JOSCEL P. ENARDECIDO
flammable liquid consisting of a complex
mixture of hydrocarbons that are found in
geologic formations beneath the earth’s
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons- any large
class of organic compounds whose
carbon atoms are joined in straight chains
rather than in rings.
• Interface - part where oil and water meet
often occur in large scale.
• Bioremediation- refers to the process of
using microorganisms in cleaning up oil
spills and other pollutants.
• Bioaugmentation- introduction of
microorganisms to augment the process.
• Biostimulation- addition of nutrients and
oxygen to stimulate the growth of
Components of petroleum
• Hydrocarbons- main component of
Characteristics of Oil
1.Less dense than water , so it floats
2.Insoluble in Water
PRINCIPLES OF BIOREMEDIATION
• Bioremediation uses
microorganisms and other living
organisms to transform organic
pollutants into less toxic forms.
• Biodegradation is the initial
process that results to
FACTORS IN BIOREMEDIATION
1. Existence of a microbial population
capable of degrading the pollutants;
2. The availability of contaminants to the
microbial population e.g. oil
3. The environment factors (type of soil,
temperature, pH, the presence of oxygen
or other electron acceptors, and
MICROBIAL POPULATIONS FOR
Availability Microbes can be:
1.Indigenous- microorganisms are present
in the contaminated site. Biostimulation is
2.Bioaugmentation- introduction of
microorganisms from other environment.
Bioremediation in Large Scale
• Gasoline tanks are potential habitats for
Hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria which can
grow in oil-water interface.
KEY POINTS IN HYDROCARBON
Hydrocarbon decomposition is done by
The Process occurs in the presence of
Microorganisms participate in oil spill
cleanup by oxidizing the oil to Carbon
Some factors that hasten up the process:
3. inorganic nutrients
Inorganic Nutrients such as Phosphorus
and Nitrogen are important to stimulate
Evidences of Petroleum Degradation
• Dispersal of oil slicks ;
• Radioisotopic Hydrocarbons as trackers of
• Fungi bloom is evident if enough sources
of food is present; however , when food
sources are continously decreasing, the
growth of fungi also decreases.
• Presence of less toxic forms of
March 1989- 11-million-gal oil spill
from a tanker Exxon Valdez
devastated the shores near Prince
William Sound in Alaska.
The input of this oil spill has
devastating effects both
environmentally and economically.
Aside from the petroleum degradation,
microorganisms also aids in petroleum
Botryococcus braunii – a colonial alga
is said to excrete long-chain hydrocarbons
with 30 to 36 Carbon atoms.
It is considered to be a renewable source
“Bioremediation is not only about
genetics and enzymology but also
about physiology and ultimately
ecology.”—de Lorenzo V:
Systems biology approaches to
bioremediation. Curr Opin Biotechnol
Evaluation: ¼ sheet of yellow paper
1. Why might the addition of Phosphorus
and Nitrogen stimulate oil degradation
while adding of glucose might not? (5pts)
2. Microorganisms can thrive anywhere,
what is the reason why microorganisms
do not degrade gasoline in storage