The Philippines was reached by FernaoMagallanes in 1521 and became a Spanish colony. In the 19th Century, Spanish friars’ tyrannical domination made the Filipinos to seek reforms.Jose Rizal was one of the prime movers for political reforms in the Philippines.
Rizal’s ancestors migrated from Mainland China to Manila in the 17th Century.He was born in a well-to-do family but soon suffered under the hands of foreigners.He ignited his countrymen to fight against foreign domination, was martyred in 1896, but continued to influence the Filipino psyche ever since.
Rizal led a colorful life, with numerous accomplishments.
The life spiral constructed for Rizal included very detailed accounts.
Various computation and data visualization tools are now available, including algorithms for data mining, clustering, and lay out.
Social network analysis is about who you know, and who those people know, and how everyone knows each other.Data visualization tools may help us in better understanding the past,; it may lead one to see data differently.
Concepts in sociology plus theories in discreet mathematics led to social network analysis.Network diagrams, starting from Jacob Moreno’s sociograms, led to the study of network cohesion, connections, equivalence, etc.
Nodes often refer to people as actors in the network.Edges often refer to the relation between nodes.
Euro 2012 Finals: the game between Spain and Italy where the former won , 4-0: Sergio Ramos many times engaged Antonio Cassano. Visualization of Tweets during the Boston Marathon: trending and going viral.
Which countries e-mail each other? Latin American people rarely email those in Islamic countries.How a viral message spreads: dynamics of Facebook shares
Network graphs about Jose Rizal, his life and his works, created with NodeXL have been posted in NODEXL Graph Gallery available at https://nodexlgraphgallery.org
A variety of different algorithms may be applied to the data about Rizal, and alternative graph layouts can be generated to depict the relationships, sometimes with surprising — or counter-intuitive — results. For example, when the Clauset-Newman-Moore cluster algorithm is applied, it identifies and displays six clusters. These are not necessarily the networks of the original eight groups that Rizal interacted significantly, but instead come from the structure of the interrelationships and ties within the entire network. In three of the clusters, the central figure is still one with the original reformists, i.e. Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, and Graciano Lopez-Jaena, but the central figures in the other three clusters are new: Juan Luna, Antonio Luna, and ArtemioRicarte (the latter was the one who distributed the ballots during the Tenejeros Convention where Andres Bonifacio lost who in SNA terms is the central node of a tightly knit group of the Magdiwang Faction involved in the PhilippineRevolution). In the graph shown, these six clusters can be seen, with each shown in a different color; the thick red lines show the ties between Rizal and the eight reformers, who can now be seen within the structure of the larger social network:Moises Salvador, LadislaoDiwa, Emilio Jacinto, Deodato Arellano, Antonio Luna, Teodoro M. Plata, Teodoro M. Kalaw, and Marcelo H. del Pilar.
Black represents sculptures; Yellow-orange for poetry and versifications; Red for drawings and paintingsViolet for play including musicals; sky blue for essays including open letters; dark blue for stories and novels, whether complete or incomplete;Yellow green for technical/scientific treatise such as his treatise on witchcraft, on molluscs, etc.Emerald green for miscellaneous correspondence including short letters and notes
Some caveats: Rizal’s extant letters number around 300; one of my data set has 404 nodes;the EpistolarioRizalino published by the National Historical Institute of the Philippines has about 1,800 entries.
Over 500 biographies of individuals known from the time of Rizal.
One of my graphs have 404 nodes with 1,052 edges.
Red for family, orange for friend or ally, yellow for peer. Green stands for mild aversion, and blue represents an enemy status.
Rizal had a relatively high degree centrality, about four times that of other popular reformists or leaders.
Jose Rizal possessed a certain charisma more than other leaders.
The controversy that states that Rizal retracted all of his beliefs and the ideals that he have fought for the nations independence.Did Rizal retract? Did he show weakness at the face of death? The retraction letter found in 1935 appears to be in Rizal’s handwriting. Even then, today, Jose Rizal’s retraction letter may be seen as of little value because it was signed under duress. One of his sisters who was the last to die, Trinidad, changed her opinion regarding the retraction letter thrice during her lifetime.
