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Practical Guide to ImplementPractical Guide to Implement
Continuous Improvement andContinuous Improvement and
Lean Six Sig...
Practical Guide to ImplementPractical Guide to Implement
Continuous Improvement andContinuous Improvement and
Lean Six Sig...
Module One
YouKaizen.com
Deming’s Philosophy - Third Wave of theDeming’s Philosophy - Third Wave of the
Industrial Revolut...
Module One
YouKaizen.com
CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENTCONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
Solid Foundation of
3 Ts
Never-ending
improvement
 System of Profound KnowledgeSystem of Profound Knowledge
 Deming 14-Point MethodologyDeming 14-Point Methodology
Module...
 Appreciation for a
System
 Theory of Knowledge
 Knowledge of
Variation
 Knowledge of
Psychology
Module One
YouKaizen....
 Whole and complex
 Clearly defined and shared
goals
 Everyone must share a distinct
commitment to aim the
common goal
...
 Being part of the whole
 Large number of participants and
interactions
 Collaboration
 Interconnecting components
 I...
 Interdependence of all system
components
Module One
YouKaizen.com
All system components must operate
interdependently in...
MANUFACTURING PACKAGING DISTRIBUTION
ConsumersConsumers
Consumer
research
Design &
redesign
Suppliers of
Materials
A
B
C
R...
YouKaizen.com
Module One
 How we learn things
 How we use data-based
knowledge
 Translate knowledge to action
Module One
YouKaizen.com
Module One
YouKaizen.com
Variety is good
Variation is bad
Variety vs. Variation
Module One
YouKaizen.com
•No two things are exactly alike,
•not people
•not processes
•Processes vary because of its
varia...
 Signal of process behaviorSignal of process behavior
 Process vary due to its variationProcess vary due to its variatio...
 People’s needsPeople’s needs
 Intrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation
 Hierarchy of needs (Maslow)Hierarchy of needs ...
 The hierarchy of needsThe hierarchy of needs
Module One
Physiological
Safety
Love
Esteem
Self-actualization
YouKaizen.co...
 1. Create a constancy of purpose
toward improvement of product and
service
 2. Adopt a new philosophy
 3. Cease depend...
 5. Improve constantly and
forever, every process for
planning, production, and service
 6. Institute training on the jo...
 9. Break down barriers between
departments
 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and
targets for the work force
 11. E...
 12. Remove barriers that rob
people of pride of workmanship
 13. Institute a vigorous
program of education and self-
im...
YouKaizen.com
Module Two
• Kaizen is a Japanese name
- kai = change, zen = good
• Continuous Improvement Philosophy
Initially taught in U.S.A.
• De...
• Way of thinking applied in all work
• Focuses on continually improving the
processes and systems first
• Produce product...
Time
Improvement
$
Ideal Pattern from
Innovation
$
$
Innovation I
Innovation II
Innovation III
(Std)
(Std)
(Std)
YouKaizen...
Time
Improvement
$
Actual Pattern from
Innovation
$
$
Innovation II
Innovation III
A
B
C
A,B,C =What should be Std
Innovat...
Time
Improvement
$
Innovation plus Kaizen
Innovation I
Innovation II
Kaizen
$
Kaizen
YouKaizen.com
Fostering Innovation
wi...
Time
Improvement
Kaizen alone
Kaizen
YouKaizen.com
IMPROVEMENT
Ongoing Improvement
Module Two
SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY DESIGN PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION
INNOVATION KAIZEN
YouKaizen.comModule Two
 Kaizen  Innovation
Gradualist approach Great-leap approach
Small improvement Innovation
Uses seven tools of
Quality
No ...
 Kaizen  Innovation
Improvement is slow,
measures process
activities
Measures profit
Close connection
between Developmen...
 Kaizen  Innovation
People - oriented Innovation – technology,
money oriented
Uses structured problem
solving PDCA proce...
YouKaizen.com
• SWOT Analysis
• Integrate Continuous Improvement into Business Plan
• Have short term and long term goals
...
