Participating and
Anticipating
Actors and Agent Networks.
Social Computing
Gordana Dodig Crnkovic
Professor of Computer Sc...
Mälardalen University, Sweden
Abstract
Computing have changed modern society in very profound ways – our
means of communication with other people, our e...
4
http://neuralethes-en.blogspot.se/2012/04/human-connectome-project.html
Human Connectome Project
Human brain is biologic...
5
http://www.google.com/insidesearch/features/search/knowledge.html
Google Knowledge Graph
Human groups are information pr...
6
http://physicsworld.com/blog/2009/03/the_atlas_of_science.html
Atlas of Science
Sciences are created through
scientists ...
7
Protein network in yeast cells
Social network
Human protein interaction network
Human connectome
Conceptual Basis: Netwo...
8
Learningandknowledge
http://www.alexeikurakin.org/
Hebbs learning theory:
"cells that fire toghether, wire togher”
Achil...
9
World as information for an agent
From: http://www.alexeikurakin.org
10
Classical sciences
as information & knowledge networks
Culture
6
Natural sciences
(Physics,
Chemistry,
Biology, …)
2
So...
11
Computing as Lingua Franca
Culture
6
Natural sciences
(Physics,
Chemistry,
Biology, …)
2
Social sciences
(Economy,
Soci...
12
We are part of a
“COGNITIVE
REVOLUTION”
And it is important
to understand how
processes of
information
exchange and
kno...
13
Knowledge generated by individuals
is shared in groups and society
Bilden från: http://www.alexeikurakin.org
14
Networks of networks of information
and knowledge – show complexity
Computational study of complex
systems: generative mod...
Info-computational framework: connecting
informational structures and processes
from quantum physics
to living organisms a...
Computing Nature
The basic idea of computing nature is that all processes taking place
in physical world can be described ...
Computation as Information
Processing
Info-computational approach takes information as the primary stuff of
the universe, ...
Cognition as computation. Information
networks at the basis of cognition
Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing...
p. 20http://www.frontiersin.org/neuroscience/10.3389/fnins.2010.00200/full
http://www.scienceprog.com/ecccerobot-embodied-...
Cognition as Computation
Information/computation mechanisms are
fundamental for evolution of intelligent agents. Their
rol...
Agent-based Models
An agent-based model (ABM) is a computational model for simulating the
actions and interactions of auto...
Even though computers were invented in order to
automatize calculations [Hilbert program (1920); Turing
Machine (1936)], a...
There are two different approaches to social computing,
(Wang et al. 2007), centered on its two different aspects :
 comp...
Social computing with the focus on social is a phenomenon
which enables extended social cognition,
while the Social comput...
The main tools in this field are simulation techniques used in
order to facilitate the study of society and to support
dec...
Social computing is radically changing the character of human
relationships worldwide (Riedl, 2011). Instead of maximum
15...
In this process, information overload on individuals is steadily
increasing, and social computing technologies are moving
...
As Gilbert (2005) points out, novelty of agent based models
(ABMs) “offers the possibility of creating ‘artificial’ societ...
This provided for the first time the possibility of using
experimental methods with social phenomena, or at least
with the...
An agent-based model (ABM) is a computational model
for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous
individuals ...
ABMs in general are used to model complex, dynamical
adaptive systems. The interesting aspect in ABMs is the
micro-macro l...
Socio-technological networks as agent-
based model
http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v8/n1/full/nphys2160.html
Modelling...
The cross-disciplinary field of Social computing has two main
aspects:
●Social and
●Computational
One focus is on social s...
● Crowdsourcing is, according to the Merriam-Webster
Dictionary, the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas,
or cont...
● Another focus of social computing is on computational
modeling of social behavior, among others through Multi-
agent sys...
● Multi-agent systems are used for modelling, among other
things, cognitive or reactive agents who interact in dynamic
env...
● Social networks (SN) are social structures made of nodes
(which are, generally, individuals or organizations) that are
t...
● Social networks analysis plays an important role in
studying the way specific problems are solved,
organizations are run...
