Case-study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music                    and New Media Art of Barcelona1    1.  ...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                     Art of B...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                    Art of Ba...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                 Art of Barce...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                Art of Barcel...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                 Art of Barce...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                Art of Barcel...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                 Art of Barce...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                Art of Barcel...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                Art of Barcel...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                 Art of Barce...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                 Art of Barce...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                Art of Barcel...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                Art of Barcel...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                Art of Barcel...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media                                Art of Barcel...
Annex 3: Financial Balance, Profit and Loss Statement of Advanced Music, SL (September 2003-December 2009)Financial Balanc...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona                            ...
Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona                            ...
Annex 4: Income, 2003-2004 Sonar ExpensesIncome                                           2003            %         2004  ...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                               Media de BarcelonaAn...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                               Media de BarcelonaAn...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                               Media de BarcelonaAn...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                               Media de BarcelonaAn...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                                Media de BarcelonaA...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                               Media de BarcelonaTr...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                                 Media de Barcelona...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                                 Media de Barcelona...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                                        Media de Ba...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                                  Media de Barcelon...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                                   Media de Barcelo...
Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New                                 Media de Barcelona...
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Sonar, The International Festival Of Advanced Music And New Media Art Of Barcelona Case Study English Dec 12

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Sonar, The International Festival Of Advanced Music And New Media Art Of Barcelona Case Study English Dec 12

  1. 1. Case-study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona1 1. Precedents Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona, has taken place every year, over three days in June in Barcelona, since 1994. In 2011, it celebrated its 18th edition. Sonar is organized by Advanced Music, S.L. (AM), a company founded and co-directed by three friends and lovers of Electronic Music: Sergio Caballero, Enric Palau and Ricard Robles. Sergio and Enric had a musical group in the 80s named Juno. They met Ricard during an interview with the latter, who in those days worked for Ajoblanco2. From this moment on they would meet to listen to and exchange music. This sparked the idea for the festival. They worked on the conceptualization of Sonar for two years, until, in 1994, the first Barcelona International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art emerged. According to Sergio Caballero, “in 1994 there were two types of electronic music here: the electro-acoustic, a closed niche, and on a more popular level, bakalao3. You would go to speak to a sponsor of electronic music and they would tell you “but you play bakalao. It could be that today you play bakalao and it’s super cool” One of the differentiating qualities of the festival was the division of its content into the diurnal activities of Sonar by Day (which take place at the MACBA and CCCB, two centers of contemporary culture in the center of Barcelona) and the nocturnal activities (Sonar by Night), which were originally held in the Pavelló of Mar Bella4. Regarding this initial period, R. Robles notes that Sonar was created “in a time where non- conventional music (alternative or experimental) practically didn’t exist in our country. There were a few small groups out here, which shared no real connection. Also, there was little information on what happened outside of our country on the topic and it was difficult to find. Keep in mind that we’re talking about a period when Internet didn’t exist and when there were just a few information channels that had limited space for such type of offer... Sonar has always been a strange thing open to everyone. It’s specialized but the same time open… From the start, we combined different sectors, which came from their own “churches”, some of which were very closed off from classical or electro-acoustic music, those were closed off from experimental music and electronica, and the latter made the dance music. We created the conditions for a meeting.“ Due to the rapid growth of the festival (from 5,949 spectators in 1994 to 12,237 the following year, to 53,000 in 20005), in 2001, Sonar by Night changed venue, first from Mar1 Case-Study elaborated by Jorge Bernárdez López for his use as teaching material in the course MusicManagement of the Master’s Degree in Arts Management of the Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC). Theauthor would like to offer thanks for the collaboration of: Oriol Amat, Rector of Finance Economics of theUniversitat Pompeu i Fabra; Sara Bernárdez Lai; Ricard Robles and Sílvia Palau, of Advanced Music, and ofEnrique Banús and Consuela Dobrescu, of the UIC; as well as of Cristina Brenea, student of the 10/11 Master’sDegree in Arts Management of the UIC. This Case-Study is available to all participants who wish to use it, withprevious written authorization from the author: (jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es) and making clear reference to him.2 Vanguard and countercultural magazine edited en Barcelona between 1974 y 1999. There is also available a videoon the case (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Px87D5u34ks).3 El Periodico de Catalunya, an important newspaper in the region of Catalonia, 2008.4 Municipal Sports Installation at the beach of Mar Bella.5 Sonar’s attendance record is 91,014 (2002).
  2. 2. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona Bella to the Fira de Barcelona 6 in L’Hospitalet de Llobregat (Fira Gran Via (M2)), a higher capacity location, that despite not being a cultural center, was able to comfortably accommodate the public. At the same time, it guaranteed the technical and sound quality of the artistic activities of the festival. The daytime activities continue in their location at the two cultural centers in the city center. Over the years, Sonar has grown into a “must” for anyone who is interested in what can currently be done with nonconventional music in conjunction with other media. As such, the festival extends its activities beyond the musical sphere and speaks using New Media as yet another creative ingredient. Annex 1 displays the principal indicators of the festival activities from its inception to 2010. 2. Mission For Ricard Robles, “The intention of Sonar in 1994 is still valid. It has the goal of being a meeting point for the public, the artists and the electronic music professionals. The artists that attend have the opportunity to be seen by the professionals of record distribution and tour contracting and make deals for other events. Likewise, people who are not daily consumers of electronic music can come to encounter things that they wouldn’t find anywhere else7”. 3. Advanced Music, SL: The Promoter Behind the Festival Currently, Enric, Ricard, and Sergio are the artistic and executive directors of Sonar and Advanced Music (AM), the promoter behind the festival. Sergio Caballero is the director of corporate image, while Enric Palau is in charge of Programming and Ricard Robles Communication and Press. "Three works well, because we are different. There is a lot of respect between us, even if we scream at each other at times. We have known each other for many years, we know each other very well, and each one has a clearly defined line of responsibility.” AM has a team of 15 full-time employees, that has been tripled on occasion8. As June (the month of the festival) approaches, new auxiliary personnel will be incorporated (not necessarily in the offices, but through subcontracted companies that take responsibility for specific areas). At the end of March, the team is composed of 25 people. Annex 2 relates the areas and the person(s) of the organizing team of Sonar 2009. Given the striking growth of the festival in Barcelona, Advanced Music has become increasingly focused on its operation and that of its “children” (such as Sonar Kids or the increasingly frequent international events under the sonar brand that are organized in diverse cities across three continents), abandoning other activity areas that were important in the early years of the partnership. ”It has been a long time since we’ve being promoters of isolated concerts, although we continue working with Jeff Mills, Laurent Garnier and other artists: we act as a local agency in Spain, but we’re performance organizers. It is small part of our business, we do it more for friendships or affinity”, Robles declares. Annex 3 collects the financial statements of Advanced Music, SL between 2003 and 2009.6 Barcelona Conference Centre.7 Ricard Robles, in ADN (free newspaper), 2008.8 46 persons in 2008. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 2
