Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS
OF
JOSE RIZAL’S LIFE & WORKS
Jose A. Fadul, Ph.D.
De La Salle – College of Saint Benilde
Republic ...
The Philippines during Rizal’s time
was a colony of Spain
Born:
June 19, 1861
Executed:
December 30,
1896
October 6, 2012:
President Aquino
inaugurated a new
Rizal Park in
Sydney, ...
jose.fadul@benilde.edu.ph
jose_fdl@yahoo.com
What is Social Network Analysis (SNA) ?
How is it useful for History & the Humanities?
1. New framework for analysis; back...
Sociology + Mathematics (Graph Theory)
= Social Network Analysis
• Strong ties : how the clusters get information.
• Weak ...
SNA data visualizations: Nodes & Edges
• Friends (Moreno, 1932) • Al Qaeda (Krebs, 2001)
The Many Other Uses of SNA
• Euro 2012 Finals: Spain vs. Italy
How do the players connect? • Visualization of tweets durin...
• Which countries e-mail each other ?
More at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/03/07/an-incredible-...
Network graphs of Rizal’s social network
created with NodeXL by the author https://nodexlgraphgallery.org/Pages/Default.as...
Rizal’s social network analyzed by cluster –
using Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm
Interrelating Rizal’s works with each other
Some considerations
• Rizal’s extant letters to
and from Filipino
Reformists numbered
around 180; his friends
and acquaint...
Methodology and Sources of Data
Over 500 concise biographies of individuals are known from
literary and epigraphic sources...
Properties of a sample graph
Graph Type Undirected
Vertices 404
Unique Edges 1052
Edges With Duplicates 0
Total Edges 1052...
Edge colors indicate type of relationship:
family, friend/ally, peer, mild aversion, enemy (multimodal)
Degree Centrality
• Jose Rizal 171
• M.H. del Pilar 44
• E. Aguinaldo 41
• Jose Burgos 38
• G. Aglipay 29
• Teodora Alonso...
Degree Centrality of 23 or higher
The Retraction Controversy, 1896 – 2013
The Retraction Controversy –
clustering on the network of everyone involved
Republic Act No. 1425: The Rizal Law
red—those supporting the passage of the Rizal Bill; blue—those against
Impact on the network of the two events
Rizal’s works by genre
Rizal biographies displayed
as collapsed groups
Digital tool enables synthetic view, not possible when reading texts linea...
Rizal’s reach to other groups
(his relationships between groups)
Graciano Lopez-Jaena (a friend of Rizal)
has a very limited reach to other groups.
M.H. del Pilar and his circle
(leader of the Reformist Movement in 1889 in Madrid)
By contrast, P. Paterno (who shared Rizal’s once
tolerant and liberal views on integration with Spain)
Letters: Rizal to & from his family
Letters: Rizal to & from other Reformers
Letters: Rizal to & from Blumentritt
Letters:
Rizal to & from other European Scientists
Visualization of the interaction of characters in
Jose Rizal’s two novels:
NoliMe Tangere & El Filibusterismo
Data visuali...
E N D
Recommendation
-- Social network analysis may be applied also to
life and works of heroes and historical people of
o...
Social network analysis of Jose Rizal
Social network analysis of Jose Rizal
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Social network analysis of Jose Rizal

