VMSTAT, TOP, UPTIME, KILL, AND DSMEG ...............................14 LAB 1: PART 3 – LS, LN, AND FILE SYSTEM STRUCTURE ...............................................................18 LAB 1: PART 4 – PWD AND HOME .................................................................................................21 LAB 1: PART 5 – CD, MKDIR, RMDIR, AND HISTORY ......................................................................22 LAB 1: PART 6 – PROMPT USING PS1 ...........................................................................................25 LAB 1: PART 7 – IDENTITY – WHO, WHOAMI, ID, UNAME, ARCH, AND HOSTNAME ........................27 LAB EXERCISE 2: FILE AND DIRECTORY COMMANDS ................................................... 30 LAB 2: PART 1 - FILE COMMANDS – MORE, TOUCH, CP, CAT, MV, AND RM....................................31 LAB 2: PART 2 – TEXT EDITOR - VI................................................................................................35 LAB 2: PART 3 – PERMISSIONS - CHMOD.......................................................................................38 LAB 2: PART 4 - FILE PACKAGING - TAR AND ZIP .........................................................................41 LAB EXERCISE 3: FINDING THINGS WITH GREP, WHEREIS, AND FIND..................... 44 LAB 3: PART 1 – FIND COMMAND .................................................................................................45 LAB 3: PART 2 – WHEREIS COMMAND ..........................................................................................46 LAB 3: PART 3 – GREP COMMAND ................................................................................................47 LAB EXERCISE 4: NETWORKING......................................................................................... 49 LAB 4: PART 1 - NETWORKING – IFCONFIG, PING, AND TRACEROUTE............................................50 LAB 4: PART 2 – REMOTE ACCESS – SSH, FTP, SCP, AND RSYNC ....................................................51 LAB 4: PART 3 – MOVING DATA REMOTELY.................................................................................52 LAB EXERCISE 5: LOCAL STORAGE AND FILE SYSTEMS.............................................. 56 LAB 5: PART 1 – FILE SYSTEM – FDISK, CFDISK, MKFS, MOUNT, AND DF ......................................57 LAB 5: PART 2 – LVM – LVMDISKSCAN, PVSCAN, PVDISPLAY, AND PVCREATE............................61 LAB 5: PART 3 – VOLUME GROUPS – VGCREATE, VGEXTEND, VGEXPORT, AND VGIMPORT..........63 LAB 5: PART 3 – LOGICAL VOLUMES – LVCREATE, LVDISPLAY, AND LVEXTEND .........................66 LAB EXERCISE 6: NETWORKED STORAGE ....................................................................... 70 LAB 6: PART 1 – FILE LEVEL - NFS & CIFS .................................................................................71 LAB 6: PART 2 – BLOCK LEVEL USING FC AND FCOE ................................................................73 LAB 6: PART 3 – BLOCK LEVEL USING ISCSI ................................................................................75 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY ................................................................................. 78 END OF WORKSHOP .......................................................................................................................79
  5. 5. EMC Education Services written by 5 Preface: History of UNIX In the 1960s Ken Thompson of Bell Labs had access to M.I.T’s early time-sharing operating system Multics. Ken wrote simulations for the new file and paging system on it. He also programmed a game called Space Travel on a DEC PDP-7. On this PDP-7, a team of Bell Labs researchers developed a hierarchical file system, the concepts of computer processes and device files, a command-line interpreter, and some small utility programs. In 1970, Peter Neumann coined the project name Unics (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service) as a pun on Multics, (Multiplexed Information and Computer Services). Unics could eventually support multiple simultaneous users, and it was renamed UNIX. When Bell Labs Computer Science Research Group wanted to use UNIX on a PDP-11/20 machine, this led to financial support from Bell. Bell Labs used this initial text processing system, consisting of UNIX, roff, and the editor, for text processing of patent applications. Roff soon evolved into troff, the first electronic publishing program with a full typesetting capability. The UNIX Programmer's Manual was published on 3 November 1971. Versions of the UNIX system were determined by editions of its user manuals. For example, "Fifth Edition UNIX" and "UNIX Version 5" have both been used to designate the same version. AT&T made UNIX available to universities and commercial firms, as well as the United States government, under licenses. The licenses included all source code including the machine-dependent parts of the kernel, which were written in PDP-11 assembly language. Copies of the annotated UNIX kernel sources circulated widely in the late 1970s this led to a plethora of different UNIX versions both inside and outside Bell Labs. AT&T licensed UNIX System III, based largely on Version 7, for commercial use, the first version launching in 1982. AT&T continued to issue licenses for older UNIX versions. To end the confusion between all its differing internal versions, AT&T combined them into UNIX System V. Bell Labs released its’ final version on UNIX in 1989 as v10. A new project was start to build on those ideas learned it was called Plan 9. It was developed primarily for research purposes as the successor to UNIX by the Computing Sciences Research Center at Bell Labs between the mid-1980s and 2002. Plan 9 continues to be used and developed by operating system researchers and hobbyists. Other companies began to offer commercial versions of the UNIX System for their own mini-computers and workstations. AT&T licensed many of these new UNIX flavors developed from UNIX System V. There are over 40 different flavors of UNIX; here are the most significant;  Microsoft announced Xenix UNIX for Z8000 CPU in 1980 and then Intel 8086, (merged into SCO 1987)  SunOS (Solaris) was created in 1982 to run on Motorola 68000, Sun386i, and now the Sun SPARC. o Sun released OpenSolaris in 2008, but Oracle closed it (now continued on as OpenIndiana)  Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) ported to the Intel 8086 in 1983 (OpenServer v6 was the final release in 2005).  HP-UX was released in 1984 for Motorola 68000, HP 9000 processors, and now the Intel IA64.  DG/UX (Data General UNIX) was built in 1985 for both Motorola 68000 and then Intel x86 o DG was purchased by EMC in 1999 and all production of DG/UX ended by 2001  IBM introduced AIX in 1986 to run the IBM 6150 RT workstation and now the PowerPC processors.  Minix was created in 1987 for a variety of CPUs and the source code was made freely available for universities.  Bell Labs’ final version of UNIX V10 was released in 1989 o Plan 9 replaced UNIX in 1992 (Plan 9 v4 was released in 2002)
  6. 6. EMC Education Services written by 6 Preface: History of BSD Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is a UNIX operating system derivative. BSD has been considered a branch of UNIX—"BSD UNIX", because it shared the initial codebases and design with the original AT&T UNIX Sixth Edition operating system. Berkeley Software Distribution (1BSD), which was released in March 1978. 1BSD was an add-on to UNIX rather than a complete operating system in its own right. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) decision to fund Berkeley University of California's Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG), which would develop a standard UNIX platform for future DARPA research in the VLSI Project (state of the art in microprocessor design). CSRG released 4BSD in October 1980. The final release from Berkeley was 1995's 4.4BSD-Lite Release 2, after which the CSRG was dissolved and development of BSD at Berkeley ceased. Since then, several variants based directly or indirectly on 4.4BSD-Lite (such as FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and DragonFly BSD) have been maintained. In addition, the permissive nature of the BSD license has allowed many other operating systems, both free and proprietary, to incorporate BSD code. For example, Microsoft Windows has used BSD-derived code in its implementation of TCP/IP and bundles recompiled versions of BSD's command-line networking tools since Windows 2000. Also Darwin, the system on which Apple's Mac OS X is built, is a derivative of 4.4BSD-Lite2 and FreeBSD. Various commercial UNIX operating systems, such as Solaris, also contain varying amounts of BSD code. BSD code remains actively developed and widely used today. This can be attributed to the ease with which it could be licensed. BSD is even the basis for many embedded devices like iPhones, iPads, network switches, and even Mac OS X. Here are the most popular variants of BSD;  FreeBSD derivatives -> DragonFly BSD, PC-BSD, MacOS X and iOS  NetBSD  OpenBSD  EMC Isilon OneFS  NetApp's ONTAP  Juniper Networks JunOS  F5 Networks BIGIP
  7. 7. EMC Education Services written by 7 Preface: History of Linux In 1991 while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems and frustrated by the COSS licensing of MINIX, which limited it to educational use only. He began to work on his own operating system which eventually became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX, and applications written for MINIX were also used on Linux. GNU applications also replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the freely available code from the GNU project. Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86-based personal computers. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. It is a leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers and supercomputers: more than 90% of today's 500 fastest supercomputers run some variant of Linux. Linux also runs on a variety embedded systems (like; routers, storage devices, cell phones, cameras, DVRs, industrial control systems, televisions, game consoles, and even refrigerators). The Android system in wide use on mobile devices is built on the Linux kernel. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration: the underlying source code may be used, modified, and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian (and its derivatives such as Ubuntu and Linux Mint), Red Hat Enterprise Linux (and its derivatives such as Fedora and CentOS), Mandriva/Mageia, OpenSUSE, and Arch Linux. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel, supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use. A distribution oriented toward desktop use will typically include the X Window System and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Some such distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce for use on older or less powerful computers. A distribution intended to run as a server may omit all graphical environments from the standard install and instead include other software such as the Apache HTTP Server and an SSH server such as OpenSSH. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. Applications commonly used with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web browser, the LibreOffice office application suite, and the GIMP image editor. Now there are over 600 different Linux distros! The most popular today are;  Red Hat derivatives –> Fedora, RHEL, CentOS, Oracle Linux, Scientific Linux, and Mandrake  Debian derivatives –> Ubuntu, Mint, Corel, Knoppix, and Zorin  MCC Interim derivatives –> Slackware, SUSE , and SunJDS  CRUX derivative –> Arch  Gentoo