Look at those involved in the Retraction Controversy – a former President of the University of the Philippines, President of the Senate, Head of the National Library, etc.
Republic Act No. 1425, known as the Rizal Law, mandates all educational institutions in the Philippines to offer courses about José Rizal. The full name of the law is An Act to Include in the Curricula of All Public and Private Schools, Colleges and Universities Courses On the Life, Works and Writings of Jose Rizal, Particularly His Novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, Authorizing the Printing and Distribution Thereof, and for Other Purposes. The measure was strongly opposed by the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines due to the anti-clerical themes in Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo.
Look how much of the network is affected by the Retraction Controversy and the Republic Act 1425 or the Rizal Law.
394 nodes representing 394 works: some 40 poems; some twenty finished and unfinished novels; some fifteen conchology studies, some ten groups ofsculptures, some seven essays, some ethnographic studies, some six finished and unfinished short stories,six songs, six groups of sketches, four butterfly studies, four groups of paintings, four language studies, and other works such as a cigarette lighter.
Digitalization enables a synthetic network view which is not possible when reading texts linearly.Shape coding: circle if more than 20% of data are unconfirmed; square if data are confirmed. Size commensurate with the no. of pages of the published and unpublished works.Colour designates influence: red—Roman Catholic church; yellow—relatives of Jose Rizal; green—Freemasons; sky blue—National Historical Institute
Graciano Lopez-Jaena from Jaro,Ilo-ilo was a friend of Jose Rizal. He had a very limited reach to other groups.
The social network of M.H. del Pilar (shown in red), who did not share Rizal’s tolerant and liberal views on integration with Spain.
The social network of Pedro Paterno (shown in red), who shared Rizal’s tolerant and liberal initial views on integration with Spain.
Letter No. 062 from Mariano Ponce to Rizal, written in Barcelona, Spain, on July 4, 1888—relating to two letters from Juan Luna and Marcelo H. del Pilar, shown in red.Letter No. 105 from Marcelo H. del Pilar to Rizal, written in Barcelona, Spain, on February 17, 1889-- relating to three other distantly written letters, shown in red.
Rizal’s letters to and from Blumentritt may be clustered into three groups:those discussing their activities and interests (blue);those discussing friendships and their common friends (green); andthose letters with philosophical discussions (red).
In spiral lay out; inFruchterman-Reingold lay out; and in Harel-Koren fast multi-layer lay out.
In circular lay out; in grid lay out; inFruchterman-Reingold lay out; and in Harel-Koren fast multi-layer lay out.
Social network analysis of Jose Rizal
SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS
JOSE RIZAL’S LIFE & WORKS
Jose A. Fadul, Ph.D.
De La Salle – College of Saint Benilde
Republic of the Philippines
The Philippines during Rizal’s time
was a colony of Spain
June 19, 1861
October 6, 2012:
inaugurated a new
Rizal Park in
Dec. 8, 1880: Rizal’s
Junto al Pasig
1956: Philippine Congress passed
Republic Act 1425 requiring all levels of
schools to teach Rizal’s life, works, and
Rizal’s influence during his life and beyond
Rizal’s monument in Madrid,
Spain was inaugurated in 1996.
1970: Rizal’s image appears on the obverse side
of one-peso coins for general circulation
2003: A Rizal monument in
Fujian, China was built to
recognize his Chinese ancestry.
1887: Noli Me Tangere
is published in Berlin
2008: Peru erects a
Rizal monument in
wrote on Rizal’s
life and martyrdom.
1910: Rizal’s last poem
read before the
American House of
used Rizal in war
propaganda.T.M. Kalaw edited
volumes I – V
(1877 – 1896)
R. Kissling casts
for Rizal Park in
Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo
decreed that on Dec. 30,
1897 and every year
thereafter Rizal shall be
commemorated by the nation.