  3. 3. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona Financing of SonarIn 2010, the budgeted income of Sonar was 4,445,300.14€, primarily funded by Self-Financing (3,485,574.30 €, or 78.4% of the total), and the rest by external sources: Supportfrom Public institutions (461,525.80 €, or 10,4%) and Sponsorship (498,200.00 €, or11.2%). As you can see in the P&L of the 2003 and 2004 editions, the festival evengenerated profits (Annex 4).Ricard Robles believes that the search for profit does not pervert the cultural product. “It isprecisely the opposite”, he declares, “If you really want to be independent, you must do sofrom an economic standpoint. If you need public subsidies to work, and I do not deny that itcan help you build a product of extraordinary cultural significance, but you will always belimited by state aid that may or may not be available. And this does not mean rejectingpublic support, provided that such funding allows you to be able to build a better, andwithout a doubt bigger, product. But we start from the premise that we live and work thanksto the public, and that we generate our own income in effort to be able to allow a realdimension of the event. And from that point, we should be able to establish qualitystandards that attract the public by the intrinsic value of our work, not by the budget. Butindependence first comes through economic independence”. Robles continues hisexplanation of the meaning of economic independence: “we must be able to live off whatwe like to do. But, this is a premise that can be applied to the festival or any other activitythat arises in a particular vocation. It makes no sense not to be able to live off the festival.Sonar cannot depend solely on subsidies or the success we may have with sponsors. It isan important part of this balance, but the main premise is that whatever we do be theinterest of the public and that they be willing to buy the tickets. With these three ingredients(grants, sponsorship and public) we do such festival that people expect from Sonar. That is,we perform as the best electronic music festival possible through the range of the electronicterm, which is not a rigid discipline, not to mention the spirit of innovation that the vastmajority of people expect to see in each year’s festival content.”4. The competitionRegarding the proliferation of music festivals in Spain9, Robles expressed in 2008 that: “Atthis moment in time, the quality supply of festivals does not take priority. They are makingup excuses to create festivals, like tourism. For this reason the artists are being paid wellabove market rates, and this impacts the price of tickets. I think there will be a re-adjustment, many festivals will change, others will disappear, but the best will remain10. Ihope that Sonar survives because it is a festival with personality; it has an attitude thatjustifies its continued existence, a trajectory and proven quality. The supposed war iscentered in Rock, and Sonar is well removed from that. There could be a moment of conflictover a concrete artist that interest us and that other festivals also want, but nothing more.The rest of our content, I mean 95%, is not susceptible to conflict. The impossible namesend up being the object of greed of the festivals. Any big artist will have a million offers atany given time asking them to return to the stage. I prefer the sensation of bringingsomething incipient and later realizing that I made a discovery”.9 Primavera Sound, Cruïlla de Cultures or the Concerts del Poble Espanyol, all in Barcelona, or Rock in Ríoand FestiMad 2M in Madrid, FIB in Benicàssim (Castellón), Monegros Desert Festival (Huesca), SOS Festival(Murcia) and BBK Live Festival (Bilbao). In June 2011, Live Nation, the worlds leading live entertainmentcompany) will launch a new festival in Madrid (Dcode Festival).10 In fact, two festivals -Dr Loft 05:00 Festival (there was only one edition) and Summercase (celebrated inBarcelona and Madrid simultaneously)- ended in 2008. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 3
  4. 4. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of BarcelonaDespite the spectacular increase in music festivals in Spain, the United Kingdom continuesbeing the global country of reference in this respect. The promoter Vince Power, which hasorganized large music festivals in the U.K., like those of Glastonbury, Reading, Fleadh andLeeds, and that is the current organizer of FIB11, believes that: “Spain has nothing to learnfrom the U.K. in the area of festivals. Today, the world is very small and people hear thingsvery quickly. When an artist is known in the U.S. or U.K., they become known all overEurope, and also in Spain. Any group from any part of the world can be in the U.K. aseasily as in Benicàssim12".5. The audience of SonarAccording to Sergio Caballero, “there is a well defined public for Sonar. Sonar is a differentevent and people come to discover. It isn’t a festival of big names, but it is a way to spendthree days visiting Barcelona, seeing concerts and the city, like being on vacation”.According to results of a market research conducted by the festival in 2004, the profile ofthe Sonar visitor is of a man (61% of the total) between 25 and 30 years old (40%) with auniversity education (56%) and an average salary of 900 € per month. His profession isrelated with new technologies (14%) and music (10%). He comes from Spain (59%),although also from other countries, principally European (33% of the total). Of these, 39% isfrom the U.K. and 14% from France. The average spending of a Sonar visitor is 87,89Euros per day, not including transport.In its two most recent editions, Sonar had the following attendance: 2010 2009 Dif 10-09 Dif %Sonar by Day (CCCB + Museo Arte Contemp. + Auditori) 36.682 35.429 1.253 3,54%Sonar by Night (Fira Gran Via (M2) + Teatre Grec13) 52.294 39.052 13.242 33,91%Total Sonar 88.976 74.481 14.495 19,46%11 Festival Internacional de Benicàssim, Indie music festival celebrated every July in the costal location ofCastellón in Eastern Spain.12 El Mundo newspaper, Valencia edition (11 April 2011).13 Only in 2010. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 4
  5. 5. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona6. Sonar LocationsThe locations where Sonar takes place are, to its co-directors, one of the differentiatingelements of the festival, especially those situated in the center of the city. Along withSonar’s own spaces, the other cultural centres and festivals of Barcelona contribute byhosting other Sonar activities. Another differentiating element is the daytime programmingof part of the activities (Sonar by Day). The rest (Sonar By Night), as is habitual in themajority of festivals, take place at night in the Fira de Barcelona. Sonar by DayThe daytime activities of Sonar are grouped into Sonar by Day, which are carried out in thetwo cultural centers in the center of the city: the CCCB and the Museum of contemporaryArt of Barcelona. The artistic activities include: Concerts, DJs and VJs Exhibitions, Audiovisual Content.Additionally there is SonarPro, a professional market that attracts the agents of theelectronic music industry.-The concerts and the DJ & VJs sessions are split among four stages: SonarHall,SonarVillage, SonarComplex and SonarDome.-SonarMàtica is an exhibition space dedicated to New Media art. In order to select thepieces that make up SonarMàtica the aspects of interactivity and entertainment are takeninto consideration. Generally they are themed exhibition, which seek not only artistic andtechnological relevance (above all, the link between the on and the other: the creation andthe tools with which the work is carried out), but they should be non-contemplativeactivities. Robles declares that: “We don’t want and exposition where you pass through andobserve, but and exposition where you pass through and touch, or climb, or go inside,where the public is acting, that it be a friendly, fun, and above all, surprising technology.This is a premise for, in the future, developing projects that revolve around the world of theportrait (as in the case of this year [2011]) or around robotics (2010), with the world ofmagic, the history of film… In a way that there are slogans that are applied to an artisticconcept in which pieces of a diverse nature can appear, even if they are not related to themusical part.” SonarMàtica 2010 was composed of 17 works.-Finally, the audiovisual part of Sonar, SonarCinema, is generally pieces of a documentarycharacter that aim for the festival to have a communicative effect, again, through what theyproject. In 2010 5 titles were shown at SonarCinema. Sonar by Night.The Sonar activities (concerts and DJ sessions, principally) that are programmed for after10pm and that extend into the early hours of the morning have taken place in theinstallations of the Feria de Barcelona in L’Hospitalet (Fira 2) since 2001. That year, it wasnecessary to encounter a larger venue for Sonar by Night due to the fact that the festivalhad outgrown the Pavelló de la Mar Bella, the municipal sports installation in front of thebeach of the same name. The concerts and DJ sessions of Sonar by Night take place inthree stages: SonarClub, SonarLab and SonarPub. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 5
