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THE PHILIPPINES ACHIEVE
INDEPENDENCE
(After WW2 - Cory Aquino Administration)
July 4, 1946
 On July 4, 1946, pursuant to the provisions of the 1934 Tydings-
McDuffie Law or the Philippine Independence Act, the Commonwealth
of the Philippines became the Republic of the Philippines—the Third
Republic.
 The United State Ceded its Sovereignty Over The Philippines as a
Scheduled.
 Impressive innaguration in Luneta.
 The United States Declared Philippines as Independent Nation.
Lowering the American Flag and Began Raising the flag of the
philippines.
"As president of the United States, then withdrew all “rights of possession,
supervision, jurisdiction, control or sovereignty” exercised by the United
States over the territory and people of the Philippines, and recognized the
independence of the Philippines."
- Harry Truman
 Manuel Roxas Become the 1st President of the Independent
Republic of the Philippines.
 Philippines Starts its Independent Government. However, The
Philippine economy remained highly dependent on United States
 The Philippine Trade Act. passed as a precondition for receiving
war rehabilitation grants from the United States, exacerbated
the dependency with provisions further tying the economies of
the two countries.
Independent Philippines and the Third Republic (1946-1972)
Manuel Roxas Administration (1946-1948)
• A military assistance pact was signed in 1947 granting the United
States a 99-year lease on designated military bases in the country (the
lease was later reduced to 25 years beginning (1967).
 The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who
had collaborated with the Japanese in World War ll, except for those
who had committed violent crimes.
 World War lI had left the Philippines demoralized and severely
damaged. The task of reconstruction was complicated by the
activities of the Communist-supported Hukbalahap guerillas
(known as "Huks"), who had evolved into a violent resistance force
against the new Philippine Government.
 Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April 1948.
Elpidio Quirino Administration (1948-1953)
 Vice President Elpidio Quirino, was elevated to the presidency.
He ran for president in his own right in 1949, defeating Jose
P.Laurel and Winning a four-year term.
 President Quirino’s administration faced a serious threat in the
form of the Communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement.
 Quirino’s six years as president were marked by notable postwar
reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic
aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however,
particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved; Quirino’s
administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption.
Hukbalahap
 People's Army Against Japan'), better known by the acronym
Hukbalahap or Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon, was a
communist guerrilla movement formed by the farmers of
Central Luzon Headed by Luis Taruc.
 The Huks organization proved highly successful as a guerrilla
group and killed many Japanese troops during Ww2.
 This Group Helping the American and Filipino Troops to Fight
the Japanese Military
Huk Rebellion
 The Huks regarded wealthy Filipinos who collaborated with the
Japanese as fair targets for assassination, and by the end of the war
they had seized most of the large estates in central Luzon. They
established a regional government, collected taxes, and administered
their own laws.
 The returning U.S. Army was suspicious of the Huks because of
their Communist leadership. Tension between the Huks and the
Philippine government immediately arose over the issue of
surrender of arms.
 Philippine independence from the United States was scheduled for
July 4, 1946. An election was held in April for positions in the new
government. The Hukbalahap participated, and the Huk
leader Luis Taruc won a seat in Congress but—along with some
other Huk candidates—was unseated by the victorious Liberal
Party.
 The Huks then retreated to the jungle and began their rebellion.
Philippine president Manuel Roxas announced his “mailed fist”
policy toward the Huks. The morale of government troops was low,
however, and their indiscriminate retaliations against villagers only
strengthened Huk appeal. During the next four years, the Manila
government steadily slipped in prestige while Huk strength
increased. By 1950 the guerrillas were approaching Manila, and the
Communist leadership decided the time was ripe for a seizure of
power.
HUK CAMPAIGN
Public sympathies for the movement had been waning due to their
postwar attacks. The Huks carried out a campaign of raids,
holdups, robbery, ambushes, murder, rape, massacre of small
villages, kidnapping and intimidation. The Huks confiscated funds
and property to sustain their movement and relied on small village
organizers for political and material support.
