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  • When putting together my LR, I had a different question which was Why do Pacific Island children have higher obesity rates compared to other ethnicities? I realised that this question wasn’t worded correctly and so finding the right question was difficult for me, but when I finally decided the correct design it was easier to word the question to what i wanted to find out.
  • There are large differences in the prevalence of obesity by ethnicity.
    Pacific peoples (65 per cent) and Māori (43 per cent) had significantly higher age-standardised obesity rates than the total population in this age group, while Asians (12 per cent) had a significantly lower rate. The obesity rate of European/Other was (23 per cent).
    Pacific children had the highest rate (26 per cent), followed by Māori children (13 per cent), Asian children (6 per cent) and children of European/Other ethnic groups (5 per cent).
  • Note: Pacific Island people may also have a genetic predisposition and a cultural preference toward being heavy. But more studies need to be done on this.
  • Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims.

    Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality.

    Experimental research:
    involve deliberate intervention or manipulation of variables (independent variables) by the researcher,
    are used to test cause and effect (causal) relationships
    test hypotheses

    Talk about:
    Data collection: using scales, anthropomery, BMI and keeping validity and reliability

  • The primary assumptions of the ethics in social research are:
    Voluntary participation
    No physical or psychological harm to subjects
    PAC: Privacy, anonymity and confidentiality
  • Oral more

    1. 1. Which factor makes a more effective contribution to weight loss in Pacific Islanders eating healthy or physical activity?
    2. 2. Outline 1. Aim of research 2. Why I chose obesity as my topic and why i chose my research question. 3. Why I chose to do quantitative design and the methods which go with experimental research. 4. How I plan to analyse the data collected in the experiment 5. The likely implications this research will have on professional disciplines such as physiotherapy and dietician’s. 6. References
    3. 3. Aim of this research • The purpose of this study is to find out which factor eating healthy or physical activity makes larger contribution to weight loss in pacific islanders. Figure: www.google.co.nz/images
    4. 4. Why did I choose this particular topic and research question? • Personal experiences: - My family comes from a Pacific Island background and I have seen many of my family members struggle with their weight, so finding the right balance between these two factors within this specific ethnic group may decrease the amount of overweight people in this population. • Obesity rates in NZ Pacific Island population: The 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey found that:  One in four adults were obese (26.5%) and that 63.7% of Pacific adults were obese (Ministry of Health, 2007).  Pacific boys and girls were at least 2.5 times more likely to be obese than boys and girls in the total population (Ministry of Health, 2007).
    5. 5. Figure H5.2 Age-standardised prevalence of obesity, population aged 15 years and over, by ethnic group, 1997, 2002/2003 and 2006/2007 Source: Ministry of Health Why did I choose this particular topic and research question continued?
    6. 6. Why did I choose this particular topic and research question continued? • I chose to do this research question because of this alarming number of Pacific Island people who are obese. • Pacific Island people use to have diets of traditional/natural foods such as fresh fruit, fish and vegetables. • But as large amounts of imported and highly refined Western foods became easier to gather and contained low in fiber and high in fat and sugar content. • Lead to increases in weight in Pacific Islanders
    7. 7. Why I chose the specific research design and methods? 1. Quantitative design  This approach was better suited to the type of analysis I wanted to do as I was taking quantifiable data from participants eg. BMI, body fat % and weight & comparing these numbers within treatment groups. 2. Experimental research:  The aim was to determine which factor had a better effect on decreasing weight in Pacific Island people and doing this type of design and method was the ideal way to find the answer to this question.  An experiment in which people get put into Randomised controlled trials (RCT) which involve the random assigning of subjects to a group receiving treatment or to a control group not receiving treatment. It is used to determine the effects of the treatment.  Eg. Group1= healthy eating plan, group2= physical activity programme, group3= control group/normal activity and eating.
    8. 8. Why I chose the specific research design and methods continued? 3. Sampling:  Criteria for selection was random to ensure there was no bias, but also very specific with respect to age, ratio of genders etc, this was so their was a fair representation of population as well as excluding those who had previous injuries and/or had current pathologies. 4. Ethics:  Informed consent  No harm to participants  Right to leave study at any time  Privacy & confidentiality kept at all times
    9. 9. How this study proposes to analyse the data? • bivariate analysis: As focusing on the relationship between variables and explores the statistical relationship between independent and dependant variables (Babbie, 2008). Because the aim of study was to find out the relationship between healthy eating (independent variable) & weight (dependant variable), Physical activity (independent variable) & weight (dependant variable) this type of analysis fitted well with the study.
    10. 10. How this study proposes to analyse the data continued? • The data collected from every 2nd week and at the end will be compared to the initial measurements which will show a trend or relationship between variables. • Eg. Bar graphs, line graphs will be used to show these relationships
    11. 11. The likely implications for professional/discipline practice of the research study ? • This research will give a better understanding of what factors are more effective when looking at obesity in Pacific islanders. • This in effect will allow better management of those who have obesity in the pacific island community who are at high risk of getting other health related diseases such as diabetes and hypertension (Heyward, 2006). • In finding out which factor has a larger effect in decreasing weight we can use this information to focus on prescribing programmes for Pacific Islanders who are overweight and emphasising to patients the evidence found in this research. • This information can be used for this special population to start off with the factor which has a larger effect in weight loss and then progress to having both factors to ultimately decrease their weight to within a normal healthy range.
    12. 12. Healthy weight loss Figure: www.google.co. nz/images
    13. 13. References • http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/indexmh/obesity-key- facts • http://www.socialreport.msd.govt.nz/health/obesity.htm l • Babbie, E. (2008). The basics of social research (4th ed.). Belmont , CA : Thomson/Wadsworth. • Heyward, V. H. (2006). Advanced fitness and exercise prescription. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. • http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Ome-Pop/Pacific- Islanders-Diet-of.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_research