Chapter 1: IntroductionChapter 1IntroductionGeoGraphix provides a complete Microsoft Windows® based interpretation system ...
GESXplorerIn this chapter you will:              Start GeoGraphix Discovery              Understand the general purpose or...
Chapter 1: IntroductionThe ProjectExplorer – Getting Started dialog box appears.         The ProjectExplorer - Getting Sta...
GESXplorer   4.   Click OK. ProjectExplorer opens with Sample listed as the active project.        The Active project will...
Chapter 1: IntroductionGeoGraphix ApplicationsWith GeoGraphix, you can access, manipulate, analyze and interpret geologic,...
GESXplorerautomatically creates a graphical representation of the data, which is saved as a map layer. This map layeris av...
Chapter 1: Introductionstatistical queries to be run on the filtered data. Parameters including the sum, average, minimum,...
GESXplorerWellBase database with new picks. In addition, the WellBase Strat Column Manager and FaultManager can be opened ...
Chapter 1: IntroductionGeoGraphix InstallationThe GeoGraphix Release CD contains an installation document called “Setup In...
GESXplorerProject HomesA project home is a folder in which projects are stored. The folder must be designated as a project...
Chapter 1: IntroductionGeoGraphix ArchitectureWhen GeoGraphix is installed to the workstation, whether as a stand-alone or...
GESXplorerSystem Program FilesThe default installation location is <drive letter>:Program FilesGeoGraphix. This path is th...
Chapter 1: IntroductionSystem Data FilesThe GeoGraphix system data is common data shared by all the projects located on th...
GESXplorerProject Data FilesWhen GeoGraphix software is installed to the workstation, the custom installation wizard promp...
Chapter 1: IntroductionFigure 6. How the project home and project from Figure 5 appear in ProjectExplorer.There can be num...
GESXplorer                       Project                                                                             Area ...
Chapter 1: IntroductionThe shape files for a layer are contained within a folder that has the same name as the layer. With...
GESXplorerInterpretation WorkflowThe workflow used in this class is general in nature because every exploratory or develop...
Chapter 1: IntroductionGeologic SettingThis course uses data from the Williston Basin in Richland and Roosevelt counties i...
GESXplorerThe first wildcat well in the area was originally drilled in 1973. Figure 13 is a chart of the typicalstratigrap...
Chapter 1: Introduction                                         Red River PerfsFigure 14 – Red River Type Log (perforation...
GESXplorer                                          Interlake PerfsFigure 14 – Interlake Type Log (perforations approx. 11...
Chapter 1: Introduction1-23
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Gesx chapter01 introduction

  1. 1. Chapter 1: IntroductionChapter 1IntroductionGeoGraphix provides a complete Microsoft Windows® based interpretation system for evaluating andmanaging land, seismic, production, and well data. Several modules, tools or applications can be integratedtogether so that a complete exploration or development team can work together to easily organize, browse,filter, and interpret well and seismic data from a variety of industry standard sources.Discovery Release 2006.1is the integrated product suite that incorporates shared data management andgeological, petrophysical, and geophysical interpretation tools. It consists of the following: DataManager™ (includes ProjectExplorer™, CoordinateSystemManager™, WellBase™, SeisBase™, QueryBuilder™, ZoneManager™, WellXchange™) • The Discovery project and data management engine GESXplorer™ (includes GeoAtlas™, IsoMap™, XSection™, LeaseMap™, LandNet™) • The geologic base mapping and interpretation system PRIZM™ • An interactive petrophysical and log analysis system SeisVision™ • The comprehensive 2D/3D seismic interpretation system pStaX™ (includes SCAN) • The post stack processing module for enhancing seismic character and detecting anomalies related to geologic featuresSeismic Modeling Release 2006.1is the powerful seismic synthetic and 2D forward modeling system,which integrates seamlessly with Discovery. It consists of the following applications: LogM Well Editor™ • The geophysical application used for interactively editing well logs and evaluating synthetic trace character response LogM Model Builder™ • The 2D forward seismic waveform modeling tool Struct™ • The forward ray tracing and structural modeling systemLandmark Connectivity Release 2006.1allows well and seismic data to be shared between bothGeoGraphix and Landmark Graphics systems through the XChange Toolbox. It is fully integratedwith the following applications: WellXchange – OpenWorks™ Connect • Transfer well information to/from OpenWorks applications SeisXchange™ • Transfer seismic data to/from SeisWorks™ Discovery on OpenWorks™ • Dynamic real-time link to SeisWorks/OpenWorks 1-1
