Institute for Maintenance Science and Technology<br />RecyCled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Joseph Heil, Dr. Jerry Cuomo<b...
Outline<br />IMST Composite Sustainment Activities<br />Partners in Carbon Fiber Recycling<br />Recycled Carbon Fiber Comp...
Composites Sustainment Activities<br />Reverse Engineering<br />NDI<br />Atmospheric Plasma<br />Carbon Fiber Recycling<br...
Recycled Carbon Fiber Network<br />The Boeing Company<br /><ul><li>Pete George & Bill Carberry</li></ul>NC Polymer Center ...
Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM)<br />AS4 Laminates<br />IM7 Laminates...
Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding<br />6<br />Mechanical Property Testing:<br />Tension<br />Compression<br />Flexure...
 Recycled IM7 laminates
 Virgin IM7 laminates</li></li></ul><li>VARTM Mechanical Properties: IM7 Laminates<br />7<br />VARTM  Set 1 (AS4  fibers) ...
VARTM Mechanical Properties: IM7 Laminates<br />8<br />
VARTM Key Points<br />Leaving the weave intact during recycling allows for laminate construction of RCFRP<br />Reduced ten...
Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM)<br />Bulk Molding Compound (BMC)<br /...
Bulk Molding Compound Panels<br />11<br />Fabrication:<br /><ul><li> 2wt% loading of milled AS4 fibers in vinyl ester resin
 3000psi molding pressure
 160oC for 60s</li></ul>Mechanical Testing:<br />Tensile ASTM D3039<br />Flexure ASTM D790<br />
Mechanical Testing of BMC Panels<br />12<br /><ul><li> 86% UTS  retention
 99%  Flexure  retention
 Comparable to 5wt% loading glass/polyester
 Greater strength retention at shorter fiber length </li></li></ul><li>Bulk Molding of Circuit Breaker Panel<br />13<br />...
  Six combinations of pressure and time
  Difficult to wet out fibers
 ~65 wt% phenolic resin
  Added resin lowered viscosity
  Excess amount of flash </li></li></ul><li>BMC Key Points<br />Milled RCF provide adequate reinforcement strength for BMC...
Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM)<br />Bulk Molding Compound (BMC)<br /...
From Junk to Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />How do I get a CFRP?<br />Recycle the Fiber<br />Analyze fiber properti...
End of Life Parts – Shredded and Sorted at Huron Valley Fritz West in Tucson, Arizona<br />Reclamation of Fiber by Recycle...
Extrusion Compounding<br />18<br />c<br />Carbon Fiber<br />b<br />a<br />CFRP Pellets<br />H2SO4 + H2O2<br />Ceramic <br ...
Injection Molding Trials<br />19<br />
Mechanical Testing Results <br />20<br />Tensile: ASTM D 638<br />Flexure: ASTM D 790<br />
Impact Tests<br />21<br />PC Control: 60ft-lb/in<br />
Injection Molding Key Points<br />A clean fiber supply is needed<br />Chemicals left over from recycling can impede bondin...
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Rcf Hamburg

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  • 5”x6x”1/8 “ Molding done at BMCI-=>Chicago, IL largest manufacturer of thermoset bulk moldingcompounds in North America
  • Performed at Cornell University under direction of Dr. Netravali
  • Rcf Hamburg

