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HEAA313: Research 2
An Oral Defence of Research
STUDENT NUMBER: 10230458
TUESDAY 14TH JANUARY 2014
1
An exploration of first year undergraduate students’
engagement in social occupations during ‘Freshers’ week’.
To explore ...
Background and Rationale for the Study
Researchers interested in the student population
Student experience of social occup...
Appraisal of Relevant Literature
• Occupation widely explored in contemporary
research
• Central to identity and performan...
Methodology
Exploratory study of
meaning and self-defined
experiences
. Convenience sample
. Poster recruitment at 2
stude...
Research Findings
6
Theme Sub-theme
Engagement in Social Occupations
• Day time occupations
• Night time occupations
• Alcohol related occupat...
Discussion of Findings
8
Alcohol Related Occupations
- Considered positive despite negative connotations (Kisic-Tepavcevic et al, 2013)
- Creates o...
Financial Commitments
- Considered an impeding factor to participation
- Expense of joining sports and societies – could n...
Implications for Practice
How can this study impact
the occupational therapy
profession?
Highlights potential
emerging job...
Study Limitations
• Small sample –
not generalisable
• Not ethnically
diverse
• Participants all of
similar age
Further Re...
To Conclude…
Have met the aims and objectives of the study
Identified motivational factors and barriers to participation...
Personal Reflection
Leadership
Effective Team
Dynamic
Work Ethic
14
Personal
Contributions
Facilitated Interview
Organised...
15
Thank you
Any Questions?
References
College of Occupational Therapists. (2010) Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct. London: College of
Occupation...
Hocking, C. & Kroksmark, U. (2013) ‘Sustainable occupational responses to climate change through lifestyle
choices’. Scand...
Reed, K., Hocking, C. & Smythe, L. (2013) ‘The meaning of occupation: Historical and contemporary
connections between heal...
Aldrich, R.M. & White, N. (2012) ‘Reconsidering violence: a response to Twinley and Addidle (2012) and
Morris (2012)’. Bri...
20
Foster, A. (2004) ‘A nonlinear model of information-seeking behavior’. [Online] Available at:
http://onlinelibrary.wile...
21
Kielhofner, G. (2008) ‘Volition’, in Kielhofner, G. (ed.) Model of Human Occupation: Theory and application. 4th edn.
P...
22
Morris, K. (2012) ‘Considering violence, (Letter)’. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 75(5), pp.250.
National Un...
23
Wagman, P., Hakansson, C. & Bjorklund, A. (2012) ‘Occupational balance as used in occupational therapy: A concept
analy...
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HEAA313 Presentation 10230458

  1. 1. HEAA313: Research 2 An Oral Defence of Research STUDENT NUMBER: 10230458 TUESDAY 14TH JANUARY 2014 1
  2. 2. An exploration of first year undergraduate students’ engagement in social occupations during ‘Freshers’ week’. To explore and analyse students’ experiences of social occupations during Freshers’ week To establish what social occupations students’ engaged in during Freshers’ week To explore why students’ engaged in particular occupations and the motivational factors 2
  3. 3. Background and Rationale for the Study Researchers interested in the student population Student experience of social occupations during Freshers’ week is absent in previous literature – highlights a possible new area of research Potentially interesting correlations with the ‘Dark Side of Occupation’ (Twinley, 2013) Why? 3
  4. 4. Appraisal of Relevant Literature • Occupation widely explored in contemporary research • Central to identity and performance Meaningful occupation, health and well-being •What of occupation that is harmful to health and well- being? •Considering the broader consequences of occupation The Dark Side of Occupation • Research focuses on alcohol consumption during university • Motivation, stereotype and academic achievement Alcohol related occupation •Little evidence to suggest the motives behind student participation •How does social occupation impact occupational balance? Motivation and occupational balance (Yerxa et al, 1989; Creek & Hughes, 2008; Reed, Hocking & Smythe, 2013) (Hudson & Aoyama, 2008; Hammell, 2009; Kiepek & Magalhaes, 2011; Twinley & Addidle, 2012; ) (Shamloo & Cox, 2010; Heather et al, 2011; Palfai & Ralston, 2011) (Cooke et al, 2004; Wilson & Wilcock, 2005; Pentland & McColl, 2008; Tieu et al, 2010;) 4