  6. 6. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of BarcelonaNevertheless, a few concerts are held in collaboration with other spaces and events of thecity, such as those from L’Auditori14 and el Teatre Grec (the latter, among the activities ofthe Barcelona Summer Festival-Grec 2010 y 2011).7. Sonar artistic programmingSonar’s artistic content combines established artists with hundreds of emerging artists andDJs who represent the newest developments in music and new media.Enric Palau is in charge of the artistic programming. The roster of expositions andaudiovisuals is managed by a larger team that includes Enric, Sergio Caballero andexternal consultants. However, it always ends with one of the festival directors giving theirfinal blessing to the content. Regarding the selection of the creators that participate inSonar, Palau attests that “We work constantly to bring top international figures, but alsoeach year a brand new talent that has earned the appreciation of our public, that has theconfidence in us to come and display their musical talent or their expositional talent, andoften with the profile of a peculiar artist because an artist that invents musical and artisticdiscourses and invents the instrument they are going to use, be it software or a big band ofjazz, like in the case of Matthew Hervert, or an old production line of a cookie factoryconverted into a musical instrument like Cabo San Roque did in the L’Auditori in 2010. Inthis respect the profile that we support and hope to present at our festival is that of an artistin the middle ground between a pure creator and inventor, be it one person or acollaboration.”15“Sonar combines many musical activities with other forms of vanguard art. Each has itsspace, and the best is that there be a natural combination. I believe that the spaces we’vecreated meet this standard. For example, during the day there is more cultural equipmentdedicated to expository and divulgatory activities, but the musical spaces stillpredominate16”. Elaboration of the artistic programmingSonar’s artistic team follows what occurs in electronic art across the globe. In this vein, theytravel and visit other events and places where things of interest are happening. Moreover,there is a team of consultants, both local and external, who often serve as collectors ofinformation.On top of what is uncovered by the Sonar team, Ricard Robles adds other sources ofinformation with which he creates the year’s roster: “Also, there are the inputs from theartists that are interested in us knowing their work for programming purposes. There is alsothe reality of the market: the artists that are in Sonar that can also be in other events. In thisaspect, we go into dynamics of agents, management, timing, routing … [we begin] 9months before because, as we know, there are always those 2 or 3 headlining artists thatare going on tour next year where you have to present your proposal and that they includeyou in this auction and hope that the offer you make fits into their schedule; and above all,that their road schedule, allows them to end up to the area of Europe where you are inJune. Such issues determine in 80% of the cases whether or not the big artist could be14 Musical space managed by a consortium formed by the Barcelona City Hall and the Catalonian governmentthat is made up of five rooms, headquarters of the OBC (Barcelona City and Catalonian National Orchestra), inwhich you can also find ESMUC (Graduate School of Music of Catalonia) and the Museum of Music.15 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pPJjdXpYao (2010).16 Ricard Robles, in ADN (free newspaper), 2008. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 6
  7. 7. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelonapresent or not in the festivals. And that really is a lottery in which you are waiting for 3, 4 or5 months. Yes, it’s true that there are many artists, that because they have a new project orfor a strategic reason that might seem important that they approach the festival well inadvance and usually tell us: "we would like to be in the festival next year because we’re aregoing to present a new show. That has been the case Kraftwerk, Chemical Brothers,Justice, Bjork - including other big artists due to the idiosyncrasies, type of public andindustry target of the festival that it seems relevant [to these artists] that Sonar be in theircalendars as a stop over point”. Local and emerging artistsOne of the most relevant functions of the festival is its role as a platform for globaldissemination of both new and local creation. With respect to the proportions of emergingand established performers on the one hand, and for local and international artists on theother, Robles articulates that: “There is no standard, but if there are 120 performances,there’d be around 10 to 12 well-known artists and the rest being new talent. New talent areartists that have a history of at least one or two years’ work, with one or two records on themarket. Which is to say: less than 10% represent established artists and the rest representemerging talent. And, within these artists, we feel a strong importance as much as withSonar by Day as well as with Sonar by Night that there is a presence of local talent: bothSpanish and Catalan artists should have the opportunity to show what they are doing to therest of the world. Whereupon the day program about 25-30% of artists may be Spanish;and at night, such figure is lower than this percent; but we’d say at the same time that the:“Whos Who?” in music from this country has to be present in the festival.” Profitable and non-profitable artistsRobles explains that “In the end, there are artists who are more profitable than others. Thebulk of the artists performing at Sonar are not profitable, because if they acted in a townhall any day of the week outside the scope of Sonar, its market share, their attractiveness,would be very small. But under the cover of Sonar everything acquires a special dimension.The event itself generates its own interest. Our task is that whats inside is interesting, evenif it’s not known. There are artists who are expensive but have the ability to energize thepublic and end up being profitable. But if we isolate a case by case would not beeconomically profitable. So this stew is always brewing and is based on the credibility ofwhat they show, beyond the specific profitability of each part.”“In the end, we handle a huge volume of information that ends up becoming a hundred-oddperformances representing 10-15% of all that may be on the table to be able to schedule“,concludes Robles.In 2010, Sonar as a whole incorporated 561 artists proceeding from 23 countries, for a totalof 135 concerts, DJ and VJ sessions. Criteria for the selection of non-musical contentThe non-musical content is concentrated in the daytime in three areas: the expositional(SonarMàtica), an area dedicated to the world of audiovisual (SonarCinema) and an areaoriented towards networking and the work of the professionals that come to Barcelonaduring this week to do business within the brand of the festival (SonarPro).SonarMàtica and SonarCinema are curatorial works, which is to say that there are a seriesof responsible persons who define the content of the year’s exhibition or the programmingof audiovisual material. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 7
  8. 8. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of BarcelonaSonarPro is a world on its own: Sonar offers a complete series of resources to allowaccredited professionals to contact and network amongst themselves. In this case there areno artistic criteria.8. Promotion and corporate image: how the Sonar festival is marketed.A central element of the promotion of Sonar is its corporate image. In 2008, for example,the image of Sonar was predominantly videographic and spread over the Internet. Sevenfilms of one minute duration were made in the style of home videos. The corporate image ofSonar, with which the festival is advertised each year, in that edition opted for sevenhybrids of animals and men “genetically created” –joked Sergio Caballero– “in a geneticengineering lab in China”17.These videos were uploaded in stages, in the style of viral marketing, on the phantomwebsite http://www.b1158.cn/b1158.html and on Youtube, without establishing any link withthe Sonar festival. The result was spectacular: in just two days 180,000 visits werereached, which was good for #13 in the ranking of “Most Viewed” of Youtube and #3 in thearea of Science and Technology.This type of campaign is known by way of “viral marketing”, an advertising strategy thatconsists of uploading images on the Internet without giving any information about what theimages are referring to. In this case, the viral marketing was done on Myspace andgathered close to 75,000 visits.As to the importance of such an innovative image to promote a music festival, Roblesstates that “The image is one of the ingredients of communication. It has to be somethingthat provokes interest or unintended controversy. It [the image] has to be intended as anartistic masterpiece, a part of creation from which something like this year’s can be derived:we do a promotion of a sale, in this case the festival itself, or it has a characteristic which ispurely plastic, always trying to get out of the usual tools that the world of music uses tocommunicate. Such could be carried out in a series of names that are as big as possible orany item associated with a pop iconography or culturally close to the actual music. In thebeginning, we thought that we would never be interested in working with an iconographyrelated to the electronic or virtual worlds or with these aesthetics, which seem ugly. Thus,Sergio has his own personal battle every year to seek which idea is the leivmotiv fromwhich to develop a campaign. Not just any idea that is shocking or surprising or artisticallybeautiful has a practical application in a campaign that needs to work with all graphicmedia. It is an artistic process conditioned by communication needs of the festival thatseeks the self-interest of the piece to be developed; and then the application (of the finalproduct) throughout those sectors that pertain to the festival”.17 See Annex 5. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 8
  9. 9. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona9. SonarPro: an electronic music market for professionalsIn addition to the artistic activities, during Sonar by Day there is also SonarPro, an eventdesigned for professionals of electronic music.SonarPro, which defines itself as: “the point of encounter for professionals from the musicindustry and the applied technologies of audiovisual creation and new media”, was able tocount upon, in this 2010 edition, the participation of more than 2,030 accreditedprofessionals from 724 companies from 38 countries. In the typology of the accreditedprofessionals, the following were found: - Agents and representatives of national and international artists. - Promoters and organizers of festivals, and musical and cultural events. - Professionals from the record companies, both independent companies and multinationals, and record stores. - Professionals from editorial and record distribution companies. - Makers, importers and distributors of computer software and hardware. - Persons responsible for areas of culture and shows from public institutions. - Owners and promoters of discotheques, concert halls and shows in general. - Teaching staff from centers of musical education. - General press and specialized press in areas of music, culture and technology. - Professional in marketing, advertising and fashion. - Graphic and New Media designers.The table below displays the participation in SonarPro in recent editions: 2003 2005 2007 2009 2010- Professionals 1.623 1.818 1.998 1.200 2.030- Companies 665 716 662 530 724- Nationalities 29 32 39 35 38The accredited professionals of SonarPro are spread between the professional forum(Forum Pro) and the Demo Area, where they attend masterclasses, conferences anddemonstrations, network and receive expert assessment. In the Annex 6 the details of theactivities of SonarPro are shown, while Annex 7 shows the attendance by nationality.10. New markets (exportation) and new products (Sonar Kids) Exportation and internationalization of the Sonar ModelThe activities of Sonar have been exported to other cities, such as London (Sounds ofSonar, A Taste of Sonar), New York, Washington and Tokyo (SonarSound), Madrid(Hypersounds), and Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, Seoul and Frankfurt. Since 2010, AdvancedMusic organizes a parallel Sonar festival (although only for two days) in the northwest ofthe Iberian peninsula, in the city of A Coruña, called Sonar Galicia. -SonarSound TokyoThe international route of the festival was born in 2002 “almost by luck, when we had ourfirst experience outside Barcelona, our most familiar place. The moving around of the eventwas came about as a result of invitations from different promoters who would like tosomehow reproduce the essence or content of Sonar in their own city. It has been a longtime, [since we have received] invitations to participate in other events or as part of a cycleof activities, which looks for a space occupied by Sonar”, says Ricard Robles. Beyond the Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 9
  10. 10. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelonafestival itself, which began to develop its own lines of business abroad, It] responds to astrategy that prioritizes the public relations side, such as the case in London, where in onenight, an annual event energizes a public to subsequently attend the festival in Barcelonaor gather industry professionals that are going to be talking about Sonar for a while -generating positive public opinion to get people to come to Barcelona”.The first attempt to export Sonar was in Tokyo. “SonarSound Tokyo was an invitation toparticipate in a cycle of activities which then became a festival with its own funding with alocal partner and an ambition to occupy a market share in the country. The first phase wasdone in 2002, 2004 and 2006. There was a growth crisis, in which the festival was full (weare talking about 6,000 people), and the local partner got more frightened than we did. Weare now back in 2011, in circumstances that have not been the most favourable, but withthe intention to establish an annual event in Tokyo as well. There will be more experienceslike this. Yes, we would like to develop other festivals in other parts of the world and are inthe process.”“Tokyo SonarSound will take place during two days, in 2011: a Saturday (from 8pm to 9am)and Sunday (from 3pm to 11-12pm). There will be four spaces: three music, and oneaudiovisual. The festival will evolve, in the future, in response to the market and our abilityto insert ourselves into the Japanese market. It is a festival in a spirit of belonging, in closecollaboration with a Japanese partner. You must also keep in mind, especially in Japan,that the local market is quite important, and that the presence of Japanese artists has to bevery noticeable, although it is true that Japan is a market with a high absorption capacity,interested and anxious for everything that comes from outside, 80% of consumption is fromJapanese products. So you have to land there, taking into account what the rules of thegame are; and, it is essential to work with someone who is Japanese that knows thatmarket”.Ricard Robles explains the role of the local partner in SonarSound Tokyo: “The localpartner is instrumental in defining artistic event in Barcelona how to adapt the reference (itis to be a festival that reflects the essence of Barcelona) but then has to be qualified andseek space for local artists. Then there are the aspects of production, logistics, local media... We need to know the rules of each country, the right suppliers, its own corporate culture,the tempos of communication, an appropriate message for each of the media or sectors inwhich it seeks to influence. It is a 50/50: it is necessary to have a local partner involved invirtually all aspects of the festival.”Regarding the role and contribution of Sonar Barcelona toward SonarSound Tokyo, Roblesdeclares that Sonar provides the seal of quality, art direction, definition of format, type ofevent, sound level standards and technical equipment as well as the actual campaign itself,(provided that the image can be adapted). Sonar Barcelona has its own DNA that istransferred and translated into each of the contexts, sometimes in an almost identicalreproduction. But, the spirit of the event in Barcelona in terms of art direction and how thefinal product will be presented before the public is rootedfrom Barcelona.“As for the weight of the internationalization on the model of sonar in the future, Roblesobserves that “We hope that it gets bigger and bigger. From the point of view of tehbusiness, we aspire to continue to grow the share of international business over the nextfew years. I won’t dare claim a percentage, but if we are aspiring for our investments –inSonarKids and events abroad– to bring returns and become a notable volume of thebusiness of AM”. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 10
