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  1. 1.<br />
  2. 2. INTERACTIONISM<br />Language are learned through interaction among people.<br />What learners need is not necessarily simplification of the linguistic forms but rather an opportunity to interact with other speakers, in ways which lead them to adapt what they are saying until the learner shows signs of understanding.<br />
  3. 3. INTERACTIONISM<br />Social interaction—or, as it is sometimes called, symbolic interaction—refers to the fact that the relationships among two or more groups or human beings are never one-sided, purely physical, or direct. Always there is reciprocal influence, a mutual sense of “otherness.” And always the presence of the “other” has crucial effect in one’s definition of not merely what is external but what is internal. One acquires one’s individual sense of identity from interactions with others beginning in infancy. It is the initial sense<br /><br />
  4. 4. In sociology, a theoretical perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction.<br /><br />
  5. 5. TENETS<br />Interactional modification makes input comprehensible.<br /> Comprehensible input promotes acquisition.<br />Interactional modification promotes acquisition. <br />
  6. 6.<br /><br />
  7. 7. IMPLICATIONS IN TESOL<br />Efforts must be done by teachers to expose learners to authentic input. <br />Teachers could practice with student simulating real situations using the target language.<br />Cooperation could and should be done among students in the learning and practice of the target language.<br /> Teachers could and should bring “problems” to the class for the learners to solve and not provide all the answers.<br />
  8. 8. Zone of proximal development<br /><ul><li>Often abbreviated ZPD, is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help. It is a concept developed by Soviet psychologist and social constructivistLev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934).</li></li></ul><li>Vygotsky stated that a child follows an adult's example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without help or assistance. Vygotsky's often-quoted definition of zone of proximal development presents it asthe distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers.<br />
  9. 9. Vygotsky among other educational professionals believes the role of education to be to provide children with experiences which are in their ZPD, thereby encouraging and advancing their individual learning<br />Berk, L & Winsler, A. (1995). "Vygotsky: His life and works" and "Vygotsky's approach to development". In Scaffolding children's learning: Vygotsky and early childhood learning. Natl. Assoc for Educ. Of Young Children. p. 24<br />
  10. 10. BONJOUR<br />