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A Comparison of Chemical, Morphological, and Mechanical Properties of Various Recycled Carbon Fibers<br />Joseph Heil, D. ...
Preview<br />How to study recycled carbon fibers<br />Fiber type & source material<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />2<br />
Sample Codes<br />3<br />
Characterization Methods<br />4<br />
Testing Matrix<br />5<br />
SEM-Fiber Diameter<br />Standard Modulus<br />Image Analysis software used to measure fiber diameter<br />6<br />
SEM-Fiber Diameter<br />Overall no dramatic reductions<br />Variation between fiber lots <br />7<br />IM T800s<br />IM Hex...
SEM- Hexcel IM7<br />8<br />Reclaimed by Milled Carbon from BMI cured trim scrap<br />C<br />Indications of:<br /><ul><li>...
Char
Grooved surface</li></ul>Diameter :<br />Virgin &gt; Recycled<br />Virgin IM7<br />
I-MC-CTS Cross Sections<br />9<br /><ul><li>Cross sectioning done with FIB</li></ul>-Protective coating of Pt<br /><ul><li...
Toray T800s (IM)<br />11<br />Milled Carbon<br />V T800s<br />Unidirectional trim scrap from uncured prepreg<br /><ul><li>...
Evidence of pitting but otherwise clean</li></li></ul><li>T-800s SEM Images<br />Fibers are clean no visible damage <br />...
13<br />A-RCF9<br />T300 SM Fibers<br />Thick crenulations, considerable junk on surface<br />Striations more evident than...
SEM Discussion<br />Minimal changes in diameter<br />Pitting observed on IM fibers<br />Difficult to identify surface mate...
XPS Discussion <br />Used to determine <br />atomic percentages<br />% bonding<br />Significant surface activity for chemi...
TensileStrength<br />16<br />T300<br />AS4<br /><ul><li>Favorable strength retention at shorter gauge lengths
T300 cured trim scrap fibers were too brittle to test</li></li></ul><li>Elastic Modulus<br />17<br />T300<br />AS4<br />So...
Fibers remain stiff after recycling</li></li></ul><li>T800s Tensile Strength<br />18<br /><ul><li>Large reduction in stren...
Reasonable retention at 6mm gauge length</li></li></ul><li>T800s Elastic Modulus<br /><ul><li>Small variation in modulus w...
Fibers remain stiff after recycling</li></ul>19<br />
Tensile Test Summary<br />Strength retention:<br />&lt;0.25in: 90%<br />~1in: 80%<br />2+in: 60%-70%<br />Modulus increase...
Single Fiber Composite Test<br />21<br />Reasons for increased adhesion:<br /><ul><li>Surface chemistry
Surface roughness</li></ul>CTS lab   CTS pilot  Virgin         UC       CTS<br />Virgin   MC-UTS<br />Virgin  EOL   EOL-O<...
Acknowledgments<br />The Boeing Company<br />Milled Carbon Ltd (Recycled Carbon Fiber Ltd.)<br />Adherent Technologies<br ...
Toray T800s (IM)<br />24<br />Reclaimed by Milled Carbon<br />V T800s<br />Uncured<br />a)  Characteristic air gap spun pr...
XPS of Virgin Fibers<br />25<br /><ul><li>Fibers were supplied with Epoxy Size except V AS4
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Recylced Carbon FIber Analysis 2009

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Presentation given at SAMPE Baltimore 2009. This presentation summarizes the results of work for Boeing Characterizing Recycled Carbon Fiber from the Boeing 787 test fuselage.

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Recylced Carbon FIber Analysis 2009