  11. 11. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona -SonarGaliciaIn 2010, the directors of Sonar accepted an invitation from the Xunta18 to organize a Sonarfestival (although with a two-days duration) in La Coruña, a region of Galicia in the extremenorthwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Sonar Galicia was born as a sibling festival to theoriginal one in Barcelona, as they take place over the same dates. In this regard, Roblesmanifests: “In this case, we were dependant on public funding, which allowed us thechance to organize the festival there simultaneously to that of Barcelona. And, we weregranted continuity as long as the festival runs [financially] well. That was our onlycompromise and the turn out was amazingly successful; not only from an organization orprofit standpoint, but also the competitive position it allowed us in terms of tapping into newterritory and the ability to offer two performing dates to the artists. Based on theextraordinary outcome of Sonar Galicia, in 2010, we are now looking into the feasibility planand now it is a project officially positioned from here as a private initiative. There is animportant contribution from the regional government to help in the consolidation, with theaim of which is a fixed event in the calendar of A Coruña parallel to Barcelona”.The Galician Sonar event attracted almost 14 thousand people in 2010.”This year, withsimilar figures, we feel that we are moving in a good direction”. SonarKids: an investment in the family segmentAdded to the musical expositional and audiovisual content of Sonar, there is, since 2009, anew festival called SonarKids (SK), which is aimed at families. Its content includes concertsDJ sessions, beatboxing and hip hop classes, workshops of skateboarding, fingerskate,drawing, architecture and sewing.Enric Palau explains how the idea of creating a festival for families began: Sonar has astrong suite in visual and interactive arts. It was groundbreaking in its moment because ofthe placement of Sonar by Day in museum facilities, where it continues to this day. In thisexpositive part, we began to see more families and children participating in a naturalmanner with the more interactive elements. The fact that many of us now have children ofour own, and our public has grown up and has had children, would explain this. We havehad the life experience that we want to share with our children. It was this, that led us, fouryears ago, to think about an event formatted for childrenAccording to R. Robles, “SK was born with the same spirit as Sonar, at the time. Younotice that throughout the years, part of the team grows, and have children; and thus, onebegins to have views that didn’t exist 18 years ago. From this observation from the teamitself - including people that you interact with on a daily basis and from the general public,you realize that the market of leisure and entertainment for families has existed for agesand that there is not so much really going on. There are well-defined standards inmainstream entertainment proposals, Hollywood, grand factories [theme parks] on the onehand and the other, a certain type of smaller offer, more fragile, which seems quite similarto what I raised upon back when was a child, and I was bored. So, is there room for a newtype of family, with parents who have a cultural background or interest in the consumptionof culture and entertainment conditioned by those from their generation, and that would liketo convey to their own children a set of values that, when looking at the market, are non-existent. We are in a phase of opening up a space, in which family entertainment needs notbe the resignation of parents watching how their children are taught values or aesthetics inwhich they do not share; but they [the parents] go along as there is no other alternativebesides staying with the child(ren) at home all day. We are provoking creators that work foradult audiences to develop ideas and experiences that are interesting to both children and18 La Xunta is the name of the regional government of Galicia. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 11
  12. 12. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelonaparents, because what is sought is not to create a huge nursery, but a place to participateand have fun with the whole family”.In 2010, Enric Palau noted that: “We wanted to create a space with affinity between parentsand children within the content, and that can also provide the children a creative space isnatural, but without a doubt different from what they receive in school. In this sense, I amreferring to all of the technological aspects, where we are in the presence of a generationthat was born with technology in their hands (not mine for whom the internet appeared inthe 90s). My children were born with video game consoles, ADSL at home, with PCs, andthe manner in which they relate to technology is innate. But at the moment of creation, theirday-to-day in school is not sufficiently developed and the creative space they receive inschool isn’t either”.The first edition of SonarKids, with a duration of just one day, was held in 2009 and countedthe participation of more than 5,320 people, including parents and children. In 2010, theevent was expanded to two days and the participation was 6,565 visitors19 (9,000 wereexpected), concentrated on the weekend prior to the main festival. In 2011, however,SonarKids will once again take place in a single day on the Sunday of the weekend of themain festival. Ricard Robles remarks: we have not found the right formula for the SK, weare investigating format, the pros and cons of content in how to present them. It is a job thatwill take us some time, as happened with Sonar at the time. You are born with an idea inwhich you have to be adapting and correcting based in terms of your own experience and[also be conscious] on how demand has conditioned you, whether a revolution is possibleor if we have to keep resigned to a certain type of imagery, message with the idea thatchildren can not enjoy other types of cultural activities.“The Annex 8 includes a link to the presentation of SonarKids in 2010.10. The FutureRicard Robles comments about the challenges for the future of Sonar: ”What is on the mapright now is what we want to continue deepening in the coming years. The Barcelonafestival does not have to be bigger, nor does it have to evolve into something else. It is thefestival of reference. Size and configuration are always issues to improve each year, but asubstantial change is not on the map. The immediate challenges are to continueresearching the better opportunities for SK - trying that what we have cut out for a festivalcan make its own way always having the reference of its “father” and to develop itsactivities in terms of what the demand requires; And, try to consolidate the abroad events.Tokyo is one and one project in Latin America (which we hope to announce soon) we areconfident of achieving other stable branches of the festival. Further down the line, we’d liketo try to recover the Chicago festival, which was an exciting first step, and due to variouscomplications we could not arrive on time for 2010; but it is one of the destinations to whichwe would like to establish regularly”.“There still remain lots to be done because you cannot think that 18 years of festivalguarantee 18 more. It is very expensive to create a brand or the reputation of that brandand so easy to lose. This is extremely delicate, not only in the world of festivals: it canhappen to a footballer, an actor, a filmmaker, ... there is very thin line between the status ofan untouchable brand or values beyond reproach and suddenly youre on the other sidewithout knowing what went wrong. So for what is still left for Sonar to do with the public,19 http://www.sonarkids.com/es/festivales/barcelona-12-y-13-de-junio-2010/intro. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 12
  13. 13. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelonascene, and the sector depends on what happens every year. Our job is to continueproviding the best possible festival yet, each year. And, if we are able to develop SK, andother events with the same spirit with a saying that goes: "do not sleep, because what youhave doesn’t last until eternity. It is a great value to have; and therefore, be careful so thatthe run can be long, fun, and exciting”Asked if Sonar was truly for sale, as was announced by the corporate image of Sonar 2011(Annex 9), Ricard Robles clarifies: ”Everything is for sale. We will not say that Sonar is notfor sale and that this is a performance. This is a calculated operation from the start to finish;but we have to be consistent that when we launch such message that things can happen.And what happens will be part of this adventure. So, if someone calls with the willingness tobuy, we wouldn’t say: "No, you’re joking". If you have something interesting to explain, youwill be listened to, of course” Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 13
  14. 14. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of BarcelonaQuestions1. In your opinion, are the goals of Sonar being met? How have their goals evolved/changed in the past few runs of the festival?2. From an artistic point of view, what has been the greatest success of Sonar? What advantages/disadvantages are there in the festivals program?3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the politics of expansion of Sonar? Threats and opportunities?4. How would you explain the fall of profits of Sonar between 2003 and 2004?5. What are the major strategies of promotion? How is it related to the profile of the visitor?6. What vision of Sonar do you have for the future? Give your answer with respect to the content (type of cultural activity, format), cities and sectors?7. Would you buy the Sonar / Advanced Music of 2009 or would you have preferred to do it in another year? What price are you willing to pay?8. As a cultural manager, what conclusions do you draw of Sonars experience?Justify your responses. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 14
  15. 15. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of BarcelonaAnnex 1: The Evolution of Sonar (from 1994-2010) Año: Year Espectadores: Spectators Visitas www.sonar.es: Visits to www.sonar.es Artistas participantes: Participating artists Coste del festival: Festival cost Acreditados: Professionals Países representados: Countries SonarPro Entidades participantes: SonarPro-Participating entities Medios nacionales: Spanish Media Medio internacionales: International Media Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 15