YouKaizen.com
Masaahi Imai (1986) in his book, Kaizen, explained:
Key to Japan’s competitive success is Kaizen – Continual...
Time
YouKaizen.com
Goal: College &NFL
Football Runningback
Zae ALCEDO #44 - 2nd
Year
High School Scholar at
Campbell Hall,...
YouKaizen.com
TBM Consulting Group Inc. (Quality Progress
-April 1997)
Survey of Kaizen programs based on four continents,...
YouKaizen.com
Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press
Huge savings:
Ford Motor Co.
...
YouKaizen.com
Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press
Huge savings:
Westinghouse El...
YouKaizen.com
Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press
Huge savings:
Boeing Aerospac...
YouKaizen.com
Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press
Huge savings:
U.S. Navy
F-14 ...
YouKaizen.com
Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press
Huge savings:
U.S. Navy
F-14 ...
YouKaizen.com
Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press
Huge savings:
Social Security...
YouKaizen.com
Huge savings:
9/11/12: “ I was fortunate enough to work with Joe for twenty years. He has
Excellent work eth...
YouKaizen.com
Huge savings:
Pharmavite, LLC:
• Soft Gelatin Polishing Cycle Time reduction by 60%
• Six Sigma tablet weigh...
YouKaizen.com
Module Three
 The key strategyThe key strategy
 Systems approach to changeSystems approach to change
 Process thinkingProcess thinki...
 Deming - based philosophy for maintaining the
competitive advantage
Processes
Systems
People
Strategy which focuses on c...
YouKaizen.com
Present
state
The Change Process
Transition
state
Future
state
Allies
Allies
Allies
Allies Allies
Allies
All...
YouKaizen.com
Goal:
A. Integrate Continuous
Improvement Technology Course
into CPU Packaging Engineering
and Business Admi...
YouKaizen.com
Align with goals and
reason for being:
Where are we going
What work should we do
How do we get there
Always ...
YouKaizen.com
Continuous Improvement
(CI) focuses on improving
processes involving 4Ms:
•Men (People)
•Machines
•Materials...
YouKaizen.com
Have a strategy:
•Manage the direction: Focus on consistent direction.
•Obtain the buy-in of the process man...
YouKaizen.com
Managing The Change
Like steering a
sailboat in
turbulent water
and stormy winds.
If the wind is
blowing at ...
YouKaizen.com
Leadership
•Committed to satisfying customers
•Increase ability to respond to change
•Develop strategy
•Defi...
YouKaizen.com
Corporate culture:
•Be obsessed with adding value
for the customer
•Support incremental
improvement (individ...
YouKaizen.com
Attitudes:
•Fully accept and internalize the
need for CI
•Involvement and pride in CI
activities
Module Three
YouKaizen.com
Training:
•Establish a training program
•Awareness of employees’ role in CI
•Raise capabilities and empowerm...
YouKaizen.com
Planning and Execution:
•Select significant improvement
opportunities
•Phased step-by-step approach
•Evaluat...
YouKaizen.com
Planning and Execution:
•Coordinate activities
•Project timeline
•Ensure stable processes after
each planned...
YouKaizen.com
Continuous Improvement is to take a hard look at
processes and reduce the variation in key business
performa...
YouKaizen.com
Improve your process
first, by reducing
variation,
then the results will
follow.
Competitive Edge –
Practica...
- A blending of inputs to achieve the
desired outputs
PROCESS
INPUTS OUTPUTS
People
Material
Equipment
Procedures
Service
...
YouKaizen.com
• SIPOC • COPIS
SSupplier
IInput
PProcess
OOutput
CCustomer
CCustomer
OOutput
PProcess
IInput
SSupplier
Modu...
- Deming: 94% of the variation is due to chance causes/process
which management has control, 6% is due to special causes.
...
Watch for Part Three dick of Slides
with Modules 4, 5, and 6.
