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Introdução à filosofia

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GAMITO, José Aristides da Silva. Introdução à Filosofia. Aula. 2011

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Introdução à filosofia

  1. 1. José Aristides da Silva Gamito Filósofo
  2. 2. <ul><li>CONTEÚDO: </li></ul><ul><li>O que é filosofia? </li></ul><ul><li>Onde e quando surgiu? </li></ul><ul><li>O que estuda a filosofia? </li></ul><ul><li>Quem é o filósofo? </li></ul><ul><li>Quais são as contribuições da filosofia para </li></ul><ul><li>a história da humanidade? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Filosofia = Amizade ao saber, à sabedoria. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gr.  ) </li></ul><ul><li>Filósofo = Amigo do saber, da sabedoria. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gr.  ) </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Primeiramente, devido à longa tradição que possui o saber filosófico é difícil estabelecer uma única definição de filosofia. Apresentemos como ponto de partida a etimologia da palavra Filosofia. Em grego, Φιλοσοφία significa “amizade ao saber”. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Segundo a tradição, foi Pitágoras (570-496 a. C.) que cunhou esse termo porque não se considera sábio, mas apenas “amigo do saber”, em grego, filósofo. Dentre tantas definições, vamos começar por esta: Filosofia é a investigação crítica e racional dos princípios fundamentais relacionados ao mundo, ao homem e a sua ação e seus valores. </li></ul>
  6. 7. FILOSOFAR É: “ É ir além do óbvio” (CORTELLA). “ É se debruçar sobre aquilo que não é imediatamente dado, buscando as suas raízes” (DOURDADO). “ É desbanalizar o banal” (GHIRALDELLI).
  7. 8. PAULO GHIRALDELLI: “ Desbanalização do banal”
  8. 9. LUC FERRY: O ser humano, enquanto finito, interroga-se e busca salvação para a sua condição inquietante.
  9. 10. A certeza do “nunca mais” da morte atormenta o homem. Ela é mais abrangente do que fim da vida biológica. Para se viver bem é preciso superar o medo, é neste ponto que religião e filosofia se divergem. A religião propõe a superação da ameaça suprema através da fé. A filosofia procura a salvação por meio da lucidez. As grandes filosofias seriam doutrinas de salvação por si mesmo.
  10. 12. <ul><li>Esta forma de conhecimento teve início na Grécia Antiga, no século VI, com Tales de Mileto. As cidades de destaque em sua origem foram Mileto e Éfeso, hoje se situam na Turquia. Esta forma de conhecimento teve início na Grécia Antiga, na Jônia, no século VI , com Tales de Mileto. Este era cientista e político. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Tales foi o primeiro a pensar um princípio racional que explica a causa e a origem de todas as coisas, a sua preocupação era entender a constituição da natureza. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Lógica: Trata do raciocínio metódico e válido. </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologia: Trata da realidade, do ser e do nada. </li></ul><ul><li>Gnoseologia: Trata da natureza e validade do conhecimento. </li></ul><ul><li>Ética: Trata dos valores, da distinção entre o bem e o mal. </li></ul><ul><li>Estética: Trata da arte, da noção de belo e de feio. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Filosofia Política: Estuda as teorias do Estado, o funcionamento da política; </li></ul><ul><li>Filosofia da Ciência: Estuda os métodos e a validade da ciência; </li></ul><ul><li>Filosofia da Religião: Estuda racionalmente as doutrinas e as diferentes religiões; </li></ul><ul><li>Filosofia Clínica: Estuda terapias para o tratamento psíquico; </li></ul><ul><li>Filosofia Organizacional: Estuda as relações e formas de organização de uma empresa. </li></ul>
