Parachutes and Space Shuttles

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  • Parachutes and Space Shuttles

    1. 1. Elmer
    2. 2. Elmer THE SPACE SHUTTLE Joshua Tham Jun Yi Elmer ‘Amélie’ Loh
    3. 3. Elmer
    4. 4. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE• NASA wanted to … Elmer Develop a reusable Space Shuttle system Make space travel less costly Make space travel less technically ambitious• Launched like a rocket and made to enter the atmosphere like an airplane• Four orbital test flights conducted in 1981, Florida• Operational flights began in 5th January 1982
    5. 5. Elmer
    6. 6. SPACE SHUTTLE Manned orbital rocket and spacecraft system Elmer Operated by NASA since 1981 135 missions since founding Consists mainly of: Orbiter, Main Engines, External Fuel Tank and Solid Rocket Booster
    7. 7. Cute Stuff
    8. 8. MAJOR SHUTTLE MISSIONS Cute Stuff• Feb 18, 1977 – 1st Shuttle flight (by Enterprise)• April 12, 1981 – First orbital test flight (by Columbia)• January 28, 1986 – Disaster after 73 seconds (Challenger)• April24, 1990 – Launch of the Hubble Space Telescope (by Discovery)• July 8, 2011 – Final Space Shuttle Flight (by Atlantis)
    9. 9. Elmer
    10. 10. USES OF SPACE SHUTTLES• Used to launch satellites into space• Used as a test bed to repair communication satellites already in orbit• Assemble the ISS Elmer
    11. 11. Cute Stuff
    12. 12. SPACE SHUTTLE PARTS AND FUNCTIONS• Orbiter (main aircraft) - reusable Cute Stuff• External Tank – not reusable -Supply the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuel to the main engines• Solid Rocket Boosters X2 - reusable -Jettisoned two minutes after launch -Deploys parachutes and lands in the ocean to be recovered• Shuttle launched vertically like a conventional rocket• Orbiter lands horizontally
    13. 13. Cute Stuff
    14. 14. SPECIFICATIONSLengthSpace Shuttle: 56 metres Cute StuffOrbiter: 37 metresWingspan: 23 metresHeight Orbiter (on runway): 17 metresLiftoff Weight4.5 million poundsOr 2 million kilogramsOr 2000 tonsOrbit 28,000 kilometres per hour
    15. 15. Cute Stuff
    16. 16. ORBITER Cute Stuff• Resembles airplane• Three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) mounted on the Orbiters aft fuselage in a triangular pattern • Swivel 10.5 degrees up and down and 8.5 degrees from side to side• Thermal Protection System • Consists of various materials applied externally to the outer structural skin • Protects orbiter from extreme temperatures (on re-entry into atmosphere) • Black tiles called fibrous refractory composite insulation  are used • The outer structural skin constructed primarily of aluminium and graphite epoxy
    17. 17. Elmer
    18. 18. ROCKET BOOSTERS• Provide about 83% of liftoff thrust• Support the weight of the space shuttle and the external tank on the launch pad• About 590,000 kg at launch, 45 m in length, 4 m in diameter Elmer• Drops off after launch• Recovered in the ocean and reused again
    19. 19. Elmer
    20. 20. Elmer EXTERNAL TANK(ET)• Provides 2.025 million litres of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellant to the SSMEs (engines on Orbiter)• Discarded 8.5 minutes after launch• Burns up on re-entry (not reusable)• Constructed mostly of aluminium-lithium alloy about 1/8 inch thick.
    21. 21. Cute Stuff
    22. 22. THE FUTURE OF Cute Stuff SPACE SHUTTLES• July 8, 2011 – final Space shuttle launch• International Space Station now depends solely on Russia• US will rely on Russians for Space missions• Loss of jobs and specialised expertise in space• NASA Focus on deep space exploration; innovators and entrepreneurs to carry out the rest• 2 new developments – 1) Deep space crew vehicle 2) Evolvable heavy-lift rocket
    23. 23. Cute Stuff
    24. 24. Cute Stuff PARACHUTES• Key role during landing – slow down Orbiter after landing• Shuttle glides the rest of the way to a landing, thrusters are burned out upon re-entry• Brakes too weak, may overheat• Parachutes introduced to save money --- added to shorten the stopping distance so it could land at KSC (current runway and main control centre), which was much shorter than Edwards (former runway) • Money saved because at with the shuttle at KSC, it would not need to be flown back from Edwards to KSC