  2. 2. GESXplorerIn this chapter you will: Start GeoGraphix Discovery Understand the general purpose or functionality of the various GeoGraphix applications Discuss some of the general installation considerations Understand the architecture and organization of GeoGraphix files Discuss the interpretation workflow and geologic setting for the data utilized in the courseStarting GeoGraphix Discovery 1. Start GeoGraphix Discovery by double-clicking on the GeoGraphix Discovery icon or by selecting Start >> Programs >> GeoGraphix >> Discovery >> ProjectExplorer. The list on the right displays all of the applications that comprise GeoGraphix Discovery. 1-2
  3. 3. Chapter 1: IntroductionThe ProjectExplorer – Getting Started dialog box appears. The ProjectExplorer - Getting Started dialog box is designed to guide the new user through the basic steps in using ProjectExplorer. This dialog box appears each time ProjectExplorer is launched, and can be utilized to either create a new project or open an existing project. For this course, the Getting Started dialog box will be turned off. 2. In the Activate Existing Project group box, select the Activate the last active project radio button. If no projects exist on the system, this will open the Sample Project. The Sample Project is an empty project supplied with the software that allows you access to ProjectExplorer without having to build a new project. If one or more projects already exist in GeoGraphix Discovery, the ProjectExplorer window will appear with the last active project listed in the Title Bar. 3. If you do not want the getting started wizards to display every time an application is started, click on the checkbox next to Don’t show this dialog again (see Tools menu to reactivate) to select it. Selecting this box will turn off the Getting Started dialog box so that it will not appear when ProjectExplorer is launched again. You might want to keep the getting started wizard active until you get use to the workflow. Note: The Getting Started dialog box can be turned on again by selecting Tools >> Startup Options from the ProjectExplorer menu bar. Click the checkbox for Show “ProjectExplorer – Getting Started” dialog, then click OK. 1-3
  4. 4. GESXplorer 4. Click OK. ProjectExplorer opens with Sample listed as the active project. The Active project will be listed in the Title bar (ProjectExplorer – Sample) and will be identified in the left pane of the ProjectExplorer window by a yellow arrow. 1-4
  5. 5. Chapter 1: IntroductionGeoGraphix ApplicationsWith GeoGraphix, you can access, manipulate, analyze and interpret geologic, geophysical, petrophysicaland production-related reservoir data in a completely streamlined workflow environment – one that allowsyou to spend less time managing the data and more time interpreting it.The GeoGraphix toolbar found along the right side of any GeoGraphix application window can be usedto launch various GeoGraphix tools used in workflows.ProjectExplorer is used for creating, activating, organizing, and modifying GeoGraphixprojects. ProjectExplorer employs a New Project Wizard that simplifies project creation.ProjectExplorer uses an interface similar to Microsoft Windows® Explorer where the view of thecontents of a project can be modified and project folders and their content can be created and organized asnecessary. ProjectExplorer also has direct access to data import and export for several GeoGraphixmodules. Direct access to other GeoGraphix modules and specific data managers (stratigraphic column,well symbols, curve data, faults, and sources) can also be gained through ProjectExplorer.The Coordinate System Manager is the GeoGraphix application for defining coordinatesystems, map projections, datums, and ellipsoids for use in GeoGraphix projects. The CoordinateSystem Manager displays a hierarchy of regions as folders. When a folder is selected in the left pane,the right pane displays all of the coordinate systems, map projections, datums, and zones defined for thatregion.The GeoAtlas tool presents a piece of paper or virtual page onto which a number of layers maybe placed in a display. In GeoAtlas, maps can be created and map attributes modified. Annotations anddrawings can be added and maps can be printed. Layers created in various GeoGraphix modules can bedisplayed in GeoAtlas. ESRI shape files may also be displayed. The 32-bit base mapping environment ofGeoAtlas uses ESRI’s Map Objects, which offers graphical flexibility by supporting layers built inother GeoGraphix applications. Map Objects also allows for advanced spatial querying. In addition toits functions for viewing and editing maps, cross sections, and other graphic elements, GeoAtlas can beused to perform spatial queries (point-and-shoot), and to communicate with other GeoGraphix tools andWindows applications via inter-process communication (IPC). After creating a map in Map View, thecolors and qualities of individual entities on the layers can be edited. In Map View, layers may be editedand annotations and