  14. 17. Divisões da FILOSOFIA LÓGICA ONTOLOGIA GNOSEOLOGIA ÉTICA ESTÉTICA FILOSOFIA POLÍTICA FILOSOFIA DA RELIGIÃO FILOSOFIA CLÍNICA FILOSOFIA ORGANIZACIONAL
  15. 19. <ul><li>A Filosofia, ao lado da matemática, é uma das primeiras formas de conhecimento organizado. Durante muitos séculos, muitos campos das ciências modernas eram estudados dentro da Filosofia. </li></ul><ul><li>Com surgimento do conceito moderno de ciências, muitas áreas se separaram e se tornaram saberes independentes da Filosofia. Portanto, são muitas as ciências geradas por ela. </li></ul>
  16. 20. FILOSOFIA LÓGICA ANTROPOLOGIA ÉTICA E POLÍTICA PSICOLOGIA TEOLOGIA FÍSICA BIOLOGIA GRAMÁTICA HERMENÊUTICA A Filosofia é a base da maioria das ciências modernas
  17. 21. <ul><li>Salvou o Cristianismo , dando-lhe corpo doutrinário, linguagem própria e justificação diante do Império Romano; </li></ul><ul><li>Foi base e estímulo para o desenvolvimento das ciências modernas ; </li></ul><ul><li>Com o Racionalismo de Bacon e Descartes impulsionou as ciências à experiência e ao método objetivo da pesquisa; </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Através do Iluminismo lançou as bases dos direitos humanos e da teoria moderna do Estado; </li></ul><ul><li>O Marxismo possibilitou a denúncia das causas da pobreza e dos problemas sociais; </li></ul><ul><li>Hans Jonas trouxe à tona a discussão sobre a ética ambiental. </li></ul>
  19. 24. <ul><li>Filosofia Antiga: Sócrates, Platão, Aristóteles. Temática: Natureza, homem, ser, conhecimento, felicidade. Séc. VI a. C. – Séc. V d. C. </li></ul><ul><li>Filosofia Medieval: Plotino, Agostinho, Tomás de Aquino, Abelardo, Guilherme de Ockam. Temática: Ser, Deus, fé, razão, conhecimento, moral. Séc. VI-XV. </li></ul>
  20. 25. PLATÃO SÓCRATES ARISTÓTELES
  21. 26. AGOSTINHO DE HIPONA - TOMÁS DE AQUINO
  22. 27. <ul><li>Filosofia Moderna: Descartes, David Hume, Blaise Pascal, Rousseau, Immanuel Kant. Temática: Razão, homem, conhecimento, direito. Séc. XVI-XIX. </li></ul><ul><li>Filosofia Contemporânea: Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, Wittgenstein, Foulcault. Temática: Ser, linguagem, existência, técnica. Séc. XIX até hoje. </li></ul>
  23. 28. DESCARTES PASCAL KANT
  24. 29. KARL MARX FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE
  25. 31. <ul><li>Primeiramente, filósofo é todo estudioso que se interessa pela investigação sobre o mundo, sobre o homem e seus valores. É alguém crítico, questionador. Em se tratando de educação formal, na legislação brasileira recebe o título de filósofo quem cursou um bacharelado em Filosofia. </li></ul>
  26. 32. <ul><li>Porém , a lista oficial de filósofos que aparece nos manuais de filosofia, considera como tais, pessoas formadas na área ou não que fizeram investigações filosóficas inovadoras e relevantes . </li></ul>
  27. 33. <ul><li>No Brasil, um filósofo pode escrever críticas para jornais, revistas e demais mídias. Pode se tornar um professor de Filosofia, cursando uma licenciatura. Pode atuar em universidades em pesquisas e docência. Neste caso, é requerida uma pós-graduação. </li></ul>
  28. 34. <ul><li>Atua ainda como consultor de empresas, com a Filosofia Organizacional; como terapeuta, em caso de especialização, em Filosofia Clínica. </li></ul>
  29. 35. INDICAÇÃO <ul><li>Documentário: “A guerra que você não vê”. John Pilger. </li></ul><ul><li>Disponível em: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzSmGf0vJgw </li></ul>

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