  8. 8. EMC Education Services written by 8 Preface: Command Structure Kernel In computing, the kernel is the main component of most computer operating systems; it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. The kernel's responsibilities include managing the system's resources (the communication between hardware and software components).[1] Usually, as a basic component of an operating system, a kernel can provide the lowest-level abstraction layer for the resources (especially processors and I/O devices) that application software must control to perform its function. It typically makes these facilities available to application processes through inter-process communication mechanisms and system calls. Operating system tasks are done differently by different kernels, depending on their design and implementation. While monolithic kernels execute all the operating system code in the same address space to increase the performance of the system, microkernels run most of the operating system services in user space as servers, aiming to improve maintainability and modularity of the operating system. A range of possibilities exists between these two extremes. The kernel, being the core of the UNIX system, is loaded at system start up (boot). The kernel is a memory resident control program that manages the entire resources of the system. The kernel presents resources to you and every other user as a coherent system. The kernel provides service to user applications such as device management, examples;  Managing the machine's memory and allocating it to each process.  Scheduling the CPU so that the work of each user is carried out as efficiently as is possible.  accomplishing the transfer of data from one part of the machine to another  interpreting and executing instructions from the shell  enforcing file access permissions
  9. 9. EMC Education Services written by 9 Shell - Whenever you login to a UNIX system you are placed in a shell program. The shell is a command interpreter; it takes each command and passes it to the operating system kernel to be acted upon. Each shell also includes its own programming language. Command files, called "shell scripts" are used to accomplish a series of tasks. A shell is software that provides an interface for users of an operating system to access the services of a kernel. However, the term is also applied very loosely to applications and may include any software that is "built around" a particular component, such as web browsers and email clients that are "shells" for HTML rendering engines. The name shell originates from shells being an outer layer of interface between the user and the internals of the operating system (the kernel). Operating system shells generally fall into one of two categories: command-line and graphical. Command-line shells provide a command-line interface (CLI) to the operating system, while graphical shells like the Windows Shell provide a graphical user interface (GUI). In either category the primary purpose of the shell is to invoke or "launch" another program; however, shells frequently have additional capabilities such as viewing the contents of directories. The relative merits of CLI- and GUI-based shells are often debated. CLI proponents claim that certain operations can be performed much faster under CLI shells than under GUI shells (such as moving files, for example). However, GUI proponents advocate the comparative usability and simplicity of GUI shells. The best choice is often determined by the way in which a computer will be used. On a server mainly used for data transfers and processing with expert administration, a CLI is likely to be the best choice. However, a GUI would be more appropriate for a computer to be used for image or video editing and the development of the above data. In expert systems, a shell is a piece of software that is an "empty" expert system without the knowledge base for any particular application. The most influential UNIX shells have been the Bourne shell and the C shell. The Bourne shell, sh, was written by Stephen Bourne at AT&T as the original UNIX command line interpreter; it introduced the basic features common to all the UNIX shells, including piping, here documents, command substitution, variables, control structures for condition- testing and looping and filename wildcarding. The most commonly available shells are;  C shell (csh): Written for BSD in 1978  Almquist shell (ash): Written as a BSD-licensed replacement for the Bourne Shell  Debian Almquist shell (dash): A modern replacement for ash in Ubuntu and Debian.  Bourne shell (sh) (RedHat default)  Bourne Again Shell (bash)  Korn shell (ksh) - (all POSIX commands)  BusyBox
  10. 10. EMC Education Services written by 10 Runlevel - Refers to a mode of operation in one of the computer operating systems that implement Unix System V-style initialization. Each runlevel designates a different system configuration and allows access to a different combination of processes. A good sysadmin would strive to have the system running at the lowest possible runlevel and still be able to perform its’ role, here by minimizing the number unnecessary services running. Seven runlevels exist, numbered from zero to six; though up to ten, from zero to nine may be used. S is sometimes used as a synonym for one of the levels. Only one "runlevel" is executed on boot up - run levels are not executed sequentially, i.e. either runlevel 2 OR 3 OR 4 is executed, not 2 then 3 then 4. "Runlevel" defines the state of the machine after boot. Different runlevels are typically assigned to:  single-user mode  multi-user mode without network services started  multi-user mode with network services started  system shutdown  system reboot[Reboot] The exact setup of these configurations will vary from OS to OS and from one Linux distribution to another. For example, runlevel 4 might be multi-user, GUI, no-server on one distribution, and nothing on another. Note the difference in the Red Hat and Slackware distributions charted in this article. However, "runlevels" do commonly follow patterns described in this article. When installing Linux, it is best to consult that distribution's available user guides. In standard practice, when a computer enters runlevel zero, it halts, and when it enters runlevel six, it reboots. The intermediate runlevels (1-5) differ in terms of which drives are mounted, and which network services are started. Default runlevels are typically 3, 4, or 5. Lower run levels are useful for maintenance or emergency repairs, since they usually don't offer any network services at all. The particular details of runlevel configuration differ widely among operating systems, and also among system administrators. The runlevel system replaced the traditional /etc/rc script used in Version 7 Unix. The most commonly used are listed below;  0 = Halt, Shuts down the system  1 = Single-User Mode, For administrative tasks  2 = Multi-User Mode, Without any networking  3 = Multi-User Mode with Networking, Starts the system normally CLI only.  4 = Not used/User-definable  5 = Start the system with GUI, Same as runlevel 3 but with X11Windows System  6 = Reboot
  11. 11. EMC Education Services written by 11 Utilities - UNIX provides several hundred utility programs, often referred to as commands.  Accomplish universal functions  editing  file maintenance  printing  sorting A great resource to compare all the different commands in many of the different UNIX-like operating systems is the “Sysadmin's Unixersal Translator or ROSETTA STONE” at UNIX Command Syntax UNIX commands must be entered in the following form: command -options arguments The command is always the first word. The options modify the function the command performs. The arguments identify the data (usually a file or files) upon which the command performs its function. This syntax is almost universal within UNIX, but not quite. A few commands take options without the preceding dash, and some commands accept dashes but don't require them. Some commands require a dash for each option, instead of permitting you to group several options after one dash. If you have questions about a command's syntax, refer to the man pages. Three additional areas you should know about using UNIX commands are: abbreviations, upper- and lower- case and wild-card characters. The first two are simply explained:  UNIX commands cannot be abbreviated.  UNIX distinguishes between upper- and lower-case. Because of this, UNIX recognizes a command named ls as different from Ls and LS. If you enter a lowercase command in uppercase, UNIX will not know what to do. The third is only a little more complicated. UNIX shells have two wild-card characters: ? and *. The ? character is used to match one character. For example, if you tell the system to find file ???, it will return all the file names that are three characters long. The * character is used to match file names containing a varied number of characters. For example, if you tell the system to find m*, it will return all the file names that start with `m' (for example, `me', `mother', and `mary' would all be returned). The * character can also be used before partial file names (for example, *.lis) and on both sides of partial file names (for example, *.*). A useful expression is .??* which matches all files beginning with a `.' and are at least 3 characters long. Files beginning with `.' are typically not displayed.
  12. 12. EMC Education Services written by 12 Lab Exercise 1: Navigation Purpose: Like UNIX operating system, the files on a Linux system are arranged in what is called a hierarchical directory structure. This means that they are organized in a tree-like pattern of directories (called folders in other systems), which may contain files and other directories. The first directory in the file system is called the root directory. The root directory contains files and subdirectories, which contain more files and subdirectories and so on and so on. Tasks: Students perform the following tasks:  man pages  processes  print working directory  changing directories  listing files and directories  prompts References:  Lecture material
  13. 13. EMC Education Services written by 13 Lab 1: Part 1 – The Man & Metacharacters Step Action 1. man page (short for manual page) is a form of online software documentation usually found on a Unix-like operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts. A user may invoke a man page by issuing the man command  press the letter “q” to quit a man page,  “space bar” or “page down” key to page down  “Enter” key to go down one line Its basic syntax is: man [option(s)] keyword(s) Type and read each of the following: man pwd (Q: what does pwd stand for?_______________________________) man chmod (Q: what does chmod do?__________________________________) man grep (Q: what has the –y option been replaced by?__________________) 2. Regular expressions use metacharacters. Metacharacters are simply characters that have a special meaning. The problem occurs when you want to use a regular expression in a shell script. Will the shell do something special with the character? Or will it be passed unchanged to the program? The “$” character is a good example. It could be the beginning of a variable name or it could be part of a regular expression. If you need a regular expression, you must know if any of the characters of the expression are metacharacters, and must know the right way to quote that character so that it is passed to the program without being modified by the shell. meta function example ? Match one character. ls /dev/tty?1 * Match zero or more characters. ls /dev/tty*1 ; Command separator ls; pwd ~ Home directory. cd ~ & Run program in background. sleep 10 & > file Redirect standard output to file ls /root –lia > root_directory.txt | Pipe standard output. cut -d: -f1 < /etc/passwd | sort Try each one of these commands and notice this difference in the outputs.