End of Hukbalahap
 The Huks came close to victory but were subsequently defeated by
a combination of advanced U.S. weaponry supplied to the
Philippine government and administrative reforms under the
charismatic Philippine president Ramon Magsaysay.
 The Huks suffered a crucial setback when government agents
raided their secret headquarters in Manila. The entire Huk
political leadership was arrested in a single night. At the same
time, Huk strength was dealt another blow when U.S. President
Harry Truman, alarmed at the worldwide expansion of Communist
power, authorized large shipments of military supplies to the
Manila government.
 Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay Initiated a campaign to
defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular
support for the government. The Huk movement had waned in the
early 1950s, finally ending with the Unconditional surrender of Huk
leader Luis Taruc in May 1954.
 Another factor in the Huk defeat was the rise to power of the
popular Ramon Magsaysay. His election as president in 1953
signaled a swing of popular support back to the Manila government.
In 1954 Taruc emerged from the jungle to surrender, and the
Hukbalahap Rebellion, for all practical purposes, came to an end.
End of Hukbalahap
Ramon Magsaysay Administration (1953-1957)
 Supported by the United States, Magsaysay was elected president in
1953 on a populist platform.
 Idol of the masses, He was considered an honest, true man of the
people that often spoke and interacted directly with constituents.
Magsaysay and his administration were considered clean,
incorruptible, and committed to reform, which ensured his
popularity.
 He promised sweeping economic reform, and made progress in land
Reform. He established the National Resettlement and
Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and
landless farmers.
 Best known for successfully defeating the communist-led
Hukbalahap (Huk) movement. Most successful antiguerrilla
campaigns in modern history. Realizing that the Huks could not
survive without popular support, he strove to win the trust of the
peasants by offering land and tools to those who came over to the
government side and by insisting that army units treat the people
with respect.
 Reforming the army, he dismissed corrupt and incompetent officers
and emphasized mobility and flexibility in combat operations against
the guerrillas. By 1953 the Huks were no longer a serious threat.
Administration of Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957)
 On March 17, 1957, President Ramon F. Magsaysay, often referred to
as champion of the Filipino masses, died at the age of 49 in a plane
crash in Cebu.
 He was extremely popular with the common people. An estimated
two million people attended Magsaysay's burial His death dealt a
serious blow to national morale.
Philippines - USA Foreign Relations
• Mutual Defense Treaty 1951
 The Philippines and the United States entered into a
Mutual Defense Treaty in 1951. The Philippines is one of
only two US treaty allies in Southeast Asia.
 It Stipulates that the Philippines and the US would
support each other if either of them were to be attacked by
an external party.
U.S. Assistance to Philippines
 The U.S. government’s goals in the Philippines are to
strengthen democratic governance and support Philippine
government efforts to promote inclusive development and
contribute to security and development cooperation in the
Indo-Pacific. U.S. assistance to the Philippines helps
expand inclusive, market-driven growth; foster strong
democratic systems and good economic, health, and
education governance; promote responsible natural
resource management; and enhance resilience for
communities and the environment.
Philippines’s Membership in International
Organizations
 The Philippines and the United States belong to
many of the same international organizations,
including the United Nations, ASEAN,
International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and
World Trade Organization.
Carlos P. Garcia Administration (1957-1961)
 Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after
Magsaysay's death, and was elected to a four-year
term in the election of November that same year.
 Garcia exercised the " Filipino First" Policy, for
which he was known. This policy heavily favored
Filipino businessmen over foreign investors.
Diosdado Macapagal Administration(1961-1965)
 Diosdado Macapagal was elected president in the 1961
election, defeating Garcia's re-election bid. Macapagal's
foreign polic sought closer relations with neighboring
Asian nations.
 Notably, the celebration of Independence Day was
changed from July 4 to June 12, to honor the day that
Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain in
1898.
