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Changing educational landscapes


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Changing educational landscapes

  1. 1. The world is changing-what about education?Jorma EnkenbergProfessor (Emeritus)University of Eastern City of Lahti 30.8.2012 1
  2. 2. ”Around the world, the three mostcommon pedagogical practices werehaving students fill out worksheets, work atthe same pace and sequence andanswer tests. The use of ICT was limited.”(Findings in an international survey from 23countries; Pelgrim&Plomb 2008) 2
  3. 3. A. Need forchanges… 3
  4. 4. Features of our educational system Fundamentally reactive (-> continuous tuning, the structures are nopt questioned) Weakly self-regulated (->recurrent ecological problems) Basically rigid, does not sufficiently appreciate the change, experimenting, and research-based development (Although example, teachers have been trained to the same curriculum as the scientists and professors!) 4
  5. 5. Builds its actions upon past work(cf. path dependence)Strives to consolidate its practices(to standardize the operations),when one should see in moredetail, question, action, andimprove performance)Is poorly aware of the results ofthe learning research (Althoughteachers are trained inUniversity!) 5
  6. 6. Unjustified beliefs (which are notcalled into question) All schools / colleges teach the same subjects Pupils grouping is based on students age Some subjects are more important to others Subjects’ learning is easily assessable A comparison of the pupils is an essential part of the learning process All pupils have the same learning needs and interests Politicians’ decisions made about the school / education are based to a large extent on beforementioned unjustified beliefs (Schank, 2011). 6
  7. 7. B. Directions ofchange… 7
  8. 8. "A new culture of learning":The world is changing faster than ever and our skillsets have a shorter lifeUnderstanding play is critical to understandinglearningThe world is getting more connected that everbefore In connected world, mentorship takes onnew importance and meaningChallenges we face are multi-faceted requiringsystems thinking & socio-technical sensibilitiesSkills are important but so are mind sets anddispositionsInnovation is more important than ever – but turns onour ability to cultivate imaginationA new culture of learning needs to leverage social &technical infrastructures in new waysPlay is the basis for cultivating imagination andinnovation(Thomas,D.&Brown,J.S., 2011) 8
  9. 9. Learning in different contexts Learning takes place all the time throughout life (life long). It also occurs widely in different contexts of our lives (Life Wide), and the cultural practices, in which we involve (Life deep). Learning is often most effectively conveyd just by participations in local cultural practices in their own interest and in the direction of the selected point of view.( Banks, J., Ball, P., Gordon, E., Gjutierrez, K., Heath,S., Lee, C., Lee, Y., Mahiri, J., Nasir, N., Valdes, G. &Zhou, M. ,2007 9
  10. 10. Socio-cultural nature of learningOrigin of coming to know and learning is socialand culturally based(Culture-specific ways ofthinking and action models).Coming to know results from both external (bodily-based; observable) and internal (hidden in themind; thinking) actions, interactions, negotiationsof meaning, guided by mediating tools, self-learning, as well as joining into the Community. 10
  11. 11. Teaching objectives"If we want our students and our children toacquire the skills needed for knowledge-based,innovation-centred communities, organizationsand societies, we must invest in learningenvironments in which that kind of expertise isprerequisite."(Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. ,2003) 11
  12. 12. … "If the future of work and living is based on collaboration, creativity, problem identification and framing, and if they challenge us in tolerance, change, and intelligence, which is spread over the different cultures, discilplines and tools, one should promote in education transdisciplinary competencies that will prepare learners to meaningful and productive life in the kind of world. " (Fischer, G. ,2008) 12
  13. 13. Where we should have thefocus?The problem of education is in focusingof teaching on explicit knowledge.Instead of that the focus should be in thetransmission of tacit knowledge in theforms of doing and participation - inappropriating a skillful behaviour.Real, important knowledge and wisdomis tacit, and hidden (embedded).Explaining does not help inunderstanding and mediatingmeaningful knowledge and skill. .Brown, J.S., Adler, R. (2008) 13