  14. 14. EMC Education Services written by 14 Lab 1: Part 2 – Processes – ps, vmstat, top, uptime, kill, and dsmeg Step Action 1. Time to time when you are typing commands into a computer the process will stop responding or continue running forever. It is important to know how to find and kill these processes. 2. If you just typed in a process and it just keeps running with your cursor is stuck in the process then you can kill that process by typing ctrl+c Basically Ctrl C sends the SIGINT (interrupt) signal while kill sends the SIGTERM (termination) signal by default. Let us try it this out. Log into the host assigned to you. Type: ping Unlike some other OS’es ping will run continuously by default in Linux. To kill the ping process running and return your cursor to you press the control key then type c Type: ctrl+c Control+z is used for suspending a process by sending it the signal SIGSTOP, which cannot be intercepted by the program, just sending the process to the background releasing the cursor. While Control+c is used to kill a process with the signal SIGINT, and can be intercepted by a program so it can clean its self-up before exiting, or not exit at all.
  15. 15. EMC Education Services written by 15 Step Action 3. The Processes’ Status command will show you a list of processes running on your system. Notice the difference in these options with the ps command. Option Description -T select all processes on this terminal -a select all processes on a terminal, including those of other users -C select by command name -e Every process on the entire system -f Full verbose format listing -l All treads for a particular process Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: ps –e Type: ps –ef Type: ps –elf Now let us make a process and send it to the background giving us our prompt back. Type: ping Type: ctrl+z (sending the ping process to the background giving us our prompt back) Type: ps -T (to list the status of all the processes in your terminal session) 4. locate the ping process and record the PID number (Process ID) ________ Type: kill -9 *PID* (*PID* is the number you just recorded) for example I had to type : kill -9 19293 Option Name Description -1 SIGHUP Hang up signal, processes can act upon the kill command or not -2 SIGINT Interupt signal, same as control+c in the program’s terminal window -9 SIGKILL Kill signal – terminate the process and its children, doesn’t ask. -15 SIGTERM Termination signal – asks program to terminate
  16. 16. EMC Education Services written by 16 Step Action 5. uptime gives a one line display of the following information. The current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are currently logged on, and the system load averages for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes. Type: uptime Type: uptime –V 6. vmstat reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity. The first report produced gives averages since the last reboot. Additional reports give information on a sampling period of length delay. The process and memory reports are instantaneous in either case. Option Description -d Disk stats -a Memory pages -s Event counters -n Header to be displayed Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: vmstat 7. The dmesg command is used to display the kernel messages in Linux to you. Type: dmesg
  17. 17. EMC Education Services written by 17 Step Action 8. top - dynamic real-time view of a running system. It can display system summary information as well as a list of tasks currently being managed by the Linux kernel. Option Description -d Delay time interval -u Monitor by user -H Threads -M Memory Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: top -M
  18. 18. EMC Education Services written by 18 Lab 1: Part 3 – ls, ln, and file system structure Step Action 1. ls - Lists the contents of a directory. Option Description -l prints permissions, owners, size, and when last modified. -i prints the i-node number in the first column -a Shows you all files, even files that are hidden -q Force printing of non-printable characters as the character (?) -R Includes the contents of subdirectories. -x Displays files in columns. Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type each of these and notice the output: Type: ls Type: ls –a Type: ls –i Type: ls -l Type: ls –lia Type: ls /root –liaR > root_directory.txt ( > will redirect command output to root_directory.txt)
  19. 19. EMC Education Services written by 19 Step Action 2. There is no single standard UNIX/Linux file structure. Most UNIX systems however, follow a general convention for file system organization at the highest level. List the contents of each one of these directories below. / -(root) The top level directory. Contains all files in the file system. /bin - Executable files for standard UNIX utilities /dev - Files that represent input/output devices /etc - Miscellaneous and system administrative files /lib - UNIX program libraries /tmp - Temporary space used by programs or users. /usr/bin - less common utilities. /usr/local - Programs installed by local site /var - Variable sized files - can grow and shrink dynamically
  20. 20. EMC Education Services written by 20 Step Action 3. Links in Linux are like short cuts in Windows. The ln will make links between files. There are two types of links symbolic links: Refer to a symbolic path indicating the abstract location of another file hard links : Refer to the specific location of physical data. Option Description -p Physical – make a hard link directly to symbolic link -s Symbolic – make link symbolic instead of hard -f Force – remove existing destination file Type: ln -s /home/joe/file1.txt /joe.file.txt Type: ls –lia /
  21. 21. EMC Education Services written by 21 Lab 1: Part 4 – pwd and home Step Action 1. Since a command line interface cannot provide graphic pictures of the file system structure, it must have a different way of representing it. Think of the file system tree as a maze, and you are standing in it. At any given moment, you are located in a single directory. Inside that directory, you can see its files and the pathway to its parent directory and the pathways to the subdirectories of the directory in which you are standing. The directory you are standing in is called the working directory. To find the name of the working directory, use the pwd command. Type: pwd 2. Each user has a unique "home" directory. Your home directory is that part of the file system reserved for your files. After login, you are "put" into your home directory automatically. This is where you start your work. Since you are logged in as root then you are left in root’s home directory. The location of root’s home directory varies depending on distribution of Linux or flavors of UNIX or BSD. Root’s home could be any of these; / /root /user/root /user/home/root Type: echo $HOME to find where your home directory is, or type note root’s home directory _________________________ 3. The PATH is an environment variable that is a list of directories that the operating system looks in to find commands issued by the user. The syntax for setting your path is slightly dependent on which shell you are using. The default shell for RedHat 5.x and 6.x is the bash shell. Type: export PATH=$PATH:/usr/sbin/:/usr/local/bin End of Lab Exercise
  22. 22. EMC Education Services written by 22 Lab 1: Part 5 – cd, mkdir, rmdir, and history Step Action 1. To change your working directory (where you are standing in the maze) you use the cd command. To do this, type cd followed by the pathname of the desired working directory. A pathname is the route you take along the branches of the tree to get to the directory you want. Pathnames can be specified in one of two different ways; absolute pathnames or relative pathnames. Let's look with absolute pathnames first. An absolute pathname begins with the root directory and follows the tree branch by branch until the path to the desired directory or file is completed. For example, there is a directory on your system in which most programs are installed. The pathname of the directory is /usr/bin. This means from the root directory (represented by the leading slash in the pathname) there is a directory called "usr" which contains a directory called "bin". Type: cd . ( . is your current directory, so you don’t go anywhere) Type: cd .. ( .. is the parent directory to the one you are in, so you should be in / ) Type: cd / ( / is the absolute path that will always get you to / ) Type: cd tmp ( this relative pathname will put you in sub-directory tmp if one exists where you are) Type: cd /usr/tmp (this absolute path that will always take you to /usr/tmp no matter where you are) Type: cd /root (absolute path that will always get you to root’s home /root ) 2. mkdir – make directory Type: mkdir /root/mydir (will make a sub folder in /root called mydir) Type: mkdir /home/YourName (will make a sub folder in /home named after you) Type: ls
  23. 23. EMC Education Services written by 23 Step Action 3. rmdir – removes empty directory Type: rmdir /root/mydir (will remove the folder /root/mydir) 4. A particularly useful command is the history command. History show a list of recently-executed commands, all recorded in a history list Type: history End of Lab Exercise
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  25. 25. EMC Education Services written by 25 Lab 1: Part 6 – Prompt using PS1 Step Action 1. Most of us work with a shell prompt. By default most Linux distros displays hostname and current working directory. You can easily customize your prompt to display information important to you. Prompt is control via a special shell variable. You need to set PS1, PS2, PS3 and PS4 variable. If set, the value is executed as a command prior to issuing each primary prompt.  PS1 - The value of this parameter is expanded and used as the primary prompt string. 2. How do I display current prompt setting? Simply use echo command, enter: Type: echo $PS1 3. So when executing interactively, bash displays the primary prompt PS1 when it is ready to read a command, and the secondary prompt PS2 when it needs more input to complete a command. Bash allows these prompt strings to be customized by inserting a number of backslash-escaped special characters that are decoded as follows: Option Description h The hostname up to the first . H the FQDN hostname r carriage return s the name of the shell d The date in "Weekday Month Date" format (e.g., "Tue May 26") t the current time in 24-hour HH:MM:SS format u the username of the current user w the current working directory Let us try to set the prompt so that it can display today’s date and hostname: Type: PS1="d h $ " Output: Tue Jan 08 OSBootcamp $ Now setup prompt to display date/time, hostname and current directory: Type: PS1="[d t u@h:w ] $ " Output: [Tue Jan 08 15:56:16 root@OSBootcamp:/tmp ] $ Question: What would you type to change the prompt to username @ hostname: pwd > Your Answer: _______________________________________________
  26. 26. EMC Education Services written by 26 Step Action 4. Answer: PS1="u@h: w >"