FERDINAND E. MARCOS
Marcos era and martial law (1965-1986)
 Macapagal ran for re-election in 1965, but was defeated by his
former party-mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos, who
had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Early in his
presidency, Marcos initiated ambitious public works projects
and intensified tax collection which brought the country
economic prosperity throughout the 1970s.
 His administration built more roads (including a substantial
portion of the Pan-Philippine Highway) than all his
predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous
administration. Marcos reelected President in 1969,
becoming the first president of the independent Philippines to
achieve a second term.
 The Philippine Legislature was corrupt and impotent. Opponents
of Marcos blocked the necessary legislation to implement his
ambitious plans. Because of this, optimism faded early in his
second term and economic growth slowed. Crime and civil
increased. disobedience The Communist Party of the Philippines
formed the New People's Army.
 The Moro National Liberation Front continued to fight for an
independent Muslim nation in Mindanao. An explosion during the
proclamation rally of the senatorial slate of the Liberal Party on
prompted Marcos to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, which he
restored on January 11, 1972 after public protests. August 21,
1971
Martial law
 Amidst the rising wave of lawlessness and the threat of a Communist
insurgency, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 by
virtueof Proclamation No. 1081. Marcos, ruling by decree, curtailed
press freedom and other civil liberties, closed down Congress and
media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders
and militant activists, including his staunchest critics senators
Benigno Aquino, Jr. Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno.
 The declaration of martial law was initially well received, given the
social turmoil the Philippines was experiencing. Crime rates plunged
dramatically after a curfew was implemented. Many political
opponents were forced to go into exile.
A constitutional convention, which had been called for in 1970 to
replace the colonial 1935 Constitution, continued the work of
framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. The
new constitution went into effect in early 1973, changing the form of
government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos
to stay in power beyond 1973.
Marcos claimed that martial law was the the prelude to creating a
"New Society" based on new social and political values. The economy
during the 1970s was robust, with budgetary and trade surpluses.
The Gross National Product rose from P55 billion in 1972 to P193
billion in 1980. Tourism rose, contributing To the economy’s growth
However, Marcos, his cronies and his wife Imelda Romualdez-
Marcos, will fully engaged in rampant corruption.
Fourth Republic
Appeasing the Roman Catholic Church, Marcos officially lifted
martial law on January 17, 1981. However, he retained much of the
government's power for arrest and detention. Corruption and
nepotismn as well as civil unrest contributed to a serious decline in
economic growth and development under Marcos, whose health
declined due to lupus
The political opposition boycotted the 1981 presidential elections,
which pitted against Aleio Santos. Marcos won by a margin of
Marcos retired general Over 16 million votes, which
constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term.
 In 1983, leader opposition Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at
the Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines
after a long period of exile. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction
with Marcos and began a succession of events, including pressure
from the United States, that culminated in a Snap presidential
election in February 1986. The opposition united under Aquino's
widow, Corazon Aquino.
The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections
(Comelec), declared Marcos the winner of the election. However,
there was a large discrepancy between the Comelec results and
that of Namfrel, an accredited poll watcher. The allegedly
fraudulent result was rejected by Corazon Aquino and her
supporters.
International observers, including a U.S. delegation,
denounced the official results. Gen. Fidel Ramos and
Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile withdrew their
support for Marcos. A peaceful civilian-military uprising,
popularly called now the People Power Revolution,
forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as
president on 1986.
Fifth Republic (1986--present)
Corazon C. Aquino Administration (1986- 1992)
 Corazon Aquino immediately formed a revolutionary government
to normalize the situation, and provided for a transitional "
Freedom Constitution". A new permanent constitution was ratified
and enacted in February 1987.
 The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial
law, proposed creation of autonomous regions in the Cordilleras
and Muslim Mindanao, and restored the presidential form of
government and the bicameral Congress.
 Progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and
respect for civil liberties, but Aquino's administration was also
viewed as weak and fractious, and a return to full political
stability and economic by development was hampered by several
attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine
military.