drawings can be added. “Scale dependent resolution” may be set for a layer, whichdetermines at what scale a layer, entity, or text feature will appear on the map. Contours can be createdusing a contouring shortcut feature from layers with Z value data and viewed as a 2D map or a 3D image.Page View can be used to add marginalia annotation, to add object or image files to construct a montage,and to see a preview of a printed map.LandNet supports the import of a variety of landgrid and cultural data from government,commercial, and proprietary sources. Landgrid data provides survey grid data for a particular region,including text descriptions and latitude/longitude coordinates. Landgrid data can be imported either as adatabase or a display layer. The LandNet Information Manager presents landgrid data in spreadsheetformat, allowing landgrid data to be easily edited in the database. If more than one type of landgrid dataexists in the project, multiple Information Manager windows can be opened to view each data type.Landgrid layers created in LandNet can be displayed on maps in GeoAtlas. LandNet landgrid data canbe used for geographical reference in LeaseMap to generate lease and tract boundaries. Cultural dataincludes political boundaries, countries, states, counties, provinces, rivers, roads, and cities. These entitiescan only be imported as a display layer. When data are imported as a display layer, LandNet 1-5
  6. 6. GESXplorerautomatically creates a graphical representation of the data, which is saved as a map layer. This map layeris available for viewing and editing in GeoAtlas.The LeaseMap information manager provides an environment for geoscientists and landpersonnel to interactively manage and display tract, lease, and concession information. This informationcan be displayed along with cartographic, well, seismic, and contour data using GeoAtlas. SinceLeaseMap is fully integrated with the other GeoGraphix applications, tract and lease information can bemanaged along with well, landgrid, cultural, seismic, and contour data. The user can create color-codedmaps with polygon pattern fills and text annotation derived for lease and contract information that matchesuser-defined criteria. The LeaseMap database structure has been designed to provide a flexible system tomodel and display tract related data. LeaseMap uses the tract as the foundation from which are built allcontractual relationships.LogM Well Editor is GeoGraphix’s multi-purpose geophysical application used forinteractively editing well logs and evaluating synthetic trace character response when tying seismic data towell locations. Synthetic traces displayed in the Well Editor are automatically updated when theassociated well curves are edited. The Well Editor also displays formation tops, SEG-Y seismic traces,AVO/AVA synthetics, exploded synthetics, user-defined phase and frequency trace panels in addition toextensive new features used for modeling sub-surface rock and fluid parameters.LogM Model Builder is GeoGraphix’s primary application that starts where the Well Editorleaves off. It is used to create geological cross sections from any number of wells that can be displayedwith a wide range of different lithology patterns and curve enhancements. It is often used as an empiricalmodeling tool for evaluating the character of anomalous seismic responses between wells. In addition,synthetic trace and AVO/AVA models from interpolated logs can be generated from cross sections usingstratigraphic relationships defined for each layer. New or existing correlations can also be drawn and easilyedited with lithology patterns displayed between correlations. Also, a significant feature is the directintegration of the Plot Cross Section and Plot Log/Trace Model programs into the Model Builder. Modelediting and plot preview panels are displayed together in the same program window.PRIZM is a comprehensive interpretation package designed to assist geoscientists andpetrophysicists in analyzing and interpreting well log data. PRIZM supports the import of digital data fromnumerous sources and provides integrated data views and analysis. PRIZM also enables quick analysis ofwell log data using industry-standard and custom-built petrophysical algorithms. Using PRIZM, logtemplates can be generated for display in the cross section module. Type logs and annotated logs can begenerated in PRIZM and then exported as metafiles for display in GeoAtlas.The pStaX application is used to perform seismic post stack processing. Data are taken fromSeisVision or SEG-Y files and reprocessed into new lines or data volumes.QueryBuilder builds and runs queries or filters against data in the Sybase/GXDB database.QueryBuilder, used in conjunction with WellBase, SeisBase, PRIZM and LeaseMap allowsselective access of data by searching the database for wells, seismic, curve data, or leases based on user-defined criteria. By filtering the database, a potentially large amount of data is reduced. Work is thenaccomplished on a smaller subset of wells, seismic, curve data, or leases that meet specific criteria. WithQueryBuilder in Layer Create mode, an unlimited number of filters can be created and saved. Oncesaved, these filters can be used for a variety of purposes such as creating layers in WellBase, SeisBaseor LeaseMap, displaying graphs, and creating editable data record tables. QueryBuilder also allows 1-6