  27. 27. EMC Education Services written by 27 Lab 1: Part 7 – Identity – who, whoami, id, uname, arch, and hostname Step Action 1. Here are some commands that help identify the user and system itself. 2. who - show who is logged on Type: who 3. whoami - print effective userid Type: whoami 4. id - print real and effective UIDs and GIDs Type: id 5. uname - print system information Option Description -a Basic information -i Hardware info -p Processor CPU type -r Operating system info -s System name Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: uname Type: uname –a (to print hardware and software info about the system) Type: uname –i (to print machine hardware info) Type: uname –r (to print operating system version info) 6. arch – Print machine architecture type Type: arch
  28. 28. EMC Education Services written by 28 Step Action 7. Hostname is the program that is used to either set or display the current host, domain or node name of the system. These names are used by many of the networking programs to identify the machine. To display the computer name as defined in the /etc/hosts file. You could just type more /etc/hosts if you have the file permission to do so or: Option Description -a Display any alias -d display DNS domain -f Display the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) -i Display the IP address of the host as resoled from DNS -v verbose Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: hostname Type: uname –n End of Lab Exercise
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  30. 30. EMC Education Services written by 30 Lab Exercise 2: File and Directory commands Purpose: Listing creating, manipulating, and deleting files and directories Tasks: Students perform the following tasks:  Making and removing directories  Creating, concatenating, listing files  Moving, copying, renaming, deleting files  Editing files using vi  Viewing and changing permissions  Packaging files References:  Lecture material
  31. 31. EMC Education Services written by 31 Lab 2: Part 1 - File commands – more, touch, cp, cat, mv, and rm Step Action First go back to the directory you named after yourself. Type: cd /home/YourName 1. touch - create new, empty files or change file access and modification time. Option Description -a change only the access time -c do not create any files -m change only the modification time -t STAMP use this time MMDDhhmm instead of current time Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: touch file1.txt Type: ls (to verify that your file has been made)
  32. 32. EMC Education Services written by 32 Step Action 2. more - paging through text one screen full at a time Option Description -p clear the whole screen and then display the text. -d more will prompt the user -c paint each screen from the top /pattern Search for the occurrence of regular expression. Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: more file1.txt (displays contents of empty file you created)) Type: ls /home –liaR > home_directory.txt ( > will redirect command output to file) Type: more home_directory.txt (notice it lists the folders and their contents) 3. cp – copy a file Option Description -a archive -b backup -f force -l link instead of coping -r copy directories recursively Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: cp home_directory.txt file2.txt (this makes a copy of the file and names it file2.txt) 4. cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output appending one file to the end of another. Type: cat file1.txt file2.txt > file3.txt (this makes file3.txt from the contents of file1 and file2)
  33. 33. EMC Education Services written by 33 Step Action 5. mv – move and/or renames a file Option Description -i interactive -b backup -f force -t target directory -u update - move only when the source is newer than the destination Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: mv file3.txt YourName.txt (this rename file3.txt to your name) Type: mv YourName.txt /home/ (this move you’re the file named after you to /home) Type: cd.. (moves your prompt to /home, you could have typed cd /home as well) Type: ls –lia (do you see your file here at /home?)
  34. 34. EMC Education Services written by 34 Step Action 6. rm – remove a file Option Description -i interactive - prompt before every removal -f force - never prompt -r recursive - remove directories and their contents recursively -v verbose - explain what is being done rm YourName.txt End of Lab Exercise
  35. 35. EMC Education Services written by 35 Lab 2: Part 2 – text editor - vi Step Action 1. There are lots of command line editors; nano, pico, Emacs, vim, gEdit, gVim, Eclipse, but the original is called vi. vi- is a screen-oriented text editor originally created for BSD operating system in 1979. vi has been available for all versions of BSD, UNIX, and Linux since then, even Android and iOS. When vi was written keyboards didn’t have all the keys they have today like the arrow keys so other keys were assigned functions. Newer versions of vi now do use the added keys like arrows. Here is a list of the most key functions; Cursor movements h or (left arrow) left one character l or (right arrow) right one character j or (down arrow) down one line k or (up arrow) up one line Deleting and Pasting d delete i insert text before cursor x delete character cursor is on r replace one character a append text after cursor y yank or copy into temporary buffer) Y yank or copy line cursor is on p paste below cursor line (deleted or copied text) u undo last editing command Exiting vi :w write edit buffer to disk :w filename write edit buffer to disk as filename :q! quit without writing edit buffer to disk :wq! write and quit even if it is read-only 2. Perhaps the most puzzling aspect of vi is that it is a modal editor. These are the two modes of operation:  Insert mode: If you're in insert mode and type an x, the letter is added to the document at the current cursor point. In insert mode, the letters you type form words and sentences. Unlike many word processors, vi starts up in command mode.  Command mode: If you're in command mode, the x command causes the letter under the cursor to be deleted, not added. In command mode, the letters of the keyboard perform editing functions (like moving the cursor, deleting text, etc.). To enter command mode, press the escape <Esc> key.
  36. 36. EMC Education Services written by 36 Step Action 3. Type: cd /home/YourName vi *YourName.txt* - The filename can be the name of an existing file or new file to create. 4. insert mode, now whatever keys you press the character will be represented there. Type: i 5. type “joe was here” – notice the text you type is appearing in the file 6. To insert text in a line:  Position the cursor where the new text should go.  Type i - telling vi you want to enter insert mode  Enter the letter “w” so that now it reads “joe was where”. The text is inserted BEFORE the cursor. Press <Esc> to get back to command mode. 7. To replace one character with another:  Move the cursor to the “w” character to be replaced.  Type r – telling vi you want to replace a single character  Type the replacement character “t” so now it reads “joe was there”. The new character will appear, and you will still be in command mode. 8. To add text to the end of a line:  Position the cursor on the last letter of the line.  Type a – you could have moved the cursor to the end of the line and type i  Enter the new text “, but Karen was not here” This adds text AFTER the cursor. Press <Esc> to get back to command mode. 9. To undo your most recent edit, type  u  To undo all the edits on a single line, type U Undoing all edits on a single line only works as long as the cursor stays on that line. Once you move the cursor off a line, you cannot use U to restore the line. 10. press the ESC key to exit from insert mode to command mode 11. The vi editor is built on a 1978 BSD text editor called ex. ex commands can be used within vi. ex commands begin with a : (colon) and end with a <Return> Type :wq! Then press Enter this is telling vi w=write, q=quit, !=now if you just want to exit vi without saving you would just type :q! End of Lab Exercise
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  38. 38. EMC Education Services written by 38 Lab 2: Part 3 – Permissions - chmod Step Action 1. UNIX is a multi-user system. Every file and directory in your account can be protected from or made accessible to other users by changing its access permissions. Permissions for a file or directory may be any or all of: r - read w - write x - execute = running a program Each permission (rwx) can be controlled at three levels: u - user = yourself g - group = can be people in the same project o - other = everyone on the system owner read (r) owner write (w) owner execute (x) group read (r) group write (w) group execute (x) public read (r) public write (w) public execute (x)
  39. 39. EMC Education Services written by 39 Step Action 2. The chmod command is used to change access permissions for files which you own. Option Description -f force - never prompt -r recursive – change files and directories recursively -v verbose - diagnostic for every file processed These values are added together for any one user category: 0 = no permissions 1 = execute only 2 = write only 3 = write and execute (1+2) 4 = read only 5 = read and execute (4+1) 6 = read and write (4+2) 7 = read and write and execute (4+2+1) So access permissions can be expressed as three digits. For example: command user group others chmod 210 file1.txt -w- --x --- chmod 351 file1.txt -wx r-x --x chmod 604 file1.txt rw- --- r-- chmod 752 file1.txt rwx r-x -w- chmod 773 file1.txt rwx rwx -wx
  40. 40. EMC Education Services written by 40 Step Action 3. Type: chmod 631 file1.txt Type: ls -lia – look at the permissions for the file Type: chmod 755 file1.txt Type: ls –lia – look at the permissions for the file
  41. 41. EMC Education Services written by 41 Lab 2: Part 4 - File packaging - tar and zip Step Action 1. In UNIX, the name of the tar command is short for tape archiving, the storing of entire file systems onto magnetic tape. Commonly tar is used to simply combine a few files into a single file, for easy storage and distribution. option Function -c Create – a tar file -r Replace – the named file -u Update – update files to the end of the tar file -x Extract – The named file is extracted from tar file -f File. Used the argument as the name of the file -i Ignore - ignore directory checksum errors -o Ownership - Assign to extracted files. -v Verbose. Output the name of each file -X Exclude – relative path names. -z compress the tar file using gzip -j compress files and directories using bzip2 2. To combine multiple files and/or directories into a single file, use the following command: first let’s go home. Type: cd /home/YourName Type: tar -cvf file.tar file1.txt file2.txt Type: ls –lia (is the new tar file there? Are your old files there?) ok now make a new sub directory using mkdir now move the tar file into that sub directory using mv now change directory into the sub directory using cd using ls display the contents of this directory, notice only the one tar file is here.
