Classifying Matter -VocabularyPure Substance: Matter that always has the exact same compositionElement: A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substancesAtom: The smallest part of an elementCompound: A substance that is made from two or more simpler substances and can be brokendown into those simpler substancesHeterogeneous mixture: The parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one anotherHomogeneous mixture: the substances are so evenly distributed that is is difficult to distinguishone substance in the mixture from anotherSuspension: A heterogeneous mixture that separates into layers over timeColloid: It contains some particles that are intermediate in size between the small particles in thesolution and the large particles in the suspension
Key ConceptsEvery sample of a given substance has the same properties because a substance has a fixed,uniform compositionAn element has a fixed composition because it contains only one type of atomA compound always contains two or more elements joined in a fixed proportionThe properties of a mixture can vary because the composition of a mixture is not fixed
Breakdown of Matter Matter Pure Substance Mixtures Heterogeneous HomogeneousElement Compound Mixture Mixture
Physical Properties - VocabularyPhysical property: Any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured withoutchanging the composition of the substances in the materialViscosity: The tendency of a liquid to keep from flowingConductivity: A material’s ability to allow heat to flowMalleability: The ability of a solid to be hammered without shatteringMelting Point: The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquidBoiling Point: The temperature at which a substance boilsFiltration: A process that separates materials based on the size of their particlesDistillation: A process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling pointsPhysical change: Something that occurs when some of the properties of a material change
Key ConceptsViscosity, conductivity, malleability, hardness, melting point, boiling point, and density are allexamples of physical propertiesPhysical Properties are used to identify a material, to choose a material for a specific purpose, orto separate the substances in a mixture.Filtration and distillation are two common separation methodsSome physical changes can be reserved while others cannot
TemperatureTemperature: A means of measuring heat; also measuring speed at which particles are moving(faster movement=greater temperatures)Instruments used: ThermometerUnits: C˚, F˚, KCelsius: Water boils at 100˚C and freezes at 0˚CFahrenheit: Water boils at 212˚F and freezes at 32˚CKelvin: Water boils at 373K and freezes at 273K
FiltrationFiltration:A process that separates materials based on the size ofparticles and/or solubility
EvaporationEvaporation: A process used to isolate a solid dissolved in aliquidThere will only be one substance left!
DistillationDistillation: A process that separates the substances in asolution based on their boiling points
Chemical Properties- VocabularyChemical Properties: Any ability to change in the composition of matterFlammability: A materials ability to burn in the presence of oxygenReactivity : How readily a substance combines chemically with other substancesChemical change: It occurs when a substance reacts and forms one or more new substancesPrecipitate: Any solids that forms and separates from a liquid mixture.
Key ConceptsChemical properties can be observed only when the substances in a sample of matter arechanging into different substances.Three common types of evidence for a chemical change are a change in color, the production ofgas, and the formation of a precipitate.When matter undergoes a chemical change, the composition of the matter changes. Whenmatter undergoes a physical change, the composition of the matter remains the same.
Physical vs. Chemical ChangesExample of a physical change- the composition is NOT changedExample of chemical change- the composition DOES change
Review- Question #1A)What is the difference between a pure substance and amixture? B) What are their subcategoriesA) Pure substances composition never changes, and a mixture’scomposition will change. B) Pure Substance’s=Compound,Element. Mixture= Heterogeneous, Homogeneous.
Review- Question #2What is the difference between a colloid, solution, and asuspensionColloid= Light cannot go through the substanceSuspension= Mixture, it is layeredSolution= Light can go through it
Review- Question #3What are two separation techniques?Either distillation, filtration, or evaporation is a separationtechnique
Review- Question #4Why are physical and chemical properties used to help identifycertain substances?They are used because all elements have properties unique tothem.
Review- Question #5What is the formula for calculating density?Density= Mass/Volume