    1. 1. Institute for Maintenance Science and Technology<br />RecyCled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Joseph Heil, Dr. Jerry Cuomo<br />www.imst.us<br />Carbon Fibre Recycling and Reuse<br />November 4, 2009<br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />IMST Composite Sustainment Activities<br />Partners in Carbon Fiber Recycling<br />Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM)<br />Bulk Molding Compound (BMC)<br />Injection Molding<br />Mechanical Properties of Recycled Carbon Fibers<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Composites Sustainment Activities<br />Reverse Engineering<br />NDI<br />Atmospheric Plasma<br />Carbon Fiber Recycling<br />Composites Manufacturing<br />Repair Technologies<br />Economic Development<br />Training Activity<br />Technical Support<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Recycled Carbon Fiber Network<br />The Boeing Company<br /><ul><li>Pete George & Bill Carberry</li></ul>NC Polymer Center of Excellence<br />Quantum Composites<br />Recycled Carbon Fiber, Ltd<br />Adherent Technologies, Inc <br />ANEA/ Karborek<br />Firebird Advanced Materials<br />Penn Compression Molding<br />Bulk Molding Compounds, Inc.<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM)<br />AS4 Laminates<br />IM7 Laminates<br />Bulk Molding Compound (BMC)<br />Injection Molding<br />5<br />
    6. 6. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding<br />6<br />Mechanical Property Testing:<br />Tension<br />Compression<br />Flexure<br /><ul><li> Recycled AS4 laminates
    7. 7. Recycled IM7 laminates
    8. 8. Virgin IM7 laminates</li></li></ul><li>VARTM Mechanical Properties: IM7 Laminates<br />7<br />VARTM Set 1 (AS4 fibers) <br />UTS Retention: 13%-33%<br />Compression: 58%-86%<br />VARTM Set 2 (IM7 fibers)<br />UTS Retention: 40%-44%<br />Compression: 72%-74%<br />Strength Retention<br />Tensile: 40%-44% Compressive: ~73%<br />
    9. 9. VARTM Mechanical Properties: IM7 Laminates<br />8<br />
    10. 10. VARTM Key Points<br />Leaving the weave intact during recycling allows for laminate construction of RCFRP<br />Reduced tensile strength of fibers & possible poor resin to fiber adhesion resulted in weak laminates<br />VARTM allows for quick & easy comparison of different recycling treatments <br />9<br />
    11. 11. Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM)<br />Bulk Molding Compound (BMC)<br />Injection Molding<br />Fuel Cell Plates @ BMCI<br />Circuit Breaker Panel @ Penn Compression Molding<br />10<br />
    12. 12. Bulk Molding Compound Panels<br />11<br />Fabrication:<br /><ul><li> 2wt% loading of milled AS4 fibers in vinyl ester resin
    13. 13. 3000psi molding pressure
    14. 14. 160oC for 60s</li></ul>Mechanical Testing:<br />Tensile ASTM D3039<br />Flexure ASTM D790<br />
    15. 15. Mechanical Testing of BMC Panels<br />12<br /><ul><li> 86% UTS retention
    16. 16. 99% Flexure retention
    17. 17. Comparable to 5wt% loading glass/polyester
    18. 18. Greater strength retention at shorter fiber length </li></li></ul><li>Bulk Molding of Circuit Breaker Panel<br />13<br /><ul><li> ~12wt% AS4 fiber, 3µm particle size
    19. 19. Six combinations of pressure and time
    20. 20. Difficult to wet out fibers
    21. 21. ~65 wt% phenolic resin
    22. 22. Added resin lowered viscosity
    23. 23. Excess amount of flash </li></li></ul><li>BMC Key Points<br />Milled RCF provide adequate reinforcement strength for BMC applications<br />BMCs made with RCF could replace glass compounds with higher loading<br />Optimal fiber wetting & BMC viscosity are most likely obtained with ~50wt%-55wt% resin <br />14<br />
    24. 24. Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM)<br />Bulk Molding Compound (BMC)<br />Injection Molding<br />Process of Making CFRP<br />Fiber History<br />Extrusion Compounding<br />Injection Molding Trials<br />Mechanical Testing<br />15<br />
    25. 25. From Junk to Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />How do I get a CFRP?<br />Recycle the Fiber<br />Analyze fiber properties<br />Mix with resin<br />Mold<br />Test Composite properties<br />16<br />
    26. 26. End of Life Parts – Shredded and Sorted at Huron Valley Fritz West in Tucson, Arizona<br />Reclamation of Fiber by Recycled Carbon Fiber, Ltd Birmingham U.K <br />350˚F Cure Epoxy with AS4 Fiber<br />Control Unsized AS4<br />Reclamation of Fiber by Adherent Technologies Albuquerque, NM <br />Characterizationby NC State with Direction and Oversight by Boeing <br />Fiber History<br />17<br />
    27. 27. Extrusion Compounding<br />18<br />c<br />Carbon Fiber<br />b<br />a<br />CFRP Pellets<br />H2SO4 + H2O2<br />Ceramic <br />Filter<br />H2SO4 + H2O2<br />waste<br />
    28. 28. Injection Molding Trials<br />19<br />
    29. 29. Mechanical Testing Results <br />20<br />Tensile: ASTM D 638<br />Flexure: ASTM D 790<br />
    30. 30. Impact Tests<br />21<br />PC Control: 60ft-lb/in<br />
    31. 31. Injection Molding Key Points<br />A clean fiber supply is needed<br />Chemicals left over from recycling can impede bonding to resin<br />Fiber does not flow freely<br />Excellent mechanical properties<br />Future work: engineering thermoplastics<br />22<br />
    32. 32. Outline<br />IMST Composite Sustainment Activities<br />Partners in Carbon Fiber Recycling<br />Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites<br />Mechanical Properties of Recycled Carbon Fibers<br />T300 & AS4<br />T800s<br />Interfacial Shear Strength<br />23<br />
    33. 33. TensileStrength<br />24<br />T300<br />AS4<br />Source material: uncured trim scrap recovered by RCF, Ltd<br />Source material: EOL scrap recovered by RCF, Ltd<br /><ul><li>Favorable strength retention at shorter gauge lengths</li></li></ul><li>Elastic Modulus<br />25<br />T300<br />AS4<br />Source material: uncured trim scrap recovered by RCF, Ltd<br />Source material: EOL scrap recovered by RCF, Ltd<br />Source material: EOL scrap<br />Source material: uncured trim scrap<br /><ul><li>Fibersremain stiff after recycling</li></li></ul><li>T800s Tensile Strength<br />26<br />
    34. 34. T800s Elastic Modulus<br />27<br />
    35. 35. Single Fiber Composite Test<br />28<br />Reasons for <br />increased adhesion:<br /><ul><li>Surface chemistry
    36. 36. Surface roughness</li></ul>CTS lab CTS Virgin UCTS CTS<br /> Pilot<br />VirginRCF-UTS<br />Virgin EOL EOL-O<br />ENEA/ Karborek<br />RCF, Ltd<br />RCF, Ltd<br /><ul><li>Fibers show excellent retention or increase in IFSS</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br />Multiple demonstrations of Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (RCFRP) has been shown<br />RCFRP have comparable properties to virgin CFRP in many cases<br />RCFRPs can be tailored for strength and/or stiffness<br />Maintaining fiber orientation during recycling is beneficial for future processing of RCF<br />There are numerous opportunities to sell RCFRPs<br />29<br />
    37. 37. Acknowledgments<br />Brian Allen, Myles Connor, Brad Hartman, Davis Litzenberger, IMST<br />Tom Hunter, Firebird Advanced Materials<br />Pete George & Bill Carberry, The Boeing Company<br />IntertechPira<br />30<br />
    38. 38. Questions<br />Contact Information<br />Joseph Heil<br />jpheil@ncsu.edu<br />www.imst.us<br />31<br />

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