  1. 1. A Comparison of Chemical, Morphological, and Mechanical Properties of Various Recycled Carbon Fibers<br />Joseph Heil, D. Litzenberger, M. Hall, R. Clearfield, Dr. Jerry Cuomo<br />NC State University<br />Pete George & William L. Carberry<br />The Boeing Company<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Preview<br />How to study recycled carbon fibers<br />Fiber type & source material<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Sample Codes<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Characterization Methods<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Testing Matrix<br />5<br />
  6. 6. SEM-Fiber Diameter<br />Standard Modulus<br />Image Analysis software used to measure fiber diameter<br />6<br />
  7. 7. SEM-Fiber Diameter<br />Overall no dramatic reductions<br />Variation between fiber lots <br />7<br />IM T800s<br />IM Hexcel IM7<br />* Most significant change<br /> ~8% diameter decrease<br />
  8. 8. SEM- Hexcel IM7<br />8<br />Reclaimed by Milled Carbon from BMI cured trim scrap<br />C<br />Indications of:<br /><ul><li>Pitting
  9. 9. Char
  10. 10. Grooved surface</li></ul>Diameter :<br />Virgin &gt; Recycled<br />Virgin IM7<br />
  11. 11. I-MC-CTS Cross Sections<br />9<br /><ul><li>Cross sectioning done with FIB</li></ul>-Protective coating of Pt<br /><ul><li>Pits are shallow relative to bulk</li></li></ul><li>Undamaged X-Section<br />10<br />Light Surface texturing<br />
  12. 12. Toray T800s (IM)<br />11<br />Milled Carbon<br />V T800s<br />Unidirectional trim scrap from uncured prepreg<br /><ul><li>Diameter decrease
  13. 13. Evidence of pitting but otherwise clean</li></li></ul><li>T-800s SEM Images<br />Fibers are clean no visible damage <br />ENEA/ Karborek Lab<br />ENEA/ Karborek Pilot<br />Cured Trim Scrap<br />Loosely bound<br />Milled Carbon Cured Trim Scrap<br />Virgin T800s <br />12<br />
  14. 14. 13<br />A-RCF9<br />T300 SM Fibers<br />Thick crenulations, considerable junk on surface<br />Striations more evident than virgin fiber<br />Virgin – characteristic striations<br />A- Cured Trim Scrap<br />A & B reclaimed by Milled Carbon<br />Diameter:<br />A&gt;B&gt;C <br />B- Uncured Trim Scrap<br />C-V T300H<br />
  15. 15. SEM Discussion<br />Minimal changes in diameter<br />Pitting observed on IM fibers<br />Difficult to identify surface material<br />SEM analysis is informative & efficient<br />14<br />
  16. 16. XPS Discussion <br />Used to determine <br />atomic percentages<br />% bonding<br />Significant surface activity for chemical bonding<br />Activity comparable to unsized virgin fiber<br />15<br />
  17. 17. TensileStrength<br />16<br />T300<br />AS4<br /><ul><li>Favorable strength retention at shorter gauge lengths
  18. 18. T300 cured trim scrap fibers were too brittle to test</li></li></ul><li>Elastic Modulus<br />17<br />T300<br />AS4<br />Source material: EOL scrap<br />Source material: uncured trim scrap<br /><ul><li>Increase modulus with increase in gauge length
  19. 19. Fibers remain stiff after recycling</li></li></ul><li>T800s Tensile Strength<br />18<br /><ul><li>Large reduction in strength with increase in gauge length.
  20. 20. Reasonable retention at 6mm gauge length</li></li></ul><li>T800s Elastic Modulus<br /><ul><li>Small variation in modulus with gauge length
  21. 21. Fibers remain stiff after recycling</li></ul>19<br />
  22. 22. Tensile Test Summary<br />Strength retention:<br />&lt;0.25in: 90%<br />~1in: 80%<br />2+in: 60%-70%<br />Modulus increases with gauge length<br />High modulus retention<br />Flaw distribution sensitivity<br />20<br />
  23. 23. Single Fiber Composite Test<br />21<br />Reasons for increased adhesion:<br /><ul><li>Surface chemistry
  24. 24. Surface roughness</li></ul>CTS lab CTS pilot Virgin UC CTS<br />Virgin MC-UTS<br />Virgin EOL EOL-O<br />ENEA/ Karborek<br />Milled Carbon<br />Milled Carbon<br /><ul><li>Fibers show excellent retention or increase in IFSS</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br />NC State has developed a methodology to evaluate CFs<br />Fiber diameter measurements can indicate residual char or oxidation<br />XPS shows surface favorable for bonding<br />SM fibers have better strength retention than IM<br />Recycled IM stronger than virgin SM<br />Recycled fibers retain high level of performance<br />22<br />
  25. 25. Acknowledgments<br />The Boeing Company<br />Milled Carbon Ltd (Recycled Carbon Fiber Ltd.)<br />Adherent Technologies<br />Dr. Anil Netravali<br />IMST-NCSU<br />Ka Wong & Chuck Mooney- NCSU AIF<br />23<br />
  26. 26. Toray T800s (IM)<br />24<br />Reclaimed by Milled Carbon<br />V T800s<br />Uncured<br />a) Characteristic air gap spun precursor <br />b) Residue noticeable on surface. Similar to residue found on recycled T700G.<br />Diameter :<br />Virgin &gt; Recycled<br />
  27. 27. XPS of Virgin Fibers<br />25<br /><ul><li>Fibers were supplied with Epoxy Size except V AS4
  28. 28. V AS4 most representative
  29. 29. High degree of Hydroxyl groups</li></li></ul><li>XPS of IM fibers<br />26<br />V T800s T8MCUC T8_CTSa T8_CTSb T8MCCTS<br />T8MCUC T8_CTSa T8_CTSb T8MCCTS<br /><ul><li>Virgin fiber shows lower carbon content because of sizing
  30. 30. RCF show mostly carbon & oxygen
  31. 31. Surface chemistry is more variable
  32. 32. Graphitic and hydroxyl bonding predominate</li></li></ul><li>XPS of SM Fibers<br />27<br />T300<br />T300<br />IM7<br />IM7<br />T300<br />T300<br />IMCEOL T3MCUTS T3MCCTS <br />VIM7 IMCEOL VT300 MCUTS MCCTS <br />

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