  16. 16. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of BarcelonaAnnex 2: Sonar Team 2009EXECUTIVE AND ARTISTIC DIRECTIONEnric PalauSergio CaballeroRicard RoblesDIRECTOR OF OPERATIONSVentura BarbaPRODUCTIONLourdes EspañolDIRECTOR OF FINANCESGemma NavarroBOOK KEEPING AND TICKETINGSílvia PalauSPONSORSDiana SimónAlessio CampoARTISTS CONTRACTSMikaël BenhamouVir RousseCristina VilaCOMMUNICATIONDolo HuguetPRESSGeorgia TagliettiGustavo SánchezSonarPRO and RRPPAstrid RousseADMISNISTRATIONSoraya SubiranaLOGÍSTICSLaura VilaTECHNICAL DIRECTIONPedri GonzálezSergi MerinoJordi PicazosGRAPHIC DESIGNAurelio SánchezWEB MASTERLluís AlegreEXHIBITION SPACESAdvanced MusicÓscar Abril AscasoSECRETARYShar Cunningham Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 16
  17. 17. Annex 3: Financial Balance, Profit and Loss Statement of Advanced Music, SL (September 2003-December 2009)Financial Balance 31/12/2009 % 09 31/12/2008 % 08 31/12/2007 % 07 31/12/2006 % 06 31/12/2005 31/12/2004 % 04 09 - 04 30/09/2003 % 03Fixed assets 707.762 28,5% 763.426 31,5% 1.105.944 32,5% 789.022 29,3% 322.611 346.395 17,7% 361.367 283.129 14,5% Intangible assets 32.284 1,3% 56.767 2,3% 463.012 13,6% 473.953 17,6% 33.842 33.617 1,7% -1.333 11.992 0,6% Tangible assets 672.376 27,1% 698.425 28,8% 314.531 9,2% 265.471 9,9% 242.183 254.227 13,0% 418.149 248.749 12,7% Other fixed assets 3.102 0,1% 8.234 0,3% 328.401 9,6% 49.598 1,8% 46.586 58.551 3,0% -55.449 22.388 1,1%Current assets 1.776.689 71,5% 1.662.115 68,5% 2.301.158 67,5% 1.902.169 70,7% 1.646.839 1.605.198 82,3% 171.491 1.573.140 80,6% Inventory 186.288 7,5% 198.075 8,2% 147.470 4,3% 123.744 4,6% 131.600 97.781 5,0% 88.507 36.781 1,9% Receivables 177.192 7,1% 296.380 12,2% 794.993 23,3% 345.403 12,8% 118.260 352.350 18,1% -175.158 245.983 12,6% Other liquid assets 1.413.210 56,9% 1.167.660 48,1% 1.358.695 39,9% 1.433.022 53,2% 1.396.979 1.155.067 59,2% 258.143 1.290.376 66,1% Cash 534.039 21,5% 712.745 29,4% 110.114 3,2% 1.338.742 49,7% 1.357.565 1.144.299 58,6% -610.260 1.271.951 65,2%Total assets 2.484.451 100,0% 2.425.541 100,0% 3.407.102 100,0% 2.691.190 100,0% 1.969.451 1.951.593 100,0% 532.858 1.856.268 95,1%Equity 1.918.531 77,2% 1.771.534 73,0% 2.134.717 62,7% 1.643.462 61,1% 1.484.635 1.235.124 63,3% 683.407 842.249 43,2% Subscribed capital/Capital stock 48.080 1,9% 48.080 2,0% 48.080 1,4% 48.080 1,8% 48.080 48.080 2,5% 48.080 2,5% Other capital/equity 1.870.451 75,3% 1.723.454 71,1% 2.086.637 61,2% 1.595.382 59,3% 1.436.555 1.187.044 60,8% 683.407 794.169 40,7%Fixed liabilities 267.445 10,8% 306.060 12,6% 344.546 10,1% 445.217 16,5% 145.195 156.564 8,0% 110.881 170.139 8,7% L. P. Accounts payable 210.331 8,5% 252.299 10,4% n.d. 445.217 16,5% 145.195 156.564 8,0% 53.767 170.139 8,7% Other fixed liabilities 57.114 2,3% 53.761 2,2% n.d. n.d. 0,0% n.d. n.d. n.d. Supply/Provisions n.d. n.d. 0,0% n.d. n.d. 0,0% n.d. n.d. n.d. 298.475 12,0% 347.947 14,3% 927.838 27,2% 602.512 22,4% 339.620 559.906 28,7% -261.431 843.881 43,2%Liquid Liabilities 56.626 2,3% 38.672 1,6% n.d. n.d. 0,0% n.d. n.d. n.d. Financial debt n.d. n.d. 0,0% n.d. n.d. 0,0% n.d. n.d. n.d. Trade creditors/accounts payable
  18. 18. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona 241.849 9,7% 309.275 12,8% 927.838 27,2% 602.512 22,4% 339.620 559.906 28,7% -318.057 843.881 43,2% Other liquid liabilities 2.484.451 100,0% 2.425.541 100,0% 3.407.102 100,0% 2.691.190 100,0% 1.969.451 1.951.593 100,0% 532.858 1.856.268 95,1%Total liabilities and equity 363.480 494.455 942.463 469.147 249.860 450.131 -86.651 282.764Working capital 24 46 31 19 19 19 5 24Number of employeesProfit & Loss Statement 31/12/2009 % 09 31/12/2008 % 08 31/12/2007 % 07 31/12/2006 % 06 31/12/2005 31/12/2004 % 04 09 - 04 30/09/2003 % 03 4.913.983 100,0% 7.303.033 100,0% 7.696.521 100,0% 5.227.745 100,0% 5.151.830 5.293.959 100,0% -379.976 5.328.246 100,6%Operating revenue 4.524.591 92,1% 6.677.645 91,4% 7.167.575 93,1% 4.917.930 94,1% 4.897.814 4.979.908 94,1% -455.317 4.987.792 94,2%Net Turnover n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0%Consumption of goods and materials n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0%Gross profit n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0%Other operating expenses 190.175 3,9% 475.844 6,5% 658.592 8,6% 185.485 3,5% 367.925 656.226 12,4% -466.051 894.384 16,9%Operating result 17.727 0,4% 89.647 1,2% 73.072 0,9% 18.288 0,3% 9.154 13.141 0,2% 4.586 9.041 0,2%Financial income 12.767 0,3% 53.819 0,7% 42.865 0,6% 16.342 0,3% 5.913 6.907 0,1% 5.860 10.199 0,2%Financial expenses 4.960 0,1% 35.828 0,5% 30.207 0,4% 1.947 0,0% 3.240 6.233 0,1% -1.273 -1.158 0,0%Financial Results 195.136 4,0% 511.673 7,0% 688.798 8,9% 187.432 3,6% 371.165 662.459 12,5% -467.323 893.226 16,9%Ordinary profit before tax 46.845 1,0% 143.150 2,0% 197.543 2,6% 66.215 1,3% 120.786 217.180 4,1% -170.335 315.253 6,0%Income tax 148.291 3,0% 368.523 5,0% 491.256 6,4% 121.217 2,3% 250.379 445.279 8,4% -296.988 577.973 10,9%Result Ordinary Activities n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% 58.932 1,1% 1.381 12.165 0,2% 9.850 0,2%Extraordinary revenues n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% 21.323 0,4% 2.249 9.937 0,2% 9.605 0,2%Extraordinary expenses n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% n.d. 0,0% 37.609 0,7% -868 2.228 0,0% 245 0,0%Results extraordinary activities 148.291 3,0% 368.523 5,0% 491.256 6,4% 158.827 3,0% 249.512 447.506 8,5% -299.215 578.218 10,9%Profit for the period Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 18
  19. 19. Case Study: Sonar, the International Festival of Advanced Music and New Media Art of Barcelona 2.204.951 44,9% 3.826.095 52,4% 3.871.983 50,3% 2.483.215 47,5% 2.438.565 2.223.494 42,0% -18.543 2.237.373 42,3%Materials 1.293.247 26,3% 1.536.188 21,0% 1.362.544 17,7% 1.236.793 23,7% 1.152.486 1.103.532 20,8% 189.715 964.291 18,2%Staff costs 48.351 1,0% 52.487 0,7% 44.323 0,6% 36.115 0,7% 28.482 25.960 0,5% 22.391 23.896 0,5%Depreciation and amortization of assets 12.657 0,3% 17.872 0,2% 25.901 0,3% 15.032 0,3% 5.557 6.253 0,1% 6.404 9.570 0,2%Financial expenses and similar expensesCash flow 196.642 4,0% 421.010 5,8% 535.579 7,0% 194.942 3,7% 277.994 473.466 8,9% -276.824 602.114 11,4%Added value 1.549.391 31,5% 2.118.220 29,0% 2.121.567 27,6% 1.512.982 28,9% 1.556.823 1.800.431 34,0% -251.040 1.891.228 35,7% 190.175 3,9% 475.844 6,5% 658.592 8,6% 185.485 3,5% 367.925 656.226 12,4% -466.051 894.384 16,9% 238.526 4,9% 528.331 7,2% 702.915 9,1% 221.600 4,2% 396.407 682.186 12,9% -443.660 918.280 17,3% 31/12/2009 % 09 31/12/2008 % 08 31/12/2007 % 07 31/12/2006 % 06 31/12/2005 31/12/2004 % 04 09 - 04Operating revenue 4.913.983 7.303.033 7.696.521 5.227.745 5.151.830 5.293.959 -379.976Ordinary profit before tax 195.136 511.673 688.798 187.432 371.165 662.459 -467.323Total Assets 2.484.451 2.425.541 3.407.102 2.691.190 1.969.451 1.951.593 532.858Equity 1.918.531 1.771.534 2.134.717 1.643.462 1.484.635 1.235.124 683.407Economic return/ Profitability 7,85 21,10 20,22 6,96 18,85 33,94 -26Financial return/ Profitability 10,17 28,88 32,27 11,40 25,00 53,64 -43General/Overall liquidity 5,95 4,78 2,48 3,16 4,85 2,87 3Debt 22,78 26,96 37,35 38,93 24,62 36,71 -14Number of employees 24 46 31 19 19 19 5 Jorge Bernárdez López© 2012 · jorgebernardezl@yahoo.es 19
  20. 20. Annex 4: Income, 2003-2004 Sonar ExpensesIncome 2003 % 2004 %Income 2.221,30 64,0 2.132,10 62,0Ticket sales 1.627,30 46,9 1.534,90 44,6Stands y accreditations 183 5,3 192,4 5,6AD Sales 28,7 0,8 12,8 0,4Hotel Operations 285,1 8,2 329,5 9,6Merchandising 90,6 2,6 55,5 1,6Other 6,7 0,2 7 0,2Public Funding 408,9 11,8 398,3 11,6CCCB (Public Cultural Space) 94,5 2,7 77,7 2,3ICUB (Barcelona City Hall) 110 3,2 110 3,2Department of Culture (Cat. Government) 99,9 2,9 99,4 2,9Ministry of Culture (Spanish Governm.) 9 0,3 9 0,3Barcelona Regional Authority 18 0,5 24 0,7ICIC (Cat. Government) 35 1 36 1MACBA (Contemporary Art Museum) 42,6 1,2 42,2 1,2Sponsors 839,4 24,2 907,4 26,4 Total Income 3,469.60 100.0 3,437.80 100.0Expenses 2003 % 2004 %Artistic Contracts 447,7 12,9 504,3 14,7Rentals (technical equipment, space...) 505,3 14,6 531,8 15,5Staff 764,9 22 790,5 23External Services 344,7 9,9 429,5 12,5Infrastructure 137,6 4 179,3 5,2Marketing 381,6 11 461,6 13,4Copyrights 127,9 3,7 126,2 3,7Other 340,8 9,8 301,2 8,8 Total Expenses 3,050.50 87.9 3,324.40 96.8 Surplus/Deficit 419.10 12.1 113.40 3.3 Source: Technical Cabinet, Department of Culture. Catalan Government
  21. 21. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de BarcelonaAnnex 5: Sonar’s Corporate Image 2008 Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 21
  22. 22. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de BarcelonaAnnex 6: SonarPro 2010. Contents.The professional and Sonar by Day attendants are permitted access to select activities. Activities open to the PublicSonarPro Forum: 18 exhibition spaces where companies can show their products andnovelties at the festival.Demo Area: The space is designated for the display of new products, services, and ideas.21 product displays for an alert public.Demo Tutorials: 12 Master classes where the attending public can go deeper into theirknowledge and learn new things and get contact advice from instructors and experts. Activities exclusively for ProfessionalsDigital Music Day 2.0: 4 conferences that presents both national and internationalexperts with lots of experience that explains the music world using real life cases.Meet the Expert: 12 brief meetings with experts from different business sectors related tothe cultural industry. Attendants of SonarPro get the chance to a 10 minute chat.Participating professionals:- Festivals: George Hull & Alex Benson (Festival Bloc Party)- Artist: Patrick Pulsinger (Cheap Records & Feed Back Studio)- Management: Mark Davyd (Outstanding Artists)- Digital Media (Nacional): Isaac Marcet (Playground)- Digital Media (International): Nick Sabine (Resident Advisor)- Brands: Davide Bortot (Red Bull Music Academy)- Legal: Enric Enrich (Enrich Advocates)- Communication/musical promotion: Marc Tapias (In Silence)- Digital Marketing: Scott Cohen (The Orchard)- Streaming: Paul Brown (Spotify)- Mobile Technology: Peter Vestabacka (Mobile Monday)- International Marketing: David Loscos (Tenzing Media)Common Project: a new experience, in which accredits professionals of SonarPro toparticipate together with alumni from Elisava –Superior School of Design of Barcelona increating an common audiovisual art piece from the work: “4:33” by John Cage. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 22