Brier Søren - Cybersemiotics and the question of knowledge
Burgin Mark - Information Dynamics in a Categorical Setting
Cha...
MacLennan Bruce J. - Bodies — Both Informed and Transformed
Menant Christophe - Computation on Information, Meaning and Re...
p. 42
A Computable Universe
Computation, Information, Cognition
Editor(s): Gordana Dodig Crnkovic and Susan
Stuart, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 200...
Based on the following articles
● Dodig-Crnkovic G., Dynamics of Information as Natural Computation, Information 2011,
2(3...
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Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic: Participating and Anticipating. Actors and Agents Networks. Social Networks

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Lecture belonging to the thematic axis: "Cosmological Perspectives of the Possible Worlds"

International Workshop on Social Networks: from communicating to solidary netwoks (an interdisciplinary Approach), Sierra Pambley, León, Spain, Septiembre de 2013

http://primer.unileon.es/eventos/RS2013

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Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic: Participating and Anticipating. Actors and Agents Networks. Social Networks

  1. 1. Participating and Anticipating Actors and Agent Networks. Social Computing Gordana Dodig Crnkovic Professor of Computer Science Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering gordana.dodig-crnkovic@mdh.se Social Networks: from communication to solidarity (an interdisciplinary approach) Fundación Sierra-Pambley, León (Spain) León, September 13-15
  2. 2. Mälardalen University, Sweden
  3. 3. Abstract Computing have changed modern society in very profound ways – our means of communication with other people, our everyday habits, entertainment, work, transportation, schools, hospitals, … computing is becoming omnipresent, and essential for human society. As participants in this major technological and cultural change, we want to be able to understand ongoing processes and anticipate future possibilities. That is the goal of social computing. Moreover, computing as a method provides means for this study. There are two different approaches to social computing – from the social side, focusing on the important influence of computers on society and from the computational side – focusing on new type of computation that is performed by huge groups of agents (actors) exchanging information in networks. This lecture puts emphasis on technological aspects of social computing and its relation to general models of computing as information processing. Keywords: Actors and Agent Networks. Social Computing. Info-computationalism. Information and computation. p. 3
  4. 4. 4 http://neuralethes-en.blogspot.se/2012/04/human-connectome-project.html Human Connectome Project Human brain is biological information processor - network of neurons processing information
  5. 5. 5 http://www.google.com/insidesearch/features/search/knowledge.html Google Knowledge Graph Human groups are information processing networks – knowledge generators
  6. 6. 6 http://physicsworld.com/blog/2009/03/the_atlas_of_science.html Atlas of Science Sciences are created through scientists knowledge networks
  7. 7. 7 Protein network in yeast cells Social network Human protein interaction network Human connectome Conceptual Basis: Network Modells
  8. 8. 8 Learningandknowledge http://www.alexeikurakin.org/ Hebbs learning theory: "cells that fire toghether, wire togher” Achildisbornwithnervoussystemandabrain asanetworkofneuronswhichprovide ccapacitytointeractandlearn.