  7. 7. Chapter 1: Introductionstatistical queries to be run on the filtered data. Parameters including the sum, average, minimum,maximum, standard deviation, variance, or count for numerical fields can be calculated. Set operations arealso supported in QueryBuilder.SeisBase is the data manager for non-trace seismic data stored at the project level. Theinformation stored consists of line, shotpoint, and survey location, and event data for 2D and 3D seismicsurveys. Seismic data can be imported in Landmark ASCII, SDXF3, SEGP1 or UKOOA format. Data canalso be imported from a spreadsheet using the Spreadsheet Importer or manually added. Seismicbasemaps with posted data can be created in SeisBase and displayed in GeoAtlas. The posted data canbe contoured using IsoMap.SeisVision is the most powerful 2D and 3D seismic interpretation and mapping softwarepackage available for use with Microsoft Windows®. SeisVision provides an intuitive user interfaceoptimized for loading SEG-Y format data sets, and interactive viewing and picking of time horizons on 2Dseismic sections and 3D inlines and crosslines. SeisVision offers sophisticated, yet intuitive, faultinterpretation, velocity interpretation based on well control, and real time depth conversion.Depth/thickness data can be rapidly generated from reflection events, allowing the geophysicist toexchange data with the geologist and prepare surface models integrating all of the data. Presentation-quality maps, timeslices, and seismic sections can be generated in SeisVision, or layers and metafiles canbe easily imported for display into GeoAtlas.STRUCT is a forward seismic structural modeling tool used for creating complex geologicalmodels in areas where there is little or no well control and from which the corresponding synthetic traceresponse from a variety of ray-tracing methods can be generated for comparison with seismic data.WellBase is a relational database manager for geologic well data, including location information,formation tops, faults, deviation surveys, DSTs, and cores. WellBase automates the process of basemapconstruction and well data management and accepts data from commercial or proprietary sources.WellBase allows for easy data imports and exports. The project can be populated with well data byimporting ASCII files, pasting spreadsheet data, or typing well information into the database. Data inExcel spreadsheets can be mapped to the database using the Spreadsheet Importer. The WellBaseInformation Manager allows several views of the same data set using a variety of filters. Filters can becreated for well data using QueryBuilder through the filter menu. Well layers can be created for displayin GeoAtlas. In addition, stratigraphic columns can be created, and well symbols and colors can bemanaged in WellBase. Interactive cross sections can be generated by selecting wells from the mapdisplay layer and if well logs are available, the curve data can be displayed for the selected wells.Xchange Toolbox is the GeoGraphix application that enables the movement of well data(WellXchange) back and forth between GES97 and GESXplorer. Additionally, an OpenWorksConnect option provides the capability of transferring well data and seismic data ( via SeisXchange)between GeoGraphix and OpenWorks/SeisWorks.XSection is used for creating, editing, displaying, and printing geologic cross sections. InXSection, both stratigraphic and structural cross sections can be defined using data from WellBase orPRIZM. Wells can be chosen for a cross section view by selecting them graphically from a previouslycreated well layer in GeoAtlas, selecting them using the Define New Cross Section option in PRIZM, orselecting them from a list of wells in the project database. Cross sections can also be constructed directlyfrom seismic lines displayed in SeisVision. Formation tops and faults can be added, deleted, or edited onthe cross section using several powerful picking tools. This editing process automatically updates the 1-7