  23. 23. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de BarcelonaAnnex 7: Nationalities Attending SonarPro 2010 Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 23
  24. 24. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de BarcelonaAnnex 8: Enric Palau that explains the philosophy behind SonarKids 2010“SonarKids is the “child” of Sonar. Sonar is the meeting point for professionals, artists,and the public linked to electronic art as a format (growing until reaching between 70 and80 million annual visitors). We continuously work with the idea of bringing in a stronginternational presence. Our audience trusts that they will discover novice talent and theyattend the festival, as much for the music as for the exhibition. And often with a peculiarartistic profile because the artists invent their music and artistic scenes with the veryinstrument they use whether being software or a big jazz band like the case of MatthewHervet or an old cookie manufacturer production chain converted into musical instrumentthat he uses this year in Cabo San Roque, at L’Auditori. Quite often, a profile that givesus reputation we program such artists into festival between being creator and inventorregardless of it being solo or collaboration with others.The festival has a heavy job on the visual and interactive side. It was a breakthrough forthe festival at the time having Sonar by Day located in museum spaces where the festivalis held (CCCB and Museum of Contemporary Art). Classic spaces in a way, but evidentlyconceptually thought for contemporary culture that attracts crowds differently: a verydiverse public that comes from different trend backgrounds and a younger crowd. This iswhy in a way collaboration has lasted this long. In this part of the exhibition where westarted to have more and more family visits: parents that follow the festival and that comewith their children and we continued seeing that the children that participated every timein one way or the other were very natural; and above all with the interactive gadgetsinstalled around the festival.That is way to when I think about it, we have had children and part of our public also hasbeen growing older and having children and we have life experience that we would like toshare with our children. Such it what has brought us 4 years thinking about the format ofthe event for children which started its first steps last year (2010) and this year being the2nd edition. The reason: mainly the idea to share an event with amusement contentwhere parents and children can enjoy (as a father myself, I had to share what I like:music) and such has been the case with parents because that have negated the idea ofthe theme parks.We want to create a space where there is a lot of affinity between the parents and thechildren in a sense of content and where also you can provide for children a creativexamp taht has a natural form and for sure different than what they have at school. In thesense, I am referring to the technological aspects where are facing a generation that hasbeen born with the technologies in hand (not like mine where Internet started in the 90s).My children have been born with consoles, ASDLs at home with PCs, and the way thatthey relate to technology is innate. But, when it comes to creating, day to day, the workthat the do at school isn’t sufficient enough and the creative camp allows something theydon’t receive at school”.Video Interview link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pPJjdXpYao (track 7:48) Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 24
  25. 25. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de BarcelonaAnnex 9: Sonar’s Corporate Image (2011)“SONAR FESTIVAL ON SALE. Anual Festival on sale with a great international projection”.Razón: Sr. Samaniego +34 627 030 543 sales@sonar.es” Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 25
  26. 26. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de BarcelonaTranscripción hasta el minuto 7 de la entrevista a Enric Palau enwww.djsounds.com (2008). “Well this is the roof of Sonar offices, in Barcelona. I’m Enric Palau, the director of theSonar FESTIVAL.Well the original ideas were to create a meeting point for artists and professionals aroundelectronic music and arts that started in 1994.I think the main idea that keeps being this one and the changes are more related in thecontext and the size of the event. The festival has been growing becoming a large eventand one of the main dates in the calendar for a lot of fans and professionals.”What does the future hold for Sonar in the coming years?We are always looking for someone creating something new and very connected tocreating something new and very connected to the technology. So, the changes thefeeder for us will be linked to those concepts – the creation of the artist and thetechnology. Of course mobility is one factor that has changes in the way artists areperforming and doing their jobs and that’s of course where changes are reflected nowand there will of course be more changes the future.What part does new technology play in Sonar’s celebration of the futuristic?Well, Sonar is connected, largely connected with technology, so we are always lookingfor artists using new technologies and creating new pieces of art and music through thattechnology even if its self made as you can find this very interesting link between aequipment developer and artist. The things with the pioneer equipment is very interestingbecause it gives opportunity to the traveling artist – the DJ to put the visual element andcontrol that element through something which is very usual to him. I think it is reallyinteresting to see the works of DJ Yorder Hestatic the way they mix images with soundsas they were mixing just records and now they have the possibility to work on anotherformat which is the visual one.How do you select the artists to perform at Sonar?We’d like to explore and find artist who have a strong personality through the work theydo and explore non-obvious territories. Obvious territories would be Anglo British-American public because it’s a market that sometimes is the main source for music andwe pretty much want to explore other platforms than this finding new sounds which isgoing to be the squeeze sound coming from Scandinavian this year which is a very funmix of a kind of A (or 8) beat music with a funk flavor. We also like to present people thatrepresent certain much style or certain moment in history, which in the case of Yazoo thisyear being one of the main back bands, one of the beginners of the techno pop. And,also we like very much to explore inside of our territory so we like to be kind of a platformto present the new talent coming out from Barcelona Catalonians.Who are you excited about seeing this year at Sonar?I think I’m very curious to see of a night where we will be mixing MADNESS andJUSTICE on the same stage with ART AURKIN and DEEP FLOW. I think it could be avery good party that night. And then, there’s a lot of little things. I like very much a recordthat came to our hands, which is the COH, a German artist that has been processing thevoice of ‘Cosi Fan Tute’ and making a whole album just only processing these vocalelements and turning these into an element that has kind of a pop melody and pureexperimentation working on panoramic. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 26
  27. 27. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de BarcelonaThe Female Factor is the theme this year. How did you arrive (at) to this theme?Working on since September last year listening to a lot of music, and watching new ADwe just thought it was a strong moment for women in music and we start to think of thequestion if the female factor exist in music today and if this female factor exist on the waythe artist do their music and performance and if the female side that everyone has isrelevant in the artist process. So, we ended up doing line up work where women have astrong presence such as pop divas like RAZA MURPY, GOLDFRAPE or CAMIL to pureexperimentation artists.La entrevista entera puede encontrarse en:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y2NS1MhGuto&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y2NS1MhGuto&feature=relatedPressupost 2010 = 4.445.300,14 €Origen ingressos:Recursos propis: 3.485.574,31 / Aportacions Entitats Públiques: 461.525,83 / Patrocini:498.200Pressupost 2009 = 3.582.119,36 €Origen ingressos:Recursos propis: 2.553.544,44/ Aportacions Entitats Públiques: 443.474,92. Patrocini:585.1008. Would you have bought Sonar/Advanced Music in 2009, or would yo prefer another year? What price would you be prepared to pay?How has the mission been evolving in the most recent editions? Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 27