  42. 42. EMC Education Services written by 42 Step Action 3. now let us untar the file using the tar command. Type: tar –xovf file.tar Type: ls (are the two text files there now?) 4. Compressed tar file - compress is a UNIX compression program based on the LZC compression method. Files compressed by compress are typically given the extension .Z. Most tar programs will pipe their data through compress when given the command line option -Z (tar in itself does not compress, it just stores multiple files within one tape archive file). Files can be returned to their original state using uncompressed. The usual action of the program is not merely to create an uncompressed copy of the file, but to uncompress the compressed file (so that the uncompressed version retains the timestamp and other attributes of the compressed file). Type: tar -cjvf test.tbz /home/YourName Type: ls
  43. 43. EMC Education Services written by 43 Step Action 5. There are many compression programs available (gzip, rar, 7zip, xz, lbzip2, ect..) The original zip and unzip programs are the most common and work almost exactly like their cousin PKZIP in the DOS environment. You can compress a single file or bunch of files together into a zip file like this: Type: zip file.tar (to compress the tar file) Type: ls –lia (notice the new size of the compress tar file) ok now make a new sub directory using mkdir now move the newly zipped tar file into that sub directory using mv now change directory into the sub directory using cd Then you can extract the original files like this: unzip Type: ls –lia
  44. 44. EMC Education Services written by 44 Lab Exercise 3: finding things with grep, whereis, and find Purpose: find - The find command is used to locate files on a UNIX or Linux system grep - is a command-line utility for searching plain-text data sets for lines matching a regular expression Tasks: Students perform the following tasks:  find  whereis  grep References:  Lecture material
  45. 45. EMC Education Services written by 45 Lab 3: Part 1 – find command Step Action 1. The find command is used to locate files on a Unix or Linux system. First change directory back to just home using cd /home option Function -maxdepth levels escend at most X levels +n for greater than n -n for less than n, -name file name -size -type -user owned by a specific user Try and find the file2.txt file using the command below. Type: find / -name file2.txt 2. Find every file under the directory /var/spool that was modified more than 60 days ago. Type: find /var/spool -mtime +60 3. To locate files modified less than 10 minutes ago. I use this right after using some system administration tool, to learn which files got changed by that tool: Type: find / -mmin -10 4. Search for files which have specific set of permissions Type: find . -perm 755 5. find will display the pathnames of all files in the current directory and all subdirectories. Type: find . –print Type: find . 6. You can use shell-style wildcards in the -name search argument: Type: find . -name file*txt Note that wildcards in the name argument must be quoted so the shell doesn't expand them before passing them to find. Also, unlike regular shell wildcards, these will match leading periods in filenames. (For example find -name *.txt )
  46. 46. EMC Education Services written by 46 Lab 3: Part 2 – whereis command Step Action 1. whereis locates source/binary and manuals sections for specified files. The supplied names are first stripped of leading pathname components and any (single) trailing extension of the form .ext, for example, .c. Prefixes of s. resulting from use of source code control are also dealt with. whereis then attempts to locate the desired program in a list of standard Linux places. option Function -b Search only for binaries. -m Search only for manual sections. -s Search only for sources Try and find the file1.txt file using the command below. Type: whereis file1.txt This command will not work since it is not in the PATH 2. Find the executable file ls using the command below. Type: whereis –b ls
  47. 47. EMC Education Services written by 47 Lab 3: Part 3 – grep command Step Action 1. The grep command searches the given file for lines containing a match to the given strings or words. By default, grep prints the matching lines. Use grep to search for lines of text that match one or many regular expressions, and outputs only the matching lines. grep option function -r search recursively the sub directories -i ignore word case -v Invert the sense of matching, to select non-matching lines. -c count of matching criteria Type: grep 'joe' file2.txt now you try using grep on your own. Here is the syntax;  grep 'string1 string2' filename  cat otherfile | grep 'something'  command | grep 'something' man grep for even more information and options. remember pressing the letter “q” quits man 2. Combining find and grep - If you want to search every subdirectory beneath the current directory for the string 'joe', you'd issue a find/grep command like this: Type: find . -type f -exec grep 'joe' {} ; End of Lab Exercise
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  49. 49. EMC Education Services written by 49 Lab Exercise 4: networking Purpose: To discover network setting and use the network to login into remote servers and copy file to and from them. Tasks: Students perform the following tasks:  ifconfig  ping  traceroute  telnet and ssh  rlogin, rsh, and rcp  ftp References:  Lecture material
  50. 50. EMC Education Services written by 50 Lab 4: Part 1 - networking – ifconfig, ping, and traceroute Step Action 1. ifconfig (short for interface configuration) A system administration utility in UNIX-like operating systems to configure, control, and query TCP/IP network interface parameters from a command line interface or in system configuration scripts. You may even see similar commands on network switches. Type: ifconfig –a (all Ethernet interfaces) Type: ifconfig eth1 (just Ethernet interface eth1) 2. ping (name comes from active sonar terminology) The ping command operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages to the destination computer and waiting for a response. How many of those responses are returned, and how long it takes for them to return, are the two major pieces of information that the ping command provides. The ping command sends one datagram per second and prints one line of output for every response received. Round- trip times and packet loss statistics are calculated and displayed. option Function -t ttl Time To Live in ms -a resolve, if possible, the hostname of an IP address -c number of ICMP Echo Request messages to send -I Use this option to specify the source interface (i.e. eth0, eth1, eth2, ect) -s (size) Set the size, in bytes, of the packet (32 to 65,527) Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: ping Type: ping –c 3 Type: ping –s 9000 3. traceroute The traceroute command prints the route that IP packets take to a network host. It is intended for use in network testing, measurement, and management. option Function -6 Explicitly force IPv6 traceouting. -I Use ICMP ECHO for probes -T Use TCP SYN for probes -r Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached network. Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: traceroute End of Lab Exercise
  51. 51. EMC Education Services written by 51 Lab 4: Part 2 – remote access – ssh, ftp, scp, and rsync Step Action 1. telnet Telnet is a bidirectional interactive text-oriented (CLI) communication utility that allows a computer user at one site to make a connection, login and then conduct work on a computer at another site. For example, you can use the telnet command to run a program in your directory on a supercomputer thousands of miles away. Most network equipment and operating systems with a TCP/IP stack support a Telnet service for remote configuration (including Windows, BSD, Mac OS, Linux, and UNIX). However, because of serious security issues when using Telnet over an open network such as the Internet, its use for this purpose usage has waned significantly in favor of SSH. Most enterprise customers will not allow telnet to be used on the network and disable the services on most clients and servers. Because of this we will not be doing any telnet labs. 2. rlogin and rsh rlogin (remote login), rsh (remote shell) and rcp (remote copy) are three utilities which allow you to perform tasks on other machines without requiring the usual login authentication. All three utilities depend upon a .rhosts file located in your /home directory. rlogin: Allows you to login to a remote machine. It is nearly identical to telnet in function and appearance, however if your .rhosts file is setup accordingly, you will be able to login to your account on another machine without having to enter a userid and password. rsh: The remote shell command can be used to execute a command on remote host or log into remote host. With the proper .rhosts file, authentication is not required. 3. ssh Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for secure data communication, remote shell services or command execution and other secure network services between two networked computers that connects, via a secure channel over an insecure network. ssh was designed as a replacement for telnet, rsh, and rlogin which send information, notably username and passwords, in plaintext. ssh or ssh fqdn From a GUI you can use any number of ssh clients like PuTTY. You have been using ssh this entire time, so all your labs are ssh labs. End of Lab Exercise