  8. 8. GESXplorerWellBase database with new picks. In addition, the WellBase Strat Column Manager and FaultManager can be opened directly from XSection allowing editing of these data.ZoneManager is the data manager tool used to keep track of reservoir characteristics on a zonebasis. Data sources can include PRIZM, SeisVision, IsoMap, ASCII import, or manual input. WithinZoneManager, zones and their attributes can be defined and edited. Zones are created with top and basedefinitions. Zone attributes are user defined and can include numeric, text, or date values. Attributes canbe filtered, and a math engine allows new attributes to be generated from old attributes. Attributes can beshown in crossplot view, or made into WellBase or IsoMap layers. Attribute information can also beoutput in spreadsheet/report view or in ASCII format.IsoMap is the comprehensive surface modeling and contouring application for that can be used on a widevariety of data sets. IsoMap incorporates 10 different interpolation algorithms, including: minimumcurvature, adaptive fitting, moving weighted average, closest point, distance to data, kriging, triangularplanar, triangular polynomial, weighted least squares, and weighted slope. IsoMap makes use of a wizard,which allows creation of a surface, one step at a time, with each step building on the last. Using the wizard,XYZ source data can be imported or selected from the WellBase database, a data file, or a specific layer.Data can be edited directly from the wizard before or after a surface is built. The Wizard offers defaultsettings, which can be changed as necessary, and offers Tool Tips for each possible setting. IsoMapsettings can be saved as layer templates for repeated use with different data sets.LayerMigrate is the GeoGraphix utility program that allows you to migrate IsoMap,LandNet, SeisMap, LeaseMap, and WellBase layers, as well as prospect definitions, from GES97projects to GeoGraphix projects and AOIs. Layers and information resident on those layers istransferred, however information is not written to the database in GeoGraphix, meaning that only somemigrated layers can be updated in GeoAtlas. Moving Wellbase, SeisMap, LeaseMap, or LandNetdatabase information requires first an export in the appropriate format from the GES97 project, then, animport into the GeoGraphix project.DefCon2 is designed to allow users to define the format of ASCII data files to be imported intothe WellBase database, the LandNet survey database, and/or to LandNet layers. The resulting importcontains the information necessary to parse the data from the ASCII file and store it in the selectedWellBase or LandNet database or LandNet layer. The name DefCon2 is an acronym for the DefineConversion program (Version 2). DefCon2 is the version of the program used with the GeoGraphixsuite of applications. It replaces the earlier version of DefCon used in GES97. 1-8
  9. 9. Chapter 1: IntroductionGeoGraphix InstallationThe GeoGraphix Release CD contains an installation document called “Setup Instructions.chm”. The“Setup Instructions.chm” document contains detailed instructions and information about installation. Thefollowing is a brief discussion of just some of the important considerations. Please refer to “SetupInstructions.chm” document on the GeoGraphix Release CD for further details.Stand-alone vs. Network InstallationsThe only difference between a stand-alone and network installation is how the software gets installed andwhere the license service is running. In both installations, the GeoGraphix system files are alwaysinstalled on and run from the client workstation.InstallationIn a stand-alone installation, the GeoGraphix system is loaded directly to the local workstation from theinstallation CD.In a network installation, the GeoGraphix system is loaded to client workstation from the applicationserver hosting the GeoGraphix network software. During the network installation process, the clientworkstation is loaded with the system files and is setup to run its license from the license server. In Figure 1below, the NT/2000/XP server is serving as the software distribution server for the two client workstations.License ServiceIn a stand-alone installation, the license is loaded on the local workstation. The GGXLIC.dat license file isinstalled to the Program FilesGeoGraphixSecurity folder by default but can be installed any place on thecomputer or network as long as the directory path in the GGRAPHIXB_LICENSE_FILE environmentvariable points to its location.In a network installation, the license file and license service are loaded and running on a computer or serverother than the client workstation. The client workstation is setup to use the license service on the remotelicense server during the network installation process. In Figure 1 below, the NT/2000/XP server isrunning the license service for the two client workstations. UNIX Server Network Appliance NT/2000/XP Server No GGX services No GGX services GGX services running Network Project Storage Network Project Storage Project Homes License services Software distribution point Ethernet NT/2000/XP Client Workstation NT/2000/XP Client Workstation GGX Discovery installed GGX Discovery installed Project Homes Project HomesFigure 1. GeoGraphix network environment. 1-9