Social Network Analysis (SNA) of the life and works of Jose Rizal

  • Be the first to comment

Social network analysis of Jose Rizal

  1. 1. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS OF JOSE RIZAL’S LIFE & WORKS Jose A. Fadul, Ph.D. De La Salle – College of Saint Benilde Republic of the Philippines
  2. 2. The Philippines during Rizal’s time was a colony of Spain
  3. 3. Born: June 19, 1861 Executed: December 30, 1896 October 6, 2012: President Aquino inaugurated a new Rizal Park in Sydney, Australia Dec. 8, 1880: Rizal’s Junto al Pasig is staged. 1956: Philippine Congress passed Republic Act 1425 requiring all levels of schools to teach Rizal’s life, works, and ideals. 17th Century Ancestors from China Rizal’s influence during his life and beyond Rizal’s monument in Madrid, Spain was inaugurated in 1996. 1970: Rizal’s image appears on the obverse side of one-peso coins for general circulation 2003: A Rizal monument in Fujian, China was built to recognize his Chinese ancestry. 1887: Noli Me Tangere is published in Berlin 1978: Rizal’s monument in Wilhelmsfeld, Germany is unveiled 2008: Peru erects a Rizal monument in Lima. English author Austin Coates wrote on Rizal’s life and martyrdom. 1910: Rizal’s last poem read before the American House of Representatives Japanese government used Rizal in war propaganda.T.M. Kalaw edited Epistolario Rizalino volumes I – V (1877 – 1896) Swiss sculptor R. Kissling casts Rizal Monument for Rizal Park in Manila Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo decreed that on Dec. 30, 1897 and every year thereafter Rizal shall be commemorated by the nation. Rizal wrote a socio-political essay Dimanche de Rameaux Jose Arcilla’s Rizal and the Emergence of the Filipino Nation is published by Ateneo de Manila University. Rizal Craze: many streets all over the country were named after Jose Rizal Rizal monuments spawned in many public schools. Websites on Rizal proliferate the Internet
  4. 4. jose.fadul@benilde.edu.ph jose_fdl@yahoo.com
  5. 5. What is Social Network Analysis (SNA) ? How is it useful for History & the Humanities? 1. New framework for analysis; backcasting 2. Data visualization allows new perspectives – less linear, more comprehensive
  6. 6. Sociology + Mathematics (Graph Theory) = Social Network Analysis • Strong ties : how the clusters get information. • Weak ties : how the clusters come up with innovation(s). • Bridges, gateways, connectors, social insiders, outsiders, neighbors – degree centrality, betweeness centrality, etc. Hue (from red=0 to blue=max) indicates each node’s betweenness centrality.
  7. 7. SNA data visualizations: Nodes & Edges • Friends (Moreno, 1932) • Al Qaeda (Krebs, 2001)
  8. 8. The Many Other Uses of SNA • Euro 2012 Finals: Spain vs. Italy How do the players connect? • Visualization of tweets during Boston Marathon 2013
  9. 9. • Which countries e-mail each other ? More at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/03/07/an-incredible-map-of-which-countries-email-each-other-and-why/ Full article at :http://arxiv.org/pdf/1303.0045v1.pdf • How a Viral Message Spreads: Dynamic network of Facebook shares. http://verkostoanatomia.wordpress.com/2012/11/2 9/how-a-viral-message-spreads/
  10. 10. Network graphs of Rizal’s social network created with NodeXL by the author https://nodexlgraphgallery.org/Pages/Default.aspx?search=Rizal
  11. 11. Rizal’s social network analyzed by cluster – using Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm
  12. 12. Interrelating Rizal’s works with each other
  13. 13. Some considerations • Rizal’s extant letters to and from Filipino Reformists numbered around 180; his friends and acquaintances around 300. • One of my data set has 404 nodes. • NHI’s Epistolario Rizalino has about 1,800 entries.
  14. 14. Methodology and Sources of Data Over 500 concise biographies of individuals are known from literary and epigraphic sources from Rizal’s time. Many were leading people in Rizal’s circles, including regional leaders of his hometown whom he encountered on his boyhood. The most significant figures receive detailed coverage, and all entries contain references to the extant sources.
  15. 15. Properties of a sample graph Graph Type Undirected Vertices 404 Unique Edges 1052 Edges With Duplicates 0 Total Edges 1052 Self-Loops 0 Connected Components 1 Single-Vertex Connected Components 0 Maximum Vertices in a Connected Component 404 Maximum Edges in a Connected Component 1052 Maximum Geodesic Distance (Diameter) 7 Average Geodesic Distance 3.098691 Graph Density 0.01292288 Modularity 0.508105 NodeXL Version 1.0.1.215 January 2, 2013
  16. 16. Edge colors indicate type of relationship: family, friend/ally, peer, mild aversion, enemy (multimodal)
  17. 17. Degree Centrality • Jose Rizal 171 • M.H. del Pilar 44 • E. Aguinaldo 41 • Jose Burgos 38 • G. Aglipay 29 • Teodora Alonso 29 • Josefa Rizal 27 • Trinidad Rizal 23 • Paciano Rizal 23 • Andres Bonifacio 19
  18. 18. Degree Centrality of 23 or higher
  19. 19. The Retraction Controversy, 1896 – 2013
  20. 20. The Retraction Controversy – clustering on the network of everyone involved
  21. 21. Republic Act No. 1425: The Rizal Law red—those supporting the passage of the Rizal Bill; blue—those against
  22. 22. Impact on the network of the two events
  23. 23. Rizal’s works by genre
  24. 24. Rizal biographies displayed as collapsed groups Digital tool enables synthetic view, not possible when reading texts linearly -- quite subjective -- objective, balanced Shapecoding:circleifmorethan20%ofdataareunconfirmed;squareifdataareconfirmed. Sizecommensuratewiththeno.ofpagesofthepublishedandunpublishedworksofthebiographer. Colourdesignatesinfluence:red—RomanCatholicChurch;yellow—Rizal’srelatives;green—Freemasons; skyblue—NationalHistoricalInstitute;darkblue—otherinfluences.
  25. 25. Rizal’s reach to other groups (his relationships between groups)
  26. 26. Graciano Lopez-Jaena (a friend of Rizal) has a very limited reach to other groups.
  27. 27. M.H. del Pilar and his circle (leader of the Reformist Movement in 1889 in Madrid)
  28. 28. By contrast, P. Paterno (who shared Rizal’s once tolerant and liberal views on integration with Spain)
  29. 29. Letters: Rizal to & from his family
  30. 30. Letters: Rizal to & from other Reformers
  31. 31. Letters: Rizal to & from Blumentritt
  32. 32. Letters: Rizal to & from other European Scientists
  33. 33. Visualization of the interaction of characters in Jose Rizal’s two novels: NoliMe Tangere & El Filibusterismo Data visualization using NODEXL software; downloadable from http://nodexl.codeplex.com/
  34. 34. E N D Recommendation -- Social network analysis may be applied also to life and works of heroes and historical people of other countries and cultures such as William Tell of Switzerland, William Shakespeare of England, Saint John Baptiste de La Salle of France, Vladimir Lenin of Russia, etc. --The uniqueness of each network graph that will be obtained for each person may be appreciated, and insights may be obtained regarding related works and events in the life of the person.

×