Competitive edge   practical guide to implement continuous improvement - part one
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Competitive edge practical guide to implement continuous improvement - part one

  1. 1. Practical Guide to ImplementPractical Guide to Implement Continuous Improvement andContinuous Improvement and Lean Six Sigma TechniquesLean Six Sigma Techniques Jose Villanueva Alcedo,Jose Villanueva Alcedo, M.B.A./T.M.M.B.A./T.M. Worldwide-Published AuthorWorldwide-Published Author
  2. 2. Practical Guide to ImplementPractical Guide to Implement Continuous Improvement andContinuous Improvement and Lean Six Sigma TechniquesLean Six Sigma Techniques PART ONE – Modules 1,2,3PART ONE – Modules 1,2,3 Presented byPresented by Jose Villanueva Alcedo,Jose Villanueva Alcedo, M.B.A./T.M.M.B.A./T.M. Worldwide-Published AuthorWorldwide-Published Author
  3. 3. Module One YouKaizen.com Deming’s Philosophy - Third Wave of theDeming’s Philosophy - Third Wave of the Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution
  4. 4. Module One YouKaizen.com CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENTCONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT Solid Foundation of 3 Ts Never-ending improvement
  5. 5.  System of Profound KnowledgeSystem of Profound Knowledge  Deming 14-Point MethodologyDeming 14-Point Methodology Module One YouKaizen.com Revolutionized the WesternRevolutionized the Western Management MethodsManagement Methods & Practices& Practices
  6. 6.  Appreciation for a System  Theory of Knowledge  Knowledge of Variation  Knowledge of Psychology Module One YouKaizen.com The success of the whole organization is dependent on the leaders’ capability to orchestrate the delicate balance of each component for the optimization of the entire system
  7. 7.  Whole and complex  Clearly defined and shared goals  Everyone must share a distinct commitment to aim the common goal  Team-based environment  Optimize the whole system  Win-win result for all, as one team Module One YouKaizen.com All parts of the system are related
  8. 8.  Being part of the whole  Large number of participants and interactions  Collaboration  Interconnecting components  Interdependence  Optimizing the whole, not one part Module One YouKaizen.com Interdependent parts
  9. 9.  Interdependence of all system components Module One YouKaizen.com All system components must operate interdependently in order to be efficient in business operation.
  10. 10. MANUFACTURING PACKAGING DISTRIBUTION ConsumersConsumers Consumer research Design & redesign Suppliers of Materials A B C Receipts & test of materials Test of processes, machines, methods, costs Module One YouKaizen.com Product Development Interdependent processes Common GoalCommon Goal
  11. 11. YouKaizen.com Module One
  12. 12.  How we learn things  How we use data-based knowledge  Translate knowledge to action Module One YouKaizen.com
  13. 13. Module One YouKaizen.com Variety is good Variation is bad Variety vs. Variation
  14. 14. Module One YouKaizen.com •No two things are exactly alike, •not people •not processes •Processes vary because of its variation •Variation is a natural occurrence •Variation is inherent in life The Goal of Continuous Improvement is to reduce the range of variation.
  15. 15.  Signal of process behaviorSignal of process behavior  Process vary due to its variationProcess vary due to its variation  Variation is a natural occurrenceVariation is a natural occurrence  Identify causes of variationIdentify causes of variation  Reduce the range of variation overReduce the range of variation over timetime  85% of variation due to chance85% of variation due to chance  15% of variation due to assignable15% of variation due to assignable causescauses Module One YouKaizen.com
  16. 16.  People’s needsPeople’s needs  Intrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation  Hierarchy of needs (Maslow)Hierarchy of needs (Maslow)  Physiological, Safety, Love, Esteem, Self-Physiological, Safety, Love, Esteem, Self- actualizationactualization  Leader’s guidance to see level ofLeader’s guidance to see level of needneed Module One YouKaizen.com
  17. 17.  The hierarchy of needsThe hierarchy of needs Module One Physiological Safety Love Esteem Self-actualization YouKaizen.com Maslow’s Need TheoryMaslow’s Need Theory
  18. 18.  1. Create a constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service  2. Adopt a new philosophy  3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality  4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead minimize total costModule One YouKaizen.com Strategy of creating an environment of trust and teamwork within the organization.