  10. 10. GESXplorerProject HomesA project home is a folder in which projects are stored. The folder must be designated as a project homebefore it will show up in the left pane of ProjectExplorer.There are two types of project homes, local and network homes. • A local project home is a project home that is stored on the hard drive of the computer that created it (the host computer). The host computer must be running the GeoGraphix system services. A local project home is created by default during a workstation installation but others can be created after installation. • A network project home is a project home that is not stored on the hard drive of the computer that created it. The project home folder is stored on another non-Windows machine. This type of project home must be created after installation (it cannot be created during installation). The network project homes are hosted on a GeoGraphix client machine, which points to the network storage device such as a Network Appliance server for its project home storage location. The network storage device is not running the GeoGraphix system services therefore client-server mode is not supported; however, the GeoGraphix client workstations can access the projects on these machines through the computer hosting the network home.GeoGraphix provides network homes functionality for clients who need to store GeoGraphix projectson network storage devices such as Network Appliance. These network storage devices will not run theGeoGraphix system and therefore cannot support the Sybase client-server services. For this reason,projects located in network homes may not perform as well as projects hosted on local project homes onWintel machines.GeoGraphix does not support storing network homes on Windows NT/2000/XP computers. If a clientwith a Windows network (Windows workstations and Windows server) wants to store their project onanother computer on the network, they should create the project home as a local home on the networkcomputer and then use remote access to work with projects in that home from any other computer (use theNetwork portion of the tree in the left pane of the ProjectExplorer window).Figure 1 above is a diagram of a hypothetical GeoGraphix network environment. The client workstationsand the NT/2000/XP server are running the GeoGraphix system services. They are also hosting localproject homes. In addition, the NT/2000/XP server is hosting the network project homes. Any of the clientworkstations can access any other client workstation’s or NT/2000/XP server’s local or network projecthomes in client-server mode. The network storage devices such as Network Appliance are only storing theprojects (do not run services or contain any GeoGraphix application system files). 1-10
  11. 11. Chapter 1: IntroductionGeoGraphix ArchitectureWhen GeoGraphix is installed to the workstation, whether as a stand-alone or network license, thesoftware system program and system support files are always installed on the workstation. Additionally, aproject home is automatically created on the local hard drive of the workstation. Understanding thelocation of the system program, system data, and project data files is very helpful for managinginstallations, modifying or adding system data, and navigating between projects.GeoGraphix is a suite of integrated applications designed to provide the user with the maximum amountof flexibility and synergy possible in support of their interpretation workflows. The heart of the integrationis the shared project data. The project data is contained within a Sybase relational database managementsystem (RDBMS) that enables client-server database services and within file-based data structures thatenable rapid data retrieval and support for complex data types.Integration does not stop with just shared data. GeoGraphix possesses the ability to pass interpretationsand communicate events via inter-process communication (IPC) services among the different modules.Shared system data, like well symbols, templates, and color palettes provide for a common look and feelthroughout the system. Figure 2 below is a diagram of the overall GeoGraphix architecture. The arrowsindicate the flow direction of the shared interpretations. GeoGraphix System Seismic Modeling LogM SRUCT SeisVision PRIZM pStaX GESXplorer GeoAtlas WellBase System Data SeisBase Xsection LeaseMap •Well Symbols Landnet •Lithologic Patterns ZoneManager •Title Blocks •Color Palettes Project Data •Defcon2 Formats •North Arrows File-Based Data Sybase Database •Pre-defined Filters •Log Curves •Templates •Log Rasters •Images •Shape Files •2D/3D Data WellBase Data •Time Slices SeisBase Data •Horizons LeaseMap Data •Faults •Attribute Surfaces •Seismic Modeling R3 FilesFigure 2. GeoGraphix Architecture. 1-11
  12. 12. GESXplorerSystem Program FilesThe default installation location is <drive letter>:Program FilesGeoGraphix. This path is the Microsoftrecommend location for program files. Depending on the requirements of the IT environment, this locationcan be modified during the installation process; however the top-level system folder name “GeoGraphix”cannot be changed.Below the GeoGraphix system folder are numerous files and folders that make up the overall GeoGraphixsystem. These files and folders should never be modified or else the system will become unstable and maycorrupt the project data. Figure 3 below illustrates the default system directory structure and the location ofthe system and support folders.Figure 3. Default directory location of the GeoGraphix system. 1-12