  9. 9. 9 World as information for an agent From: http://www.alexeikurakin.org
  10. 10. 10 Classical sciences as information & knowledge networks Culture 6 Natural sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, …) 2 Social sciences (Economy, Sociology, Antropology, …) 3 Humanities (Philosophy, History, …) 4 Logic & Mathematics 1 Knowledge as Wissenschaft 5
  11. 11. 11 Computing as Lingua Franca Culture 6 Natural sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, …) 2 Social sciences (Economy, Sociology, Antropology, …) 3 Humanities (Philosophy, History, …) 4 Logic & Mathematics 1 Knowledge as Wissenschaft 5 C O M PU TIN G
  12. 12. 12 We are part of a “COGNITIVE REVOLUTION” And it is important to understand how processes of information exchange and knowledge generation function. Information – Knowledge Networks http://2prowriting.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/trends-in-cognitive-sciences-december-201
  13. 13. 13 Knowledge generated by individuals is shared in groups and society Bilden från: http://www.alexeikurakin.org
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. Networks of networks of information and knowledge – show complexity Computational study of complex systems: generative models They answer the question: How does the complexity arize? Evolution is the most well known generative mechanism for generating increasingly complex systems (organisms). p. 15 In a complex system, what we see is dependent on where we are and what sort of interaction is used to study the system. http://www.morphwize.com/company/index.php?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=tag&tag=complex+system+solution
  16. 16. Info-computational framework: connecting informational structures and processes from quantum physics to living organisms and societies ● Nature is described as a complex informational structure for a cognizing agent. ● Computation is information dynamics (information processing) constrained and governed by the laws of physics on the fundamental level. ● Information is the difference in one information structure that makes a difference in another information structure. ● p. 16
  17. 17. Computing Nature The basic idea of computing nature is that all processes taking place in physical world can be described as computational processes – from the world of quantum mechanics to living organisms, their societies and ecologies. Emphasis is on regularities and typical behaviors. Even though we all have our subjective reasons why we move and how we do that, from the bird-eye-view movements of inhabitants in a city show big regularities. In order to understand big picture and behavior of societies, we take computational approach based on data and information. See the work of Albert-László Barabási who studies networks on different scales: http://www.barabasilab.com/pubs-talks.php
  18. 18. Computation as Information Processing Info-computational approach takes information as the primary stuff of the universe, and computation is as time-dependent behavior (dynamics) of information. This results in a Dual-aspect Universe: informational structure with computational dynamics. (Info-Computationalism, Dodig Crnkovic) Information and computation are closely related – no computation without information, and no information without dynamics (computation).
  19. 19. Cognition as computation. Information networks at the basis of cognition Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons Christof Koch, 1999. http://www.klab.caltech.edu/~koch/biophysics-book/ 100 billions of neurons connected with tiny "wires" in total longer more than two times the earth circumference. This intricate and apparently messy neural circuit that is responsible for our cognition and behavior. http://www.istc.cnr.it/group/locen
  20. 20. p. 20http://www.frontiersin.org/neuroscience/10.3389/fnins.2010.00200/full http://www.scienceprog.com/ecccerobot-embodied-cognition-in-a-compliantly-engineered-robot/ Cognition as computation – information processing
  21. 21. Cognition as Computation Information/computation mechanisms are fundamental for evolution of intelligent agents. Their role is to adapt the physical structure and behavior that will increase organisms chances of survival, or otherwise induce some other behavior that might be a preference of an agent. In this pragmatic framework, meaning in general is use, which is also the case with meaning of information. http://www.worldhealth.net/news/ hormone-therapy-helps-improve-cognition http://www.ritholtz.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/ 2012/04/my-brain-hurts.png
  22. 22. Agent-based Models An agent-based model (ABM) is a computational model for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous individuals in a network, with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole. It combines elements of game theory, complex systems, emergence, computational sociology, multi agent systems, and evolutionary programming. Monte Carlo Methods are used to introduce randomness. The basic of ABMs the study of complexity and emergence. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2C2h-vfdYxQ&feature=related Composite Agents (5.06) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agent-based_model p. 22
  23. 23. Even though computers were invented in order to automatize calculations [Hilbert program (1920); Turing Machine (1936)], after a while the importance of the computer as a communication device was recognized, with its important consequent shared knowledge and community-building (Licklider and Taylor 1968). Licklider, J.C.R. and Taylor R. W. (1968) The computer as a communication device. Science and Technology (September), 20-41. Agent based modeling with applications to social computing. Computer as a communication device p. 23
  24. 24. There are two different approaches to social computing, (Wang et al. 2007), centered on its two different aspects :  computing mechanisms and principles and  human aspects of social computing (critical theory) Approaches to social computing p. 24
  25. 25. Social computing with the focus on social is a phenomenon which enables extended social cognition, while the Social computing with the focus on computing is about computational modelling and it is a new paradigm of computing. From information communication to social intelligence p. 25
  26. 26. The main tools in this field are simulation techniques used in order to facilitate the study of society and to support decision-making policies, helping to analyze how changing policies affect social, political, and cultural behavior (Epstein, 2007). Epstein, J. M. (2007). Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling. Princeton University. Simulation p. 26
  27. 27. Social computing is radically changing the character of human relationships worldwide (Riedl, 2011). Instead of maximum 150 connections prior to ICT, (Dunbar, 1998), social computing easily leads to networks of several hundred of contacts. Dunbar R. (1998) Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language, Harvard Univ. Press Emergence of social computing p. 27 It remains to understand what type of society will emerge from such massive “long-range” distributed interactions instead of traditional fewer and deeper short-range ones. Riedl J. (2011) "The Promise and Peril of Social Computing," Computer, vol.44, no.1, pp.93-95
  28. 28. In this process, information overload on individuals is steadily increasing, and social computing technologies are moving beyond simple social information communication toward social intelligence, (Zhang et al. 2011) (Lim et al. 2008) (Wang et al. 2007), which brings an additional level of complexity. Towards social intelligence p. 28 Of special interest is the agent-based social simulation (ABSS) as a generative computational approach to social simulation defined by the interactions of autonomous agents whose actions determine the evolution of the system, as applied in artificial life, artificial societies, computational sociology, dynamic network analysis, models of markets, swarming (including swarm robotics).