  19. 19.  5. Improve constantly and forever, every process for planning, production, and service  6. Institute training on the job  7. Adopt and institute leadership  8. Drive out fears so that everyone may work effectively for the company Module One YouKaizen.com Strategy of constant unending improvement for everyone
  20. 20.  9. Break down barriers between departments  10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force  11. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor and numerical goals for management Module One YouKaizen.com Remove the barriers All in one team, focus on processes, then improve processes, and the results should follow.
  21. 21.  12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship  13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self- improvement for everyone  14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation Module One YouKaizen.com
  22. 22. YouKaizen.com Module Two
  23. 23. • Kaizen is a Japanese name - kai = change, zen = good • Continuous Improvement Philosophy Initially taught in U.S.A. • Deming and Juran -Taught in Japan after World War II YouKaizen.com Module Two
  24. 24. • Way of thinking applied in all work • Focuses on continually improving the processes and systems first • Produce products and services that meet or exceed customer’s satisfaction YouKaizen.com Module Two
  25. 25. Time Improvement $ Ideal Pattern from Innovation $ $ Innovation I Innovation II Innovation III (Std) (Std) (Std) YouKaizen.com Module Two
  26. 26. Time Improvement $ Actual Pattern from Innovation $ $ Innovation II Innovation III A B C A,B,C =What should be Std Innovation I YouKaizen.com Innovation can declineInnovation can decline in performancein performance with timewith time Module Two
  27. 27. Time Improvement $ Innovation plus Kaizen Innovation I Innovation II Kaizen $ Kaizen YouKaizen.com Fostering Innovation with Continuous Improvement Module Two
  28. 28. Time Improvement Kaizen alone Kaizen YouKaizen.com IMPROVEMENT Ongoing Improvement Module Two
  29. 29. SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY DESIGN PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION INNOVATION KAIZEN YouKaizen.comModule Two
  30. 30.  Kaizen  Innovation Gradualist approach Great-leap approach Small improvement Innovation Uses seven tools of Quality No tools Concerned more with processes Concerned more with results YouKaizen.com Module Two
  31. 31.  Kaizen  Innovation Improvement is slow, measures process activities Measures profit Close connection between Development, Design and Production No collaboration among departments KAIZEN speaks with Data Speaks with intuition, gut feel YouKaizen.com Module Two
  32. 32.  Kaizen  Innovation People - oriented Innovation – technology, money oriented Uses structured problem solving PDCA process No problem solving tools Covers Design, Production and Distribution Covers Science, Technology and Design YouKaizen.com Module Two
  33. 33. YouKaizen.com • SWOT Analysis • Integrate Continuous Improvement into Business Plan • Have short term and long term goals • Core competencies • Identify key processes and resources • Project management time line • Focus on improving Input, Process, Output • Cash Flow projection • Cost Benefit Analysis • Strategic Plan for Sustainability Strategic Advantage If your business does notIf your business does not have a Business Plan, it canhave a Business Plan, it can go somewhere else.go somewhere else. Module Two
  34. 34. YouKaizen.com Masaahi Imai (1986) in his book, Kaizen, explained: Key to Japan’s competitive success is Kaizen – Continual Improvement -gradual, unending improvement broken down into: • Management-oriented Kaizen • Group –oriented Kaizen • Individual-oriented Kaizen Module Two
  35. 35. Time YouKaizen.com Goal: College &NFL Football Runningback Zae ALCEDO #44 - 2nd Year High School Scholar at Campbell Hall, North Hollywood, Calif. Fostering his God-given Talents with Continuous Improvement Techniques By Team Effort with his dad Milestones Module Two
  36. 36. YouKaizen.com TBM Consulting Group Inc. (Quality Progress -April 1997) Survey of Kaizen programs based on four continents, Kuantan, Malaysia, to Sao Paulo, Brazil, to Raunheim, Germany, to Hot Springs, AR. Survey respondents that practice lean: • 64% reported lead times on product production • 63% were able to hold down or decrease product pricing • 61% experienced increased market share • 39% reduced the time required to launch new products • 24% were able to increase diversity of their product lines Module Two