  13. 13. Chapter 1: IntroductionSystem Data FilesThe GeoGraphix system data is common data shared by all the projects located on the workstation or fileserver. The system data include: • Well Symbols • Lithology patterns • Title Blocks • Color Palettes • DefCon 2 formats • North Arrows • Pre-defined filters • Templates • Other support dataThe system data folder is located at the same directory level as the default project home location and isdependent on the operating system of the host computer. Unlike with project homes, the system datalocation is mandated and cannot be changed during the installation process. Note: The system data can be relocated manually if the Windows Registry setting for the system data location is modified. Call GeoGraphix Support for assistance with this modification.On Windows NT, the default location is <drive letter>:WINNTProfilesAll UsersApplicationDataGeoGraphixData. Note: Windows NT is not supported by Landmark with R2003.1 or later releases (default location presented for general information only).On Windows 2000 and XP, the default location is <drive letter>:Documents and SettingsAllUsersApplication DataGeoGraphixData. Figure 4 below illustrates the default location of the systemdata folder on Windows 2000 and XP.Figure 4. Default location of the system data folder on Windows 2000 and XP. 1-13
  14. 14. GESXplorerProject Data FilesWhen GeoGraphix software is installed to the workstation, the custom installation wizard prompts theuser for a project home location. The project home is a folder on the local workstation or file server that iscreated by the system and contains the GeoGraphix projects. A project home can only be created on aworkstation or file server that is running the GeoGraphix system services. The project homes and theprojects they contain can be shared among networked computers and file servers. Users can createadditional project homes manually for organizational and security purposes.A GeoGraphix project is a folder located directly beneath a project home folder. The project foldercontains the project data, layers, and support files in a hierarchy of sub-directory folders. The projectfolder is created by the system when the project is created. The name of the project folder is the samename as the project.The name of the default project home is Projects. The default location of the Projects project home isdependent on the operating system of the host computer.On Windows NT, the default location is <drive letter>:WINNTProfilesAll UsersApplicationDataGeoGraphixProjects. Note: Windows NT is not supported by Landmark with R2003.1 or later releases (default location presented for general information only).On Windows 2000 and XP, the default location is <drive letter>:Documents and SettingsAllUsersApplication DataGeoGraphixProjects. Figure 5 below illustrates how the location of the defaultproject home folder and its contained projects appear in Windows 2000. Likewise, Figure 6 belowillustrates how the project home and its contained projects appear in ProjectExplorer.Figure 5. Default location of the project home and projects in Windows 2000 and XP. 1-14
  15. 15. Chapter 1: IntroductionFigure 6. How the project home and project from Figure 5 appear in ProjectExplorer.There can be numerous different types of project files in any given project but two of the most importanttypes of project files are the shared database and layer files.Database FilesAs previously mentioned, GeoGraphix utilizes a Sybase RDBMS database system. A major portion ofthe lease and well data along with some 2D seismic data is stored in a project Sybase data file namedgxdb.db. This database file is located in the project folder. With the advent of version 9.5, the log curvedata has been moved from the external LCB files to the Sybase database (gxdb.db)In addition to the Sybase RDBMS, other project data is contained within file-based databases. These file-based data include the following data types: • Log rasters. • Images • 2D/3D seismic data • Time slices • Horizons • Faults • Attribute surfaces • Seismic modeling R3 filesThese file-based database files are located in various folders within the project folder.Any project may contain a virtually unlimited number of leases, wells, or seismic shotpoints (dependingupon on hardware capabilities). A project may be expanded or enlarged at any time.Areas of interest (fields or prospects, for example) are subsets of a project. An Area of Interest confines thedatabase, and only data within the spatial limits of the Area of Interest will appear in the database. Figure 7illustrates that an Area of Interest is part of a project. 1-15