  52. 52. EMC Education Services written by 52 Lab 4: Part 3 – Moving data remotely 1. ftp ftp stands for File Transfer Protocol. File transfer provides a means for you to obtain computer files (text, image, sound, etc.) from other computers over the network. ftp can also be used to send (upload) files from your computer to another computer, providing you have write permission or a real account on the machine you are uploading. FTP Command options open <IP Address> open an ftp session to a fqdn or address close <IP Address> close connection you can also use bye bin set to transfer for binary and text files hash display progress during get # for every 1024 bytes mget multiple get – download files in to current directory mput multiple put – upload files from current directory lcd Change the working directory on the local machine Type: cd /home/YourName Type: uname –a (record the OS version and CPU type of your host________________) Type: ftp (username: anonymous / password: 2. Type: bin (there are 2 modes of ftp ascii for text only and binary for everything, always just use binary for all your ftp file transfers) Type: hash (hash places a #### symbol every time 8kb of data is transferred, letting you know the ftp is moving files and not locked up)
  53. 53. EMC Education Services written by 53 3. Type: pwd Type: ls Type: cd /pub/elab/inquiry/v7.3.2.0 (there is a free scsi inquiry utility that EMC publishes) Type: ls (there is a version for most of the operating systems they support) Type: mget inq.LinuxAMD64 (download the correct version for your OS) 4. bye (to close our ftp connection to Type: ls –lia (to verify your file has downloaded) 5. Type: chmod 755 inq.LinuxAMD64 (change permission so you can execute the file) Type: ./inq.LinuxAMD64 ( ./ tells the OS to look in your current directory to execute the file) Rename inq.LinuxAMD64 executable and put it where it will always be in out path. Type: cp inq.LinuxAMD64 /sbin/inq (now we can just type inq no matter where we are)
  54. 54. EMC Education Services written by 54 6. rcp: Remote Copy enables you to copy files between different systems. With the proper .rhosts file, no authentication is required. 7. scp Secure Copy was designed as a secure replacement for ftp and rcp. SCP copies files between hosts on a network. It uses ssh for data transfer, and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh. SCP will ask for passwords as they are needed for authentication. Typically, a syntax of scp program is like the syntax of copy (cp): Copying file to host: scp SourceFile user@host:directory/TargetFile Copying file from host: scp user@host:directory/SourceFile TargetFile scp -r user@host:directory/SourceFolder TargetFolder Note that if the remote host uses a port other than the default of 22, it can be specified in the command. For example, copying a file from host: scp -P 2222 user@host:directory/SourceFile TargetFile As the SCP protocol implements file transfers only, GUI SCP clients like WinSCP are rare, as implementing it requires additional functionality 8. sftp Compared to the earlier SCP protocol, which allows only file transfers, the SFTP protocol allows for a range of operations on remote files – it is more like a remote file system protocol. An SFTP client's extra capabilities compared to an SCP client include resuming interrupted transfers, directory listings, and remote file removal. SFTP attempts to be more platform-independent than SCP; for instance, with SCP, the expansion of wildcards specified by the client is up to the server, whereas SFTP's design avoids this problem. While SCP is most frequently implemented on Unix platforms, SFTP servers are commonly available on most platforms. SFTP is not FTP run over SSH, but rather a new protocol designed from the ground up by the IETF SECSH working group. It is sometimes confused with Simple File Transfer Protocol. 9. rsync rsync was originally written as a replacement for rcp and scp to synchronize files and directories from one location (host) to another while minimizing data transfer by using deltas, to ensure only changed data is copied. rsync [OPTION] … SRC [SRC] … [USER@]HOST:DEST End of Lab Exercise
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  56. 56. EMC Education Services written by 56 Lab Exercise 5: local storage and file systems Purpose: Examining disks and partitions in Linux, displaying file system information Tasks: Students perform the following tasks:  Basic disk usage  Physical Volumes  Manipulating Volume groups  Manipulating Logical volumes References:  Lecture material
  57. 57. EMC Education Services written by 57 Lab 5: Part 1 – File System – fdisk, cfdisk, mkfs, mount, and df Step Action Most versions of UNIX-like operating systems support a common way using basic disks. It is very common to divide disks into logical storage units referred to as partitions, to treat one physical disk drive as if it were multiple disks. This is a common way of segregating data based on its’ purpose. For instance when we install Linux on a computer with 1 disk it would partition it into several units. (/boots, /tmp, /user, /root, /var/log, swap) . A good Windows administrator would also do something similar as well, putting Windows and Program Files into one partition, application data into a second partition and Users data into a third partition. The traditional way of using disk is with master boot record (MBR) partitioning scheme, as used in DOS, Microsoft Windows and Linux among others on Intel compatible computer systems. The total data storage space of a hard disk can be divided into at most four primary partitions. If more than 4 are needed then one would create three primary partitions and an extended partition, with up to 256 logical volumes in the extended partition. Then each partition or logical volume can have its’ own unique file system. For Intel compatible BIOS based system disks with 512-byte sectors, the MBR partition table entries allow up to a maximum of 2.20 TB sectors × 512 bytes per sector). limitations of MBR partition tables, which use 32 bits for storing logical block addresses and size information A file system is an organization of data and metadata on a storage device. Linux supports a large number of file systems, from journaling to clustering to cryptographic. The most popular are: name Attribute ext Extended file system and was the first created specifically for Linux ext2 allow for extended file attributes and 2 terabyte drives (Linux) ext3 like just Ext2 with journaling (keeps track of the changes) ext4 reduces file fragmentation, allows for larger volumes and files (Linux) btrfs copy on write file system aimed at implementing advanced features while focusing on fault tolerance, repair and easy administration. (Linux) f2fs Flash-Friendly File System for SSD (Linux) jfs Journaling File System that can be dynamically resized (AIX/OS2/Linux) VxFS VERITAS File System (or VxFS; called JFS and OnlineJFS in HP-UX) zfs Is Sun (now Oracle) file system. ZFS and zpools are easy to use, but use a lot of cpu & ram. Drive pooling, snapshots, and dynamic disk striping (BSD/SunOS/Mac OS/Linux) fat FAT file system is a legacy file system which is simple and robust (most OSes) ntfs New Technology File System is the replacement for FAT on Windows
  58. 58. EMC Education Services written by 58 Step Action 1. Before we can make a file system we need to find block storage device to put the file system on. There are a number of different ways to do this. The universal fdisk command will work on almost all UNIX-like OS'es. fdisk can be difficult to use so there are a number of alternatives depending on OS and distribution. Type: fdisk –l (notice there are several various sizes devices called /dev/sd*) Another way is to look into the /proc/scsi/scsi file can to find this info. Type: cat /proc/scsi/scsi cfdisk (is a text menu driven system alternative to fdisk) Various distros of Linux prefer cfdisk instead of fdisk. cfdisk is a Linux partition editor, similar to fdisk, but with a different user interface . It is part of the util-linux package of Linux utility programs. If invoked without arguments, cfdisk attempts to read the current partition table from the disk drive and present its findings. Type: cfdisk (q quits cfdisk) 2. An easier way of seeing this info is to use EMC’s freely available inquiry command Type: inq –h (notice all the options for a SAN attached host to EMC storage) Type: inq Type: inq -btl (bus, target, lun address for the storage) Type: inq -mapinfo (great for usage on a SAN) Type: inq -dev /dev/sda –page0 (tons of unformatted info)
  59. 59. EMC Education Services written by 59 Step Action 3. mkfs - Makes a file system on an entire device or just a partition option Function -t Specifies the type of file system to be built -c Check the device for bad blocks before building the file system Type: mkfs –t ext3 /dev/sdb (this command made a ext3 file system on the entire device) Type: y (to proceed) 4. mount - mount File system option Function -a Mount all file systems (of the given types) mentioned in fstab file. -r Mount the file system read-only. -w Mount the file system read/write. This is the default -t used to indicate the file system type ( iso9660 is default) Type: mkdir /mnt/*YourName_FS* (make a directory to mount your file system) Type: mount /dev/sdb/ /mnt/*YourName_FS* (mount your new fs to your directory)
  60. 60. EMC Education Services written by 60 Step Action 5. df - display file systems option Function -a all - include dummy file systems -h human - print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G) -k kilobytes – block size = 1024 -T type - print file system type --direct direct - show statistics for a file instead of mount point --total produce a grand total Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: df –k (you can see the usage of your newly mounted file system) Type: df –Tha (same info but easier to read) 6. Type: cd /mnt/*YourName_FS* (you can now put files on your new fs) 7. ***Note - Intel's proposed replacement for the BIOS using MBR is Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) using GUID Partition Table (GPT). GPT is a standard for the layout of the partition table on a physical hard disk. GPT allocates 64 bits for logical block addresses and therefore allows a maximum disk and partition size of 264 sectors. For disks with 512-byte sectors, that would be 9.4ZB. Most current computer support EFI and most operating systems can now use GPT.***