  37. 37. YouKaizen.com Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press Huge savings: Ford Motor Co. • Increased market share and profit • 65% reduction in customer reported defects • 35% increase in customer satisfaction Xerox • Manufacturing costs down 20% (1982 – 1986) • Cycle Time reduced by 60% • Revenue produced per employee up 20% Module Two
  38. 38. YouKaizen.com Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press Huge savings: Westinghouse Electric Corp/Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division • Increased increased manufacturing by over 37% • Reduced scraps, rework, and manufacturing cycle time Hewlett Packard (Yokohama) • Profit up 244% from 1977-1984 • Hardware failure rates down 79% • Manufacturing costs down 42% • Productivity up 120% • Market share up 19% Module Two
  39. 39. YouKaizen.com Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press Huge savings: Boeing Aerospace Co. For the Initial Upper Stage Program: • Billing errors reduced 0% • Cycle time reduced from 20 days to 3 • Technical order processing streamlined – saving $875 and 3.75 man-hours per O.T. • For the AWACS contract, billing delinquencies reduced by 50% • Overall Savings: $1.5 million per year Pittron Steel Foundry • Sales increased by 400% • Profits up by 30% • Productivity up 64% Module Two
  40. 40. YouKaizen.com Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press Huge savings: U.S. Navy F-14 Overhaul Program: • Cut average cost from$1.6 million per aircraft in 1986 to $1.2 million in 1989 Cherry Point: • Aircraft failure rates reduced by 90% (1987-1988) Overhaul of USS Saratoga: • Expected to save $10 million and 22,000 man-days Norfolk Naval Shipyard: • Reduced rejection rate in electronic connectors from 55% to 6% Internal Revenue Service • Processing errors reduced from 30,000 (1986) to 3,000 (1987) Module Two
  41. 41. YouKaizen.com Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press Huge savings: U.S. Navy F-14 Overhaul Program: • Cut average cost from$1.6 million per aircraft in 1986 to $1.2 million in 1989 Cherry Point: • Aircraft failure rates reduced by 90% (1987-1988) Overhaul of USS Saratoga: • Expected to save $10 million and 22,000 man-days Norfolk Naval Shipyard: • Reduced rejection rate in electronic connectors from 55% to 6% Internal Revenue Service • Processing errors reduced from 30,000 (1986) to 3,000 (1987) Module Two
  42. 42. YouKaizen.com Basic Statistics, Mark J. Kiemele, Stephen R. Schmidt, 1993, Air Academy Press Huge savings: Social Security Administration • Claim processing reduced to 73.9 days in 1987 from 81 days in 1986 Department of Housing and Urban Development • Average time to process a loan for property improvement and purchase of manufactured housing was 85 days (1985), 29 days (1986), and 22 days (1987) Massachusetts General Hospital • Improved the billing process by reducing monthly defects by 52%, resulting in projected $189,000 savings per year Module Two
  43. 43. YouKaizen.com Huge savings: 9/11/12: “ I was fortunate enough to work with Joe for twenty years. He has Excellent work ethics and a great set of values. Joe introduced and trained Pharmavite and me on Statistical Process Control, Continuous Improvement, Lean Best Practices and led the charge throughout the company. As an example, on one project, we reduced our lead time by 83%.” William D. Cottrell, CEO/Principal, Cottrell Consulting Supply Chain and APICS Professional __________________________________________________________________ Pharmavite, LLC, California: •Continuous Flow Process reduced manufacturing cycle time by 50% •Reduced inventory count from 7 to 2 days •Statistical Process Control, contract manufacturing from P&G Module Two
  44. 44. YouKaizen.com Huge savings: Pharmavite, LLC: • Soft Gelatin Polishing Cycle Time reduction by 60% • Six Sigma tablet weight vitamin savings and excellent product quality • Reduced errors in Batch Reports – resulting to reducing product release time by 40%. • Company-wide Team-based organizational transformation – strategic advantage through High Performance Teams throughout the enterprise, leveraged global market share Module Two