  29. 29. As Gilbert (2005) points out, novelty of agent based models (ABMs) “offers the possibility of creating ‘artificial’ societies in which individuals and collective actors such as organizations could be directly represented and the effect of their interactions observed. From information communication to social intelligence p. 29
  30. 30. This provided for the first time the possibility of using experimental methods with social phenomena, or at least with their computer representations; of directly studying the emergence of social institutions from individual interaction.” Gilbert N: (2005) Agent-based social simulation: dealing with complexity, http://www.complexityscience.org/NoE/ABSS-dealing%20with %20complexity-1–1.pdf The emergence of social institutions from individual interaction p. 30
  31. 31. An agent-based model (ABM) is a computational model for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous individuals in a network, with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole. It combines elements of game theory, complex systems, emergence, computational sociology, multi agent systems, and evolutionary programming. Agent-based models p. 31 ABMs are very useful computational instruments but they should not be taken as “reality” even though simulations with their realistic graphical representations suggest their being “real”. Process of modeling and simulation is complex and many simplifications and assumptions must be made which always must be justified for each application.
  32. 32. ABMs in general are used to model complex, dynamical adaptive systems. The interesting aspect in ABMs is the micro-macro link (agent-society). Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) models may be used for any number (in general heterogeneous) entities spatially separated by the environment which can be modeled explicitly. Agent-based models p. 32 Interactions are in general asynchronous which adds to the realism of simulation. Social computing represents a new computing paradigm which is one sort of the natural computing, often inspired by biological systems (e.g. swarms).
  33. 33. Socio-technological networks as agent- based model http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v8/n1/full/nphys2160.html Modelling dynamical processes in complex socio-technical systems Delegation & distribution More on agent-based models http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgUT4F8mskQ Agent Based Model: Information Flows on Networks #1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_-9hFzmxkw Pandemic influenza computer model http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2C2h- vfdYxQ&feature=related Composite Agents (5.06)
  34. 34. The cross-disciplinary field of Social computing has two main aspects: ●Social and ●Computational One focus is on social side of social software or social web applications such as blogs, wikis, social bookmarking, instant messaging, and social networking sites. Social computing often uses crowdsourcing method. Social computing: social cognition, social networks, social intelligence and multiagent systems 34
  35. 35. ● Crowdsourcing is, according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by obtaining contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. ● Tools such as prediction markets, social tagging, reputation and trust systems as well as recommender systems are based on crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing 35
  36. 36. ● Another focus of social computing is on computational modeling of social behavior, among others through Multi- agent systems (MAS) and Social Networks (SN). ● There are several usages of Multi-agent systems: to design distributed and/or hybrid systems; to develop philosophical theory; to understand concrete social facts, or to answer concrete social issues via modelling and simulation. Computational modelling of social behavior 36
  37. 37. ● Multi-agent systems are used for modelling, among other things, cognitive or reactive agents who interact in dynamic environments where they possibly depend on each other to achieve their goals. ● The emphasis is nowadays on constructing complex computational systems composed by agents which are regulated by various types of norms, and behave like human social systems. Multi-agent systems for modelling of social behavior 37