  14. 14. ATC21S project (started with a group of more than 250researchers across 60 institutions worldwide whocategorized 21st-century skills internationally into fourbroad categories, funded by Microsoft, Cisco and Intel):• Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision- making and learning (Ways of thinking).• Communication and collaboration (Ways of working).• Information and communications technology (ICT) and information literacy (Tools for working).• Citizenship, life and career, and personal and social responsibility (Skills for living in the world).Learning to collaborate with others and connect throughtechnology are essential skills in a knowledge-basedeconomy. 14
  15. 15. Creativity and imagination are the keyelements of 21st century learning.When we are engaging in a creativeactity, we are taking the familiar andmaking it strange.When we behave imaginatively, we dojust the opposite: we make the strangefamiliar.(Thomas,D.&Brown,J.S., 2011)
  16. 16. Use and process informationBe able to work with othersApply acquired knowledge and skillSpeak foreign languagesUnderstand that the things takelonger to happen than you think andhappen faster than you thought(Lauren Sommers, 2012); reflecting theconsequences of the structure of thesociety and what we now knowabout learning)
  17. 17. When teaching/educationhas been succesful?"Teaching succeeds, if as a result citizens are ableto participate successfully in the global economy,able to synthesize and utilize digital information inits various forms, to communicate this informationin various subjects as well as in information areas,are able to interact with different people, and act asresponsible members of both in their ownorganizations and in other communities to whichthey are joined. "(Weigel, M., James F. and Gardner, H. (2009).Learning: Peering Backward and Looking Forwardin the Digital Era. Internal Journal of Learning andMedia. Vol 1 (1), 1-17) 17
  18. 18. Charasteristics of constantly evolving organisation/educational institution Evolution Complexity Ecology Self-management Bottom-up Growth Self-organisation Experiment Enough good Update Adoption NegotiationMutual understanding 18
  19. 19. ReferencesBanks, J. Au, K. Ball, P. Gordon, E. Gutierrez, K. Rogosff, B., Matusov, E. & White, C. 1996.Heath, S. Lee, C. Lee, Y. Mahiri, J. Nasir, N. Valdes, Models of teaching and learning. Participation inG. Zhou, M. 2007. Learning in and out of school in a community of learners. Kirjassa Olson,diverse environments. Life - long, Life -wide , Life - D.&Torrance, N. (toim.) The handbook ofdeep. The LIFECenter (The Learning in Informal and education and human development. Oxford:Formal Environments Center), Universityof Blackwell.Washington, StanfordUniversity, and SRIInternational. Sawyer, R. K. 2006. Instruction: the new science of learning. Kirjassa Sawyer. R.K. (toim.) The Cambridge handbook of learningBereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. 2003. Learning to sciences. Cambridge university creatively with knowledge. Kirjassa E.DeCorte,L. Verschaffel, N. Enstwistle & J van Merrienboer Schank, R. 2011. Teaching minds. How(toim.) Powerful learning environments: Unravelling cognitive science can save our schools. NY:basic components and dimensions. Oxford: Elsevier Teachers College Press.Science. Tharp, R. G. & Gallimore, R. 1989. RousingBrown, J.S., Adler, R. (2008) Minds on Fire. minds to life: Teaching and learning in socialEDUCAUSE Review. January context. New York: Cambridge University Press.Enkenberg, J., Liljeström, A. & Vartiainen, H. (2008) Thomas, D.&Brown, J.S. (2011) A New CultureAutenttinen oppiminen kehittää identiteettiä, of Learning: Cultivating the Imagination for aOstiensis, 14-17. World of Constant ChangeFischer, G. (2008) Transdisciplinary education and TWeigel, M., James, C. Ja Gardner, H. 2009.collaboration. Education in HCI in Education. Learning: Peering Backward and LookingConbstribution to HCIC-2008. Forward in the Digital Era. Internal Journal of Learning and Media. Vol. 1 (1), 1-17Gee, J.P. 2000. Identity as analytic lens for research Wenger, E. 1998. Communities of practice:in education. Review of Research in Education, Vol. learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge:25, No. 1. Cambridge University Press.Glaser, R. 1984. Education and thinking. The role of Wenger, E., & Snyder, W. 2000. Communitiesknowledge. American psychologist. 32. February of practice: the organizational frontier. Harvard Business Review (January-February 2000), 139-145Illich, I. 1972. Kouluttomaan yhteiskuntaan.(Deschooling society, 1971.) Suomentanut Aarne Whitehead, A.N. 1929. The aims of education.Valpola. Delfiinikirjat. Helsinki: Otava,. NY: MacMillanIlleris, K. 2002. The three dimensions of learning.Contemporary learning theory in the tension fieldbetween the cognitive, the emotional and thesocial. Roskilde University Press. 19