 Economic growth was additionally hampered by a series of natural
disasters, including the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo During
the Aquino presidency, Manila witnessed six unsuccessful coup
attempts.
 In 1991, the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that
would have allowed a 10-year extension of the U.S.
military bases in the country. The United States turned
Over Clark Air Base in Pampanga to the government in
November, and Subic Bay Naval Base in Zambales in
December 1992, ending almost a century of U.S.
military presence in
REFERENCE
• https://www.britannica.com/event/Hukbalahap-Rebellion
THANK YOU!
PREPARED BY:
JOSHUA SAN FELIPE

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Philippine History :The Philippine achieve independence after ww2 to cory Aquino administration

  • 1. THE PHILIPPINES ACHIEVE INDEPENDENCE (After WW2 - Cory Aquino Administration)
  • 3.  On July 4, 1946, pursuant to the provisions of the 1934 Tydings- McDuffie Law or the Philippine Independence Act, the Commonwealth of the Philippines became the Republic of the Philippines—the Third Republic.  The United State Ceded its Sovereignty Over The Philippines as a Scheduled.  Impressive innaguration in Luneta.  The United States Declared Philippines as Independent Nation. Lowering the American Flag and Began Raising the flag of the philippines. "As president of the United States, then withdrew all “rights of possession, supervision, jurisdiction, control or sovereignty” exercised by the United States over the territory and people of the Philippines, and recognized the independence of the Philippines." - Harry Truman
  • 4.  Manuel Roxas Become the 1st President of the Independent Republic of the Philippines.  Philippines Starts its Independent Government. However, The Philippine economy remained highly dependent on United States  The Philippine Trade Act. passed as a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States, exacerbated the dependency with provisions further tying the economies of the two countries. Independent Philippines and the Third Republic (1946-1972) Manuel Roxas Administration (1946-1948)
  • 5. • A military assistance pact was signed in 1947 granting the United States a 99-year lease on designated military bases in the country (the lease was later reduced to 25 years beginning (1967).  The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who had collaborated with the Japanese in World War ll, except for those who had committed violent crimes.  World War lI had left the Philippines demoralized and severely damaged. The task of reconstruction was complicated by the activities of the Communist-supported Hukbalahap guerillas (known as "Huks"), who had evolved into a violent resistance force against the new Philippine Government.  Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April 1948.
  • 6. Elpidio Quirino Administration (1948-1953)  Vice President Elpidio Quirino, was elevated to the presidency. He ran for president in his own right in 1949, defeating Jose P.Laurel and Winning a four-year term.  President Quirino’s administration faced a serious threat in the form of the Communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement.  Quirino’s six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved; Quirino’s administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption.
  • 7. Hukbalahap  People's Army Against Japan'), better known by the acronym Hukbalahap or Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon, was a communist guerrilla movement formed by the farmers of Central Luzon Headed by Luis Taruc.  The Huks organization proved highly successful as a guerrilla group and killed many Japanese troops during Ww2.  This Group Helping the American and Filipino Troops to Fight the Japanese Military
  • 8. Huk Rebellion  The Huks regarded wealthy Filipinos who collaborated with the Japanese as fair targets for assassination, and by the end of the war they had seized most of the large estates in central Luzon. They established a regional government, collected taxes, and administered their own laws.  The returning U.S. Army was suspicious of the Huks because of their Communist leadership. Tension between the Huks and the Philippine government immediately arose over the issue of surrender of arms.
  • 9.  Philippine independence from the United States was scheduled for July 4, 1946. An election was held in April for positions in the new government. The Hukbalahap participated, and the Huk leader Luis Taruc won a seat in Congress but—along with some other Huk candidates—was unseated by the victorious Liberal Party.  The Huks then retreated to the jungle and began their rebellion. Philippine president Manuel Roxas announced his “mailed fist” policy toward the Huks. The morale of government troops was low, however, and their indiscriminate retaliations against villagers only strengthened Huk appeal. During the next four years, the Manila government steadily slipped in prestige while Huk strength increased. By 1950 the guerrillas were approaching Manila, and the Communist leadership decided the time was ripe for a seizure of power.