  38. 38. ● Social networks (SN) are social structures made of nodes (which are, generally, individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as values, visions, ideas, financial exchange, friends, kinship, dislike, conflict, trade, web links, disease transmission, etc. Social Networks 38
  39. 39. ● Social networks analysis plays an important role in studying the way specific problems are solved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals. ● Social networks analysis has addressed also the dynamics issue, called dynamic networks analysis. This is an emergent research field that brings together traditional social network analysis, link analysis and multi-agent systems. Social Networks 39
  40. 40. Brier Søren - Cybersemiotics and the question of knowledge Burgin Mark - Information Dynamics in a Categorical Setting Chaitin Greg - Leibniz, Complexity & Incompleteness Collier John - Information, Causation and Computation Cooper Barry - From Descartes to Turing: The computational Content of Supervenience Dodig Crnkovic Gordana and Mueller Vincent - A Dialogue Concerning Two Possible World Systems Hofkirchner Wolfgang - Does Computing Embrace Self-Organisation? Kreinovich Vladik & Araiza Roberto - Analysis of Information and Computation in Physics Explains Cognitive Paradigms: from Full Cognition to Laplace Determinism to Statistical Determinism to Modern Approach p. 40 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION World Scientific Publishing Co. Series in Information Studies, 2011 Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic and Mark Burgin
  41. 41. MacLennan Bruce J. - Bodies — Both Informed and Transformed Menant Christophe - Computation on Information, Meaning and Representations. An Evolutionary Approach Mestdagh C.N.J. de Vey & Hoepman J.H. - Inconsistent information as a natural phenomenon Minsky Marvin - Interior Grounding, Reflection, and Self-Consciousness Riofrio Walter - Insights into the biological computing Roglic Darko- Super-recursive features of natural evolvability processes and the models for computational evolution Shagrir Oron - A Sketch of a Modeling View of Computing Sloman Aaron- What's information, for an organism or intelligent machine? How can a machine or organism mean? Zenil Hector & Delahaye Jean-Paul - On the algorithmic nature of the world p. 41 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION World Scientific Publishing Co. Series in Information Studies, 2011 Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic and Mark Burgin
  42. 42. p. 42 A Computable Universe
  43. 43. Computation, Information, Cognition Editor(s): Gordana Dodig Crnkovic and Susan Stuart, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007 Computating Nature p. 43 Information and Computation Editor(s): Gordana Dodig Crnkovic and Mark Burgin, World Scientific, 2011 Computing Nature Editor(s): Gordana Dodig Crnkovic and Raffaela Giovagnoli, Springer, 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-37225-4
  44. 44. Based on the following articles ● Dodig-Crnkovic G., Dynamics of Information as Natural Computation, Information 2011, 2(3), 460-477; doi:10.3390/info2030460 Special issue: Selected Papers from FIS 2010 Beijing Conference, 2011. http://www.mdpi.com/journal/information/special_issues/selectedpap_beijing http://www.mdpi.com/2078-2489/2/3/460/ See also: http://livingbooksaboutlife.org/books/Energy_Connections ● Dodig-Crnkovic, G.; Rotolo, A.; Sartor, G.; Simon, J. and Smith C. (Editors) Social Computing, Social Cognition. Social Network and Multiagent Systems. Social Turn - SNAMAS 2012 AISB/IACAP World Congress 2012. Birmingham, UK, 2-6 July 2012http://events.cs.bham.ac.uk/turing12/proceedings/11.pdf , 2012. ● Dodig-Crnkovic G., Large-Scale Use of Robots and Meeting Risks with Learning Socio- Technical Organization, IEEE ARSO 2012, Workshop on Advanced Robotics and its Social Inpacts 21-23 May 2012 at Techniche Universität München, Germany p. 44

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