  61. 61. EMC Education Services written by 61 Lab 5: Part 2 – LVM – lvmdiskscan, pvscan, pvdisplay, and pvcreate Step Action Using basic disks with partitions is a quick and easy way of utilizing disk space. In an enterprise environment when host on a SAN could have hundreds of block devices, it becomes far too cumbersome to just use basic disks. Logical volume management or LVM provides a method of allocating space on mass-storage devices that is more flexible than conventional partitioning schemes. In particular, a volume manager can concatenate, stripe together, RAID, or otherwise combine partitions into larger virtual ones that administrators can re-size or move, potentially without interrupting system use. Volume management represents just one of many forms of storage virtualization; its implementation takes place in a layer in the device-driver stack of an OS. Most volume-manager implementations share the same basic design. They start with physical volumes (PVs), which can be either being hard disks, partitions, or Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs) of an external storage device. Volume management treats PVs as sequences of chunks called physical extents (PEs). The following commands will only work on Linux and HP-UX. Almost all UNIX-like OS’es have some type of LVM with similar commands and like functionality. 1. lvmdiskscan scans all SCSI, (E)IDE disks, multiple devices and a bunch of other block devices in the system looking for LVM physical volumes. The size reported is the real device size. Type: lvmdiskscan Type: lvmdiskscan -l 2. pvscan - scans all supported LVM block devices in the system option Function -e Only show physical volumes belonging to exported volume groups. -n Only show physical volumes not belonging to any volume group. -u Show Uniform Unique Identifiers in addition to device special names. Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: pvscan (once again notice that only one is in use) 3. pvdisplay - allows you to see the attributes of one or more physical volumes option Function -m Mapping of physical extents to logical volumes and logical extents. -c Generate colon separated output for easier scripting. -s Give a short listing showing the existence of volume groups. Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: pvdisplay –v (see that only one block device is used by the Logical Volume Manager)
  62. 62. EMC Education Services written by 62 Step Action 4. pvcreate - initializes disk, physical volumes, or partition for use by the Logical Volume Manager (LVM) option Function -u Specify the uuid for the device. -y Answer yes to all questions -v verbose output Type: pvcreate /dev/sdc (this command just initialized that one block device for the LVM) Type: pvscan (notice now one more block device is ready to be used be the LVM) Type: pvdisplay –v Type: pvcreate /dev/sde /dev/sdg (initialized the remaining block devices) Type: pvscan Type: pvdisplay –v 5. df - display file systems Type: df –Tha (your new device doesn’t show up because there is no file system)
  63. 63. EMC Education Services written by 63 Lab 5: Part 3 – Volume Groups – vgcreate, vgextend, vgexport, and vgimport Step Action A volume group (VG) is a logical collection of Physical Volumes (PV) into one administrative unit. For purposeful grouping, of computer storage space that may span multiple physical devices. 1. vgcreate - vgcreate creates a new volume group using the block special devices option Function -l Sets the maximum number of logical volumes allowed in this VG -p Sets the maximum number of physical volumes allowed in this VG -s Sets the physical extent size on physical volumes of this volume group. Type: vgcreate YourName_VG /dev/sdc 2. vgdisplay - display attributes of volume groups option Function -A Only select the active volume groups. -c Generate colon separated output for easier scripting. -s Give a short listing showing the existence of volume groups. -v Give a verbose listing showing the existence of volume groups. Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: vgdisplay (notice the attributes of the VG including the VG size)
  64. 64. EMC Education Services written by 64 Step Action 3. vgextend - vgextend allows you to add one or more initialized physical volumes to an existing volume group to extend it in size. Moreover, it allows you to re-add a physical volume that has gone missing previously, due to a transient device failure, without re- initializing it. Type: vgextend *YourName_VG* /dev/sde (this added /dev/sde to your VG) Type: vgdisplay (notice the attributes of the VG including the VG size) 4. vgscan - scan all disks for volume groups and build /etc/lvmtab and /etc/lvmtab.d/* which are the database for all other lvm commands. option Function -l Sets the maximum number of logical volumes allowed in this VG -p Sets the maximum number of physical volumes allowed in this VG Type: vgscan –v 5. vgexport - Make volume groups unknown to the system (think snapshots and clones used to export a volume group production server to a backup server.) Type: vgexport *YourName_VG* Type: vgdisplay –v (notice that your vg is now exported, perfect time to take a snapshot)
  65. 65. EMC Education Services written by 65 Step Action 6. vgimport - Makes a volume group known to the system which has previously been exported (Import snapshots and clones to a backup server.) Type: vgimport *YourName_VG* Type: vgdisplay –v
  66. 66. EMC Education Services written by 66 Lab 5: Part 3 – Logical Volumes – lvcreate, lvdisplay, and lvextend Step Action Logical volumes (LV) are mapped onto physical volumes or volume groups (VG). A logical volume is the storage medium that is associated with a logical disk. It typically resides on one or more hard disk drives. 1. lvcreate - creates a new logical volume in a volume group option Function -i number of stripes -I stripe size in kilobytes -l number of logical extents to allocate for the new logical volume. -L size to allocate for the new logical volume. -n name of logical volume -p Set access permissions to read only or read and write. Type: lvcreate -i 2 -I 8 -L 100 –n *your name_LV* *YourName_VG* (creates a 100MB Logical Volume on your VG) 2. lvdisplay - Display attributes of a logical volume option Function -all Include information in the output about internal Logical Volumes -c Generate colon separated output for easier scripting -m Display the mapping of logical extents to physical volumes and physical extents. Try each one of these options, and notice this difference in the outputs. Type: lvdisplay (see all of the logical volumes) Type: lvdisplay -v /dev/*YourName_VG*/*YourName_LV*
  67. 67. EMC Education Services written by 67 Step Action 3. lvextend - allows you to extend the size of a logical volume. option Function -l set the logical volume size in units of logical extents. -L Extend or set the logical volume size in units of megabytes. -i Gives the number of stripes for the extension. -I Gives the number of kilobytes for the granularity of the stripes. -n Do not perform fsck before extending file system . -r Resize underlying file system together with the logical volume using fsadm Type: lvextend -L +50 /dev/*YourName_VG*/*YourName_LV*
  68. 68. EMC Education Services written by 68 4. mkfs - Makes a file system on your new logical volume Type: mkfs –t ext4 /dev/*YourName_VG*/*YourName_LV* 5. mount - mount File system Type: mkdir /mnt/*YourName_LV_FS* (make a directory to mount your file system) To mount your new fs to your directory Type: mount /dev/*YourName_VG*/*YourName_LV* /mnt/*YourName_LV_FS* 6. df - display file systems Type: df –Tha (you can see your newly mounted file system and how much is used)
  69. 69. EMC Education Services written by 69
  70. 70. EMC Education Services written by 70 Lab Exercise 6: Networked Storage Purpose: Examining disks and partitions in Linux, displaying file system information Tasks: Students perform the following tasks:  Networked Storage  Fibre Channel and FCoE  iscsi  NFS (network file system) References:  Lecture material
  71. 71. EMC Education Services written by 71 Lab 6: Part 1 – File level - NFS & CIFS Step Action The common ways of accessing networked file storage is to use NFS or CIFS. Windows hosts use CIFS (also known as SMB) to access a network share by mapping a network drive. This can be done via the command line with the net use command but is most commonly done using the GUI itself. Network File System (NFS) is a distributed file system protocol, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network in a manner similar to how local storage is accessed. It allows client system mount an exported file system from a server. This server exporting the NFS mount could be any number of types of hosts, appliances, or storage arrays like (Linux, Mac OS, UNIX, Windows, Iomega, NetApp, VNX, or Isilon) 1. Suppose we wanted to export the directory, /home from our UNIX-like host. First we need to edit the /etc/exports file. Type: ifconfig -a (record the inet address ______.______.______.______) Type: vi /etc/exports Add the following line to the bottom of the file, sharing the directory with the client, note you must replace the with the inet address of your host that you found using ifconfig -a add the line: /home (rw,sync,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check) ****note this may be the only line in your /etc/exports file 2. Then verify the edit worked ok by typing Type: more /etc/exports 3. Type: exportfs –a (enables the export on the server)
  72. 72. EMC Education Services written by 72 Step Action 4. Now the client would mount the export being offered by the server or storage array. Type: mkdir -p /mnt/nfs/home (create a new mount point for a NFS export on client) Type: mount /mnt/nfs/home (mounts the export to the dir) 5. You can use the df –Tha command to check that the directory has been mounted to client. Type: df –Tha