  • 10. HUK CAMPAIGN Public sympathies for the movement had been waning due to their postwar attacks. The Huks carried out a campaign of raids, holdups, robbery, ambushes, murder, rape, massacre of small villages, kidnapping and intimidation. The Huks confiscated funds and property to sustain their movement and relied on small village organizers for political and material support.
  • 11. End of Hukbalahap  The Huks came close to victory but were subsequently defeated by a combination of advanced U.S. weaponry supplied to the Philippine government and administrative reforms under the charismatic Philippine president Ramon Magsaysay.  The Huks suffered a crucial setback when government agents raided their secret headquarters in Manila. The entire Huk political leadership was arrested in a single night. At the same time, Huk strength was dealt another blow when U.S. President Harry Truman, alarmed at the worldwide expansion of Communist power, authorized large shipments of military supplies to the Manila government.
  • 12.  Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay Initiated a campaign to defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular support for the government. The Huk movement had waned in the early 1950s, finally ending with the Unconditional surrender of Huk leader Luis Taruc in May 1954.  Another factor in the Huk defeat was the rise to power of the popular Ramon Magsaysay. His election as president in 1953 signaled a swing of popular support back to the Manila government. In 1954 Taruc emerged from the jungle to surrender, and the Hukbalahap Rebellion, for all practical purposes, came to an end. End of Hukbalahap
  • 13. Ramon Magsaysay Administration (1953-1957)  Supported by the United States, Magsaysay was elected president in 1953 on a populist platform.  Idol of the masses, He was considered an honest, true man of the people that often spoke and interacted directly with constituents. Magsaysay and his administration were considered clean, incorruptible, and committed to reform, which ensured his popularity.  He promised sweeping economic reform, and made progress in land Reform. He established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and landless farmers.
  • 14.  Best known for successfully defeating the communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement. Most successful antiguerrilla campaigns in modern history. Realizing that the Huks could not survive without popular support, he strove to win the trust of the peasants by offering land and tools to those who came over to the government side and by insisting that army units treat the people with respect.  Reforming the army, he dismissed corrupt and incompetent officers and emphasized mobility and flexibility in combat operations against the guerrillas. By 1953 the Huks were no longer a serious threat. Administration of Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957)
  • 15.  On March 17, 1957, President Ramon F. Magsaysay, often referred to as champion of the Filipino masses, died at the age of 49 in a plane crash in Cebu.  He was extremely popular with the common people. An estimated two million people attended Magsaysay's burial His death dealt a serious blow to national morale.
  • 16. Philippines - USA Foreign Relations • Mutual Defense Treaty 1951  The Philippines and the United States entered into a Mutual Defense Treaty in 1951. The Philippines is one of only two US treaty allies in Southeast Asia.  It Stipulates that the Philippines and the US would support each other if either of them were to be attacked by an external party.
  • 17. U.S. Assistance to Philippines  The U.S. government’s goals in the Philippines are to strengthen democratic governance and support Philippine government efforts to promote inclusive development and contribute to security and development cooperation in the Indo-Pacific. U.S. assistance to the Philippines helps expand inclusive, market-driven growth; foster strong democratic systems and good economic, health, and education governance; promote responsible natural resource management; and enhance resilience for communities and the environment.
  • 18. Philippines’s Membership in International Organizations  The Philippines and the United States belong to many of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, ASEAN, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization.
  • 19. Carlos P. Garcia Administration (1957-1961)  Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after Magsaysay's death, and was elected to a four-year term in the election of November that same year.  Garcia exercised the " Filipino First" Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors.
  • 20. Diosdado Macapagal Administration(1961-1965)  Diosdado Macapagal was elected president in the 1961 election, defeating Garcia's re-election bid. Macapagal's foreign polic sought closer relations with neighboring Asian nations.  Notably, the celebration of Independence Day was changed from July 4 to June 12, to honor the day that Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain in 1898.