Rizal wrote a socio-political essay
Dimanche de Rameaux
Jose Arcilla’s Rizal and
the Emergence of the
Filipino Nation is
published by Ateneo de
all over the
Websites on Rizal proliferate the Internet
What is Social Network Analysis (SNA) ?
How is it useful for History & the Humanities?
1. New framework for analysis; backcasting
2. Data visualization allows new perspectives – less linear, more comprehensive
Sociology + Mathematics (Graph Theory)
= Social Network Analysis
• Strong ties : how the clusters get information.
• Weak ties : how the clusters come up with innovation(s).
• Bridges, gateways, connectors, social insiders, outsiders,
neighbors – degree centrality, betweeness centrality, etc.
Hue (from red=0 to blue=max)
indicates each node’s
SNA data visualizations: Nodes & Edges
• Friends (Moreno, 1932) • Al Qaeda (Krebs, 2001)
The Many Other Uses of SNA
• Euro 2012 Finals: Spain vs. Italy
How do the players connect? • Visualization of tweets during
Boston Marathon 2013
• Which countries e-mail each other ?
More at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/03/07/an-incredible-map-of-which-countries-email-each-other-and-why/
Full article at :http://arxiv.org/pdf/1303.0045v1.pdf
• How a Viral Message
Spreads: Dynamic network of
Network graphs of Rizal’s social network
created with NodeXL by the author https://nodexlgraphgallery.org/Pages/Default.aspx?search=Rizal
Rizal’s social network analyzed by cluster –
using Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm
• Rizal’s extant letters to
and from Filipino
around 180; his friends
• One of my data set
has 404 nodes.
• NHI’s Epistolario
Rizalino has about
Methodology and Sources of Data
Over 500 concise biographies of individuals are known from
literary and epigraphic sources from Rizal’s time. Many were
leading people in Rizal’s circles, including regional leaders of his
hometown whom he encountered on his boyhood. The most
significant figures receive detailed coverage, and all entries
contain references to the extant sources.
Properties of a sample graph
Graph Type Undirected
Unique Edges 1052
Edges With Duplicates 0
Total Edges 1052
Connected Components 1
Single-Vertex Connected Components 0
Maximum Vertices in a Connected Component 404
Maximum Edges in a Connected Component 1052
Maximum Geodesic Distance (Diameter) 7
Average Geodesic Distance 3.098691
Graph Density 0.01292288
NodeXL Version 188.8.131.52 January 2, 2013
Edge colors indicate type of relationship:
family, friend/ally, peer, mild aversion, enemy (multimodal)
• Jose Rizal 171
• M.H. del Pilar 44
• E. Aguinaldo 41
• Jose Burgos 38
• G. Aglipay 29
• Teodora Alonso 29
• Josefa Rizal 27
• Trinidad Rizal 23
• Paciano Rizal 23
• Andres Bonifacio 19
Rizal biographies displayed
as collapsed groups
Digital tool enables synthetic view, not possible when reading texts linearly
-- quite subjective
-- objective, balanced
Rizal’s reach to other groups
(his relationships between groups)
Graciano Lopez-Jaena (a friend of Rizal)
has a very limited reach to other groups.
M.H. del Pilar and his circle
(leader of the Reformist Movement in 1889 in Madrid)
By contrast, P. Paterno (who shared Rizal’s once
tolerant and liberal views on integration with Spain)
Rizal to & from other European Scientists
Visualization of the interaction of characters in
Jose Rizal’s two novels:
NoliMe Tangere & El Filibusterismo
Data visualization using NODEXL software;
downloadable from http://nodexl.codeplex.com/
E N D
-- Social network analysis may be applied also to
life and works of heroes and historical people of
other countries and cultures such as William Tell
of Switzerland, William Shakespeare of England,
Saint John Baptiste de La Salle of France,
Vladimir Lenin of Russia, etc.
--The uniqueness of each network graph that will
be obtained for each person may be appreciated,
and insights may be obtained regarding related
works and events in the life of the person.