  73. 73. EMC Education Services written by 73 Lab 6: Part 2 – Block level using FC and FCoE Step Action Fibre Channel SAN has been around since the early 1990s. Normally when a host is accessing fibre channel LUNs it does so over a SAN using a hardware Host Bus Adapter (HBA) for its’ initiator (there are no software fibre channel HBA). If this is the case then all you have to do on the host is make sure the HBA driver is installed. Most HBAs are made by Emulex or Qlogic and the drivers are built into most UNIX-like operating systems that support them. That means there is nothing for us to do on the host except logical volume management of block devices like we already did in lab 4. All the work is done on the SAN switches in the form of zoning to create the connection between the HBA initiator and the target port on the storage array. FCoE is a relatively new arrival on the network storage scene, and still is not widely implemented. Most of the time an FCoE LUN would be accessed over an Ethernet SAN using a hardware Converged Network Adaptor (CNA) acting as the initiator. The labs we have been doing so far have been done in a virtual environment using virtual machines with local virtual disks (like scsi hard disks inside a physical computer), so we cannot put a physical CNA in them and then install the drivers. It is possible to use software CNA initiators in some operating systems. DO NOT CONTINUE DOING THE HANDS ON PORTION OF THIS LAB: This is for information purposes only, skip to the next section. Most server operating systems are capable of acting as an FCoE target, it is quite detailed to setup. Our customers would be using FCoE to connect to an array like a VNX or VMAX. This is a virtual lab environment and we do not have an FCoE target for your host to connect to. NOTE: if you want to practice these FCoE labs you need to first setup an FCoE target on another host. The page below describes how to do this; US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Storage_Administration_Guide/fcoeconfig.html 1. The more common tasks someone may need to perform is setting up a software initiator on the hosts’ operating system. The steps below demonstrate how to configure the software FCoE initiator on your Linux host to connect to any type of FCoE target. First we have to start the data center bridging daemon using the following command: /etc/init.d/lldpad start 2. For networking interfaces that implement a hardware DCBX client, skip this step and move on to the next. For interfaces that require a software DCBX client, enable data center bridging on the Ethernet interface using the following commands: dcbtool sc ethX dcb on Then, enable FCoE on the Ethernet interface by running: dcbtool sc ethX app:fcoe e:1
  74. 74. EMC Education Services written by 74 Step Action 3. Load the FCoE device now using: ifconfig ethX up 4. Start the FCoE daemon using: service fcoe start 5. After configuring the Ethernet interface to use FCoE, It is recommended that you start the daemons to run at startup, use chkconfig to do this: chkconfig lldpad on chkconfig fcoe on 6. Now that you have added new LUNs to your host you will need to get your OS to scan for them. echo "- - -" > /sys/class/scsi_host/host0/scan 7. Before we can make a file system we need to find block storage device to put the file system on. There are a number of different ways to do this. The universal fdisk command will work on almost all UNIX-like OS’es. fdisk can be difficult to use so there are a number of alternatives depending on OS and distribution. fdisk –l (notice there are several various sizes devices called /dev/sd*) 8. mkfs - Makes a file system on an entire device or just a partition mkfs –t ext3 /dev/sdd (this command made a ext3 file system on the entire device) y (to proceed) 9. mount - mount File system mkdir /mnt/YourName_FCoE (make a directory to mount your file system) mount /dev/sdb/ /mnt/YourName_FCoE (mount your new fs to your directory) 10. df - display file systems df –Tha (same info but easier to read)
  75. 75. EMC Education Services written by 75 Lab 6: Part 3 – Block level using iscsi Step Action iSCSI (the scsi protocol encapsulated in TCP/IP) this makes iSCSI capable of using existing Ethernet network technology and widely implemented TCP/IP. Since the packets are using TCP/IP as the transport packets are able of being routed over long distances (unlike FCoE). iSCSI has been implemented since early to mid-2000s by most operating systems vendors as a soft adaptor. Even though hardware iSCSI adaptors like HBAs and TOEs (TCP Offload Engine) are soft initiators are quite common so that is what we will practice setting up. DO NOT CONTINUE DOING THE HANDS ON PORTION OF THIS LAB: This is for information purposes only – skip to the next section. Most server operating systems are capable of acting as an iSCSI target, it is quite detailed to setup. Our customers would be using iSCSI to connect to an array like a VNX or VMAX. This is a virtual lab environment and we do not have an iSCSI target for your host to connect to. NOTE: if you want to practice these iSCSI labs you need to first setup an iSCSI target on another host. The page below describes how to do this; US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Storage_Administration_Guide/iscsi-target-setup.html 1. The more common tasks someone may need to perform is setting up a software initiator on the hosts’ operating system. The steps below demonstrate how to configure the software iSCSI adaptor on your Linux host to connect to any type of iSCSI target. 2. Configure the iqn name for the initiator: vi /etc/iscsi/initiatorname.iscsi edit or add the lines below InitiatorAlias=initiator01 3. Edit the iSCSI initiator configuration: vi /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf edit or add the lines below # To manually startup the session set to "manual". The default is automatic. node.startup = automatic # To enable CHAP authentication node.session.auth.authmethod = CHAP # To set a CHAP username and password for initiator node.session.auth.username = iscsiadm node.session.auth.password = iscsiadm123 4. Start iSCSI initiator daemon: /etc/init.d/iscsid start chkconfig --levels 235 iscsid on
  76. 76. EMC Education Services written by 76 Step Action 5. Discovering targets in our iSCSI server: iscsiadm --mode discovery -t sendtargets --portal,1 6. Trying to login with the iSCSI LUN: iscsiadm --mode node --targetname --portal –login 7. update of iSCSI targets database for the files located in /var/lib/iscsi/ : cat /var/lib/iscsi/send_targets/,3260/st_config 8. Checking the status session with the target: iscsiadm --mode session --op show 9. Checking the UUID for disk: blkid /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb1: UUID="71e86162-011d-49f1-9b4a-9f95a277e6b5" TYPE="ext4" 10. Add the next entry in /etc/fstab file: UUID=71e86162-011d-49f1-9b4a-9f95a277e6b5 /mnt/data ext4 _netdev,rw 0 0 11. With the mount option _netdev the script netfs is responsible of the mount to this device. Without this option, Linux will try to mount this device before load the network support. We have to check that netfs is enabled to run in the default runlevels: chkconfig --list netfs netfs 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off 12. Now that you have added new LUNs to your host you will need to get your OS to scan for them. echo "- - -" > /sys/class/scsi_host/host0/scan 13. Before we can make a file system we need to find block storage device to put the file system on. There are a number of different ways to do this. The universal fdisk command will work on almost all UNIX-like OS’es. fdisk can be difficult to use so there are a number of alternatives depending on OS and distribution. fdisk –l (notice there are several various sizes devices called /dev/sd*) 14. mkfs - Makes a file system on an entire device or just a partition mkfs –t ext3 /dev/sdf (this command made a ext3 file system on the entire device) y (to proceed) 15. mount - mount File system mkdir /mnt/YourName_iscsi (make a directory to mount your file system) mount /dev/sdf/ /mnt/YourName_iscsi (mount your new fs to your directory)
  77. 77. EMC Education Services written by 77 Step Action 16. df - display file systems df –Tha (same info but easier to read)
  78. 78. EMC Education Services written by 78 Suggestions for Further Study There are a huge amount of resources to learn more about Operating Systems. The more you learn the more you will see what they all have in common. It is easiest to just download install VMware Player on to your laptop or any computer you want. Fully built VMware VMs can be downloaded from the VMware Virtual Appliances Marketplace. One of the best ways to learn a new operating system is to install it yourself. You can build a new VM in VMware Player and install the OS by mounting up the ISO in the virtual dvd drive of the VM. The ISO of the install DVD for operating systems can be found in many places. One of the best central places to find them is: and UNIX on the x86 Intel platform: webpage UNIX System 7 – The root of all UNIX today Plan 9 - purposed as the successor to Unix at Bell Labs OpenSolaris - Good to practice Solaris OpenServer - previously SCO UNIX now owned by UnXis. Minix – Mini UNIX for educational purposes The biggest BSD distros are: webpage FreeBSD – Most popular and grandfather to many others NetBSD – Focused on quality, stability, and performance OpenBSD – known open-source code and quality documentation FreeNAS - network-attached storage server for file and block Hackintosh – a Apple Mac variant Some of the most popular Linux distros are: webpage CentOS – Identical to RHEL, commonly seen at EMC customers Fedora – very large community and user base Puppy Linux – Tiny 100MB, easy, and extremely friendly Ubuntu – quite popular and has it’s own spin offs Mint – A very popular version of Ubuntu openSUSE – a popular distro in European datacenters Debian – a father to many other distros Mageia - Community project fork of Mandriva Linux Damn Small Linux – only 50MB with a GUI! Android – Google’s brand of Linux OpenFiler - network-attached storage server for file and block Other x86 Operating Systems: webpage Inferno - based on Plan 9 from Bell Labs BeOS - positioned as a multimedia platform ReactOS- to be binary compatible with Windows eComStation - operating system based on IBM OS/2 Warp Cosmos - is an open source os written in C# MenuetOS - is an OS written entirely in assembly language FreeVMV – Free x86 clone of VMS
  79. 79. EMC Education Services written by 79 End of Workshop