  • 22. Marcos era and martial law (1965-1986)  Macapagal ran for re-election in 1965, but was defeated by his former party-mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos, who had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated ambitious public works projects and intensified tax collection which brought the country economic prosperity throughout the 1970s.  His administration built more roads (including a substantial portion of the Pan-Philippine Highway) than all his predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous administration. Marcos reelected President in 1969, becoming the first president of the independent Philippines to achieve a second term.
  • 23.  The Philippine Legislature was corrupt and impotent. Opponents of Marcos blocked the necessary legislation to implement his ambitious plans. Because of this, optimism faded early in his second term and economic growth slowed. Crime and civil increased. disobedience The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army.  The Moro National Liberation Front continued to fight for an independent Muslim nation in Mindanao. An explosion during the proclamation rally of the senatorial slate of the Liberal Party on prompted Marcos to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, which he restored on January 11, 1972 after public protests. August 21, 1971
  • 24. Martial law  Amidst the rising wave of lawlessness and the threat of a Communist insurgency, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 by virtueof Proclamation No. 1081. Marcos, ruling by decree, curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, closed down Congress and media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including his staunchest critics senators Benigno Aquino, Jr. Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno.  The declaration of martial law was initially well received, given the social turmoil the Philippines was experiencing. Crime rates plunged dramatically after a curfew was implemented. Many political opponents were forced to go into exile.
  • 25. A constitutional convention, which had been called for in 1970 to replace the colonial 1935 Constitution, continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. The new constitution went into effect in early 1973, changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond 1973. Marcos claimed that martial law was the the prelude to creating a "New Society" based on new social and political values. The economy during the 1970s was robust, with budgetary and trade surpluses. The Gross National Product rose from P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. Tourism rose, contributing To the economy’s growth However, Marcos, his cronies and his wife Imelda Romualdez- Marcos, will fully engaged in rampant corruption.
  • 26. Fourth Republic Appeasing the Roman Catholic Church, Marcos officially lifted martial law on January 17, 1981. However, he retained much of the government's power for arrest and detention. Corruption and nepotismn as well as civil unrest contributed to a serious decline in economic growth and development under Marcos, whose health declined due to lupus The political opposition boycotted the 1981 presidential elections, which pitted against Aleio Santos. Marcos won by a margin of Marcos retired general Over 16 million votes, which constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term.
  • 27.  In 1983, leader opposition Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a succession of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a Snap presidential election in February 1986. The opposition united under Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino. The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (Comelec), declared Marcos the winner of the election. However, there was a large discrepancy between the Comelec results and that of Namfrel, an accredited poll watcher. The allegedly fraudulent result was rejected by Corazon Aquino and her supporters.
  • 28. International observers, including a U.S. delegation, denounced the official results. Gen. Fidel Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile withdrew their support for Marcos. A peaceful civilian-military uprising, popularly called now the People Power Revolution, forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on 1986.
  • 29. Fifth Republic (1986--present) Corazon C. Aquino Administration (1986- 1992)  Corazon Aquino immediately formed a revolutionary government to normalize the situation, and provided for a transitional " Freedom Constitution". A new permanent constitution was ratified and enacted in February 1987.  The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial law, proposed creation of autonomous regions in the Cordilleras and Muslim Mindanao, and restored the presidential form of government and the bicameral Congress.
  • 30.  Progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and respect for civil liberties, but Aquino's administration was also viewed as weak and fractious, and a return to full political stability and economic by development was hampered by several attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine military.  Economic growth was additionally hampered by a series of natural disasters, including the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo During the Aquino presidency, Manila witnessed six unsuccessful coup attempts.
  • 31.  In 1991, the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed a 10-year extension of the U.S. military bases in the country. The United States turned Over Clark Air Base in Pampanga to the government in November, and Subic Bay Naval Base in Zambales in December 1992, ending almost a century of U.S. military presence in