    25. 25. Elmer
    26. 26. Elmer UP NEXTMore on PARACHUTES by Ronald Chiang and Josea Evan
    27. 27. Parachute SystemJosea EvanRonald Chiang
    28. 28. ParachuteA parachute is a device used to slow the motion of anobject through an atmosphere by creating drag.The word "parachute" comes from the French para,meaning "to prepare for" or "to protect against"
    29. 29. Timeline The usage of parachutes dates back to the Renaissance period (14th century) all the way till now (21st century). That is around 700 years!
    30. 30. Early history (Renaissance) Oldest parachute design appeared in Italy in 1470 by an anonymous author. Soon after, Leonardo Da Vinci sketched a more sophisticated parachute in 1485. Venetian inventor Veranzio further developed the parachute that Da Vinci sketched.
    31. 31. Early Development(Renaissance) Da Vinci’s1st design model Veranzio’s Design
    32. 32. History (18th century) The modern parachute was invented in the late 18th century by Louis-Sebastien Lenormand in France, who made the first recorded public jump in 1783. Lenormand also sketched his device beforehand
    33. 33. The (almost) ModernParachute (18th century) This is an illustration showing Lenormand demonstrating his 1st public jump with his invented parachute.
    34. 34. The (almost) ModernParachute (18th century) In 1785, Aaron Seitler demonstrated a parachute as a means of safely disembarking from a hot air balloon. Further development focused on making the parachute more compact Andre Garnerin made the first jump in 1797 using such a parachute. Garnerin also invented the vented parachute, which improved the stability of the fall.[
    35. 35. The (real) Modern Parachute(20th century) In 1911 a successful test was done with a dummy at the Eiffel tower in Paris. (1st modern test in which a frameless parachute was tested) The puppets weight was 75 kg, the parachutes weight was 21 kg. The cables between puppet and the parachute were 9 M long. The following year Franz Reichelt fell to his death from the tower demonstrating his wearable parachute.
    36. 36. The (real) Modern Parachute(20th century) [military] The first military use for the parachute was for use by artillery detectors on tethered observation balloons in World War 1 The main part of the parachute was in a bag suspended from the balloon with the pilot wearing only a simple waist harness which was attached to the main parachute. When the balloon crew jumped the main part of the parachute was pulled from the bag by the crews waist harness, first the shroud lines, followed by the main canopy.
    37. 37. Military parachute Knapsack parachute invented by Gleb Kotelnikov Used in military
    38. 38. Scientific Concepts inParachutesJosea EvanRonald Chiang
    39. 39. Science in Parachutes ::Drag The parachute creates a drag that slows down someone or something from falling down. Drag is the push on something from the air or water. As air is much thinner than water it doesn’t have as much drag. The larger is the surface area, the more is the drag. The parachute is very light in weight and has a very big surface area. Catches lots of air as it falls thereby creating drag.
    40. 40. Science in Parachutes ::Newton’s 3rd Law For every action there is an equal opposite reaction Law of gravity states the force that comes from the center of the earth attracts everything to the earth. Parachute is one of those objects that follow this law of gravity. These were initially designed with an intention to save people in emergency situations when they needed to exit off a plane that is not functioning properly.
    41. 41. Action: Gravity pulling down Reaction: Air resistance of parachute ActionReaction This makes the parachute float
    42. 42. Action: Gravity pulling down Reaction: Air resistance of parachute ActionReaction This makes the parachute float
    43. 43. Thank you!

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