  16. 16. GESXplorer Project Area of InterestFigure 7. An Area of Interest within a Project.Layer FilesWithin each project or area of interest, GeoGraphix stores graphical representations of the data in a seriesof display layers. A layer can be thought of as an overlay. When making a map, these layers, such aswells, land grid, or contours, can be turned on and off independently. Each layer contains data of only onetype. For example, one layer may display well data while another displays seismic data. Figure 8illustrates that layers can be created on the project level where all the data are used or in the area of interestlevel where only the data within the area of interest will be mapped. Area of Interest Layers Project Area of Interest Project LayersFigure 8. Layers can be created at the Project level or within an Area of Interest.GeoGraphix utilizes ESRI shape files exclusively for all layers generated by the GeoGraphixapplications. Shape files are the native display and attribute file format for the ESRI’s ArcViewapplication. A shape file is not a single file but is actually composed of five different files that worktogether to provide a shape file with its functionality. The five files that make up the shape file structureused by GeoGraphix are the following: • .shp – the file containing the graphic geometry for the layer • .dbf – a dBase format database file that contains the layer attribute data. • .shx – the index file to link the graphic geometry and attributes data together • .shb and .shn – spatial index files for search and display performance 1-16
  17. 17. Chapter 1: IntroductionThe shape files for a layer are contained within a folder that has the same name as the layer. Within thelayer folder are the groups of shapefiles that make up the elements of the layer. Figure 9 below is anexample of a shapefile folder and its component group of shapefiles for a WellBase layer. The name ofthe WellBase layer is Wells and is located within the Working AOI.Figure 9. Location and shapefile components of a WellBase layer.As mentioned above, the .dbf database file is the layer attribute file and contains the data extracted from theproject database when the layer was constructed. The .dbf file is the source of the data that is displayed onthe map when using Map Tips in GeoAtlas. Figure 10 below shows the attribute data from the .dbfdatabase file in the Map Tips Bin for the Wells WellBase layer.Figure 10. WellBase Layer Create/Update dialog.The .dbf file can be opened, viewed, and edited in any application that can access a dBase format databasefile. Care should be taken when modifying the data contained in a .dbf file so that the link to the graphicdata is not broken. 1-17
  18. 18. GESXplorerInterpretation WorkflowThe workflow used in this class is general in nature because every exploratory or development project willhave unique characteristics that require special attention. Each step represented in the workflow representstasks that are extensive and detailed in nature beyond the scope of this course.The workflow presented is a linear workflow, however, the tasks would probably be performed iterativelyin a real-world project.The following workflow defines general tasks that one would expect to be accomplished in a typicalexploration or exploitation project. Each successive task in the succeeding chapters will be highlighted forreference to its overall position within the workflow.Figure 11. Course Interpretation Workflow 1-18
  19. 19. Chapter 1: IntroductionGeologic SettingThis course uses data from the Williston Basin in Richland and Roosevelt counties in eastern Montana.The Sioux Pass Field (approximately 14 miles north of the town of Sidney, Montana – approx. 25N/57E to25N/58E – see Figure 12) was originally drilled on a northwest – southeast trending anticlinal structureidentified from seismic surveys, although the limits of production are both structural and stratigraphic innature.Figure 12. Geographic location of data used in the course 1-19
  20. 20. GESXplorerThe first wildcat well in the area was originally drilled in 1973. Figure 13 is a chart of the typicalstratigraphic sequence for the Williston Basin. Production in the Sioux Pass field is primarily fromOrdovician Red River dolomites below 12,000 feet (see Figure 14), although secondary production is foundin Silurian Interlake dolomites above 12,000 feet (see Figure 15) and Mississippian aged Mission Canyonlimestone at approximately 9100 feet depth.Figure 13. Williston Basin Stratigraphic Column 1-20
  21. 21. Chapter 1: Introduction Red River PerfsFigure 14 – Red River Type Log (perforations approx. 12650-12750 feet) 1-21
  22. 22. GESXplorer Interlake PerfsFigure 14 – Interlake Type Log (perforations approx. 11800-11900 feet).Reference: The Williston Basin – 1980, Copyright 1980, Petroleum Information Corporation, a Subsidiaryof A.C. Neilson Company, pp 125 – 128.Reference: Geology and Geophysics of Sioux Pass Field Richland County, Montana, Clark A. Mueller andRobert S. Klipping, pp 346 – 347. 1-22
  23. 23. Chapter 1: Introduction1-23

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