  45. 45. YouKaizen.com Module Three
  46. 46.  The key strategyThe key strategy  Systems approach to changeSystems approach to change  Process thinkingProcess thinking  Success factorsSuccess factors  Focus on the ProcessFocus on the Process  Process modelProcess model  SIPOC, COPISSIPOC, COPIS  Variation in a ProcessVariation in a Process YouKaizen.com Module Three
  47. 47.  Deming - based philosophy for maintaining the competitive advantage Processes Systems People Strategy which focuses on continuous improvement of all YouKaizen.com Module Three
  48. 48. YouKaizen.com Present state The Change Process Transition state Future state Allies Allies Allies Allies Allies Allies Allies Why change ? Sustainability Considerations: •Visions, Missions, End state •Organizational behavior •Human factors •External influence Module Three
  49. 49. YouKaizen.com Goal: A. Integrate Continuous Improvement Technology Course into CPU Packaging Engineering and Business Administration Curriculum B. Implement Continuous Improvement in CPU Business Processes Module Three
  50. 50. YouKaizen.com Align with goals and reason for being: Where are we going What work should we do How do we get there Always keep our mission in mind Module Three
  51. 51. YouKaizen.com Continuous Improvement (CI) focuses on improving processes involving 4Ms: •Men (People) •Machines •Materials •Methods Module Three
  52. 52. YouKaizen.com Have a strategy: •Manage the direction: Focus on consistent direction. •Obtain the buy-in of the process managers and collaborate with them and the people in the whole system with a holistic vision to improve the Process. Module Three
  53. 53. YouKaizen.com Managing The Change Like steering a sailboat in turbulent water and stormy winds. If the wind is blowing at gale force dead broadside, you have to make a number of critical choices. The true sailor, knowing these choices works with the wind. Module Three
  54. 54. YouKaizen.com Leadership •Committed to satisfying customers •Increase ability to respond to change •Develop strategy •Define roles •Define goals •Provide resources •Lead by example •Provide training Module Three
  55. 55. YouKaizen.com Corporate culture: •Be obsessed with adding value for the customer •Support incremental improvement (individual own work, groups, teams) •Team-based culture transition Module Three
  56. 56. YouKaizen.com Attitudes: •Fully accept and internalize the need for CI •Involvement and pride in CI activities Module Three
  57. 57. YouKaizen.com Training: •Establish a training program •Awareness of employees’ role in CI •Raise capabilities and empowerment •Seven basic tools (Flowcharts, Pareto Diagrams, Cause & Effect Diagram, etc.) •Maximize effectiveness •Begin at the top and cascade down Module Three
  58. 58. YouKaizen.com Planning and Execution: •Select significant improvement opportunities •Phased step-by-step approach •Evaluate fine tuning vs. fundamental redesign •All in one team involvement •Cross functional •Multilevel •Involve the entire system (suppliers and customers) Module Three
  59. 59. YouKaizen.com Planning and Execution: •Coordinate activities •Project timeline •Ensure stable processes after each planned change •Evaluate change benefits •Make the change permanent Module Three
  60. 60. YouKaizen.com Continuous Improvement is to take a hard look at processes and reduce the variation in key business performance, first, before achieving the bottom-line. Module Three
  61. 61. YouKaizen.com Improve your process first, by reducing variation, then the results will follow. Competitive Edge – Practical Guide to Implement Continuous Improvement www.YouKaizen.com Module Three
  62. 62. - A blending of inputs to achieve the desired outputs PROCESS INPUTS OUTPUTS People Material Equipment Procedures Service Product Task YouKaizen.com Module Three
  63. 63. YouKaizen.com • SIPOC • COPIS SSupplier IInput PProcess OOutput CCustomer CCustomer OOutput PProcess IInput SSupplier Module Three
  64. 64. - Deming: 94% of the variation is due to chance causes/process which management has control, 6% is due to special causes. YouKaizen.com Module Three Demo of cards drop away from target is are caused by uncontrolled variations Targe t
  65. 65. Watch for Part Three dick of Slides with Modules 4, 5, and 6.

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