  28. 28. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de BarcelonaQuestions1. In your opinion, is the mission of Sonar being fulfilled?2. From an artistic perspective, what has been the greatest accomplishment of Sonar? What advantages and disadvantages are there in the elaboration of the programming?3. What are the strong and weak points of the policy of expansion of Sonar? And its opportunities and threats?4. How would you explain the fall in profits of Sonar between 2003 and 2004?5. What are its principal advertising strategies? How do they relate to the profile of the visitor?6. How do you envision Sonar in the future? Give examples in terms of content (cultural activities and formats), cities, etc.7. Describe the value chain of the sector. Identify and name as many players as possible.8. As a cultural manager, what conclusions can you draw from the experience of Sonar?Justify your responses. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 28
  29. 29. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de Barcelona ANSWERS TO THE CASE-STUDY 1. In your opinion, are the goals of Sonar being met? How have their goals evolved/changed in the past few runs of the festival? For Ricard Robles, “The intention of Sonar in 1994 is still valid. It has the goal of being a meeting point for the public, the artists and the electronic music professionals. The artists that attend have the opportunity to be seen by the professionals of record distribution and tour contracting and make deals for other events. Likewise, people who are not daily consumers of electronic music can come to encounter things that they wouldn’t find anywhere else20”. 2. From an artistic point of view, what has been the greatest success of Sonar? What advantages/disadvantages are there in the festivals programming? To balance renowned artists and emerging artists (page 6). - Established, international artists - An artist in the middle ground between a pure creator and inventor, be it one person or a collaboration. - “Sonar combines many musical activities with other forms of vanguard art. Each has its space, and the best is that there be a natural combination. I believe that the spaces we’ve created meet this standard. For example, during the day there is more cultural equipment dedicated to expository and divulgatory activities, but the musical spaces still predominate See also: Elaboration of the artistic programming Local and emerging artists Profitable and non-profitable artists 3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the politics of expansion of Sonar? Threats and opportunities? Politics of expansion Sonar Abroad: Sao Paulo Tokyo, London, Cape Town, Buenos Aires Sonar Galicia Sonar Kids Threats - Too dependant on public funding (Galicia) - Non-positive attendance response (Galicia: expected = 10-14 thousand; real = 8.400). Opportunities Strengths20 Ricard Robles, in ADN (free newspaper), 2008. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 29
  30. 30. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de Barcelona- Knowledge of the product- Successful itineraryWeaknesses- Has the risk been evaluated? (Galicia, Kids)4. How would you explain the fall of profits of Sonar between 2003 and 2004?Income 2003 % 2004 %Income 2.221,30 64,0 2.132,10 62,0Ticket sales 1.627,30 46,9 1.534,90 44,6Stands y accreditations 183 5,3 192,4 5,6AD Sales 28,7 0,8 12,8 0,4Hotel Operations 285,1 8,2 329,5 9,6Merchandising 90,6 2,6 55,5 1,6Other 6,7 0,2 7 0,2Public Funding 408,9 11,8 398,3 11,6CCCB (Cultural Space) 94,5 2,7 77,7 2,3ICUB (City Hall of Barcelona) 110 3,2 110 3,2Department of Culture (Cat. Government) 99,9 2,9 99,4 2,9Ministerio de Cultura (Spanish Governm.) 9 0,3 9 0,3Diputación of Barcelona 18 0,5 24 0,7ICIC (Cat. Government) 35 1 36 1MACBA (Contemporary Art Museum) 42,6 1,2 42,2 1,2Sponsors 839,4 24,2 907,4 26,4 Total Income 3.469,60 100 3.437,80 100Expenses 2003 % 2004 %Artistic Contracts 447,7 12,9 504,3 14,7Rents (technical equipment, space, etc.) 505,3 14,6 531,8 15,5Staff 764,9 22 790,5 23External Services 344,7 9,9 429,5 12,5Infrastructure 137,6 4 179,3 5,2Marketing 381,6 11 461,6 13,4Copyrights 127,9 3,7 126,2 3,7Other 340,8 9,8 301,2 8,8 3.050,5 Total Expenses 0 87,9 3.324,40 96,8 Surplus/Deficit 419,10 12,1 113,40 3,3 Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 30
  31. 31. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de Barcelona5. What are the major strategies of promotion? How is it related to the profile of the visitor?Audience (page 4)According to Sergio Caballero, “there is a well defined public for Sonar. Sonar is adifferent event and people come to discover. It isn’t a festival of big names, but it is a wayto spend three days visiting Barcelona, seeing concerts and the city, like being onvacation”.According to results of a market research conducted by the festival in 2004, the profile ofthe Sonar visitor is of a man (61% of the total) between 25 and 30 years old (40%) with auniversity education (56%) and an average salary of 900 € per month. His profession isrelated with new technologies (14%) and music (10%). He comes from Spain (59%),although also from other countries, principally European (33% of the total). Of these, 39%is from the U.K. and 14% from France. The average spending of a Sonar visitor is 87,89Euros per day, not including transport.In its two most recent editions, Sonar had the following attendance: 2010 2009 Dif 10-09 Dif %Sonar by Day (CCCB + Museo Arte Contemp. + Auditori) 36.682 35.429 1.253 3,54%Sonar by Night (Fira Gran Via (M2) + Teatre Grec21) 52.294 39.052 13.242 33,91%Total Sonar 88.976 74.481 14.495 19,46%PromotionA central element of the promotion of Sonar is its corporate image. In 2008, for example,the image of Sonar was predominantly videographic and spread over the Internet. Sevenfilms of one minute duration were made in the style of home videos. The corporate imageof Sonar, with which the festival is advertised each year, in that edition opted for sevenhybrids of animals and men “genetically created” –joked Sergio Caballero– “in a geneticengineering lab in China”22.These videos were uploaded in stages, in the style of viral marketing, on the phantomwebsite http://www.b1158.cn/b1158.html and on Youtube, without establishing any linkwith the Sonar festival. The result was spectacular: in just two days 180,000 visits werereached, which was good for #13 in the ranking of “Most Viewed” of Youtube and #3 inthe area of Science and Technology.This type of campaign is known by way of “viral marketing”, an advertising strategy thatconsists of uploading images on the Internet without giving any information about whatthe images are referring to. In this case, the viral marketing was done on Myspace andgathered close to 75,000 visits.As to the importance of such an innovative image to promote a music festival, Roblesstates that “The image is one of the ingredients of communication. It has to be somethingthat provokes interest or unintended controversy. It [the image] has to be intended as anartistic masterpiece, a part of creation from which something like this year’s can bederived: we do a promotion of a sale, in this case the festival itself, or it has a21 Only in 2010.22 See Annex 5. Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 31
  32. 32. Caso: Sonar, el Festival Internacional de Música Avanzada y de Arte New Media de Barcelonacharacteristic which is purely plastic, always trying to get out of the usual tools that theworld of music uses to communicate. Such could be carried out in a series of names thatare as big as possible or any item associated with a pop iconography or culturally close tothe actual music. In the beginning, we thought that we would never be interested inworking with an iconography related to the electronic or virtual worlds or with theseaesthetics, which seem ugly. Thus, Sergio has his own personal battle every year to seekwhich idea is the leivmotiv from which to develop a campaign. Not just any idea that isshocking or surprising or artistically beautiful has a practical application in a campaignthat needs to work with all graphic media. It is an artistic process conditioned bycommunication needs of the festival that seeks the self-interest of the piece to bedeveloped; and then the application (of the final product) throughout those sectors thatpertain to the festival”.6. What vision of Sonar do you have for the future? Give your answer with respect to the content (type of cultural activity, format), cities and sectors?7. Would you buy the Sonar/Advanced Music of 2009 or would you have preferred to do it in another year? What price are you willing to pay?8. As a cultural manager, what conclusions do you draw of Sonars experience?- Experience in other industries before music.- A broad set of skills (“a music manager needs to have a broad set of skills(management knowledge, management of people…):- “I need to know marketing, client management, contracts, how to DJ in large clubs, howto design a poster, how to hype a new track or a new act, how to sensitively comment ona new track, how to pitch a remix, how to book an act”.“Outside music, someone will usually help you learn what you need to know. Inmusic, it’s hard to get accurate information, let alone training”. “You always may learn something from any situation. You only need to have the rightattitude.” Jorge Bernárdez López© 2011 32

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