  5. 5. Methodology Exploratory study of meaning and self-defined experiences . Convenience sample . Poster recruitment at 2 student campuses . Semi-structured interviews . Data thematically analysed, coded and themed . Ethically approved . Written informed consent . Confidentiality and anonymity maintained Qualitative Design 5 (College of Occupational Therapists, 2010) (Great Britain. Data Protection Act 1998)
  6. 6. Research Findings 6
  7. 7. Theme Sub-theme Engagement in Social Occupations • Day time occupations • Night time occupations • Alcohol related occupations • University organised events • Non-university organised events • Sports and societies Motivational Factors for Participation in Social Occupations • Personal interest – motivation • Opportunity to meet new people • Advertisement of events • No other commitments • Orientation Barriers to Participation in Social Occupations • Personal interest – barriers • Lack of knowledge of events • Logistical Factors • Course commitments • Financial commitments Expectation and Reflection • Health and well-being • Preconceived ideas of Freshers’ week • Introduction to university • Comparison of other universities/ cultures • Lifestyle and independent choices • Post Freshers’ week thoughts • Suggestions for improving Freshers’ week 7
  8. 8. Discussion of Findings 8
  9. 9. Alcohol Related Occupations - Considered positive despite negative connotations (Kisic-Tepavcevic et al, 2013) - Creates opportunity to form friendships (LaBrie, Grant & Hummer, 2011) - Knowingly engaged despite knowledge of negative effects on health and well-being - Aligns with emerging literature (Twinley, 2013) University / Course Commitments - Vocational courses – missed out on opportunities due to workload (Palfai & Ralston, 2011) - Freshers’ week more of a ‘social event’ for those on a non-vocational course - Location of campus – logistical constraints Preconceived Ideas of Freshers’ Week - Friends and family - The media – ‘drinking culture’ (Freshers, 2013) 9
  10. 10. Financial Commitments - Considered an impeding factor to participation - Expense of joining sports and societies – could not afford due to accommodation and living costs - Potential impact on occupational balance – reduced leisure activity (Wilson & Wilcock, 2005) Advertisement of Events - Alcohol related events advertised more than other events- contributing factor to engagement - Missed out on opportunities - University could invest more time in promoting a wider range of events - Provide greater breadth of opportunity Sustainable Occupation - Participation in alcohol related occupations not considered sustainable – financially or in terms of health and well-being - Engaging in more sustainable occupations can promote increased engagement to achieve occupational balance (Hocking & Kroksmark, 2013) 10
  11. 11. Implications for Practice How can this study impact the occupational therapy profession? Highlights potential emerging job role for occupational therapists in the university sector – requires stronger evidence-base Education and promotion of sustainable occupations for the student and wider population Work with institutions in designing a varied programme of accessible and sustainable student events 11
  12. 12. Study Limitations • Small sample – not generalisable • Not ethnically diverse • Participants all of similar age Further Research – broader sociodemographic • Participants from one institution • Possible respondent bias Further Research – larger sample from a range of universities • Possible inconsistencies in interviewer skills • May have limited data Further Research – pilot study 12
  13. 13. To Conclude… Have met the aims and objectives of the study Identified motivational factors and barriers to participation Forms an initial basis of research to take forward Highlights valuable contribution of occupational therapy 13
  14. 14. Personal Reflection Leadership Effective Team Dynamic Work Ethic 14 Personal Contributions Facilitated Interview Organised Group Meetings MotivatorDistribution of Recruitment posters
  15. 15. 15 Thank you Any Questions?
  16. 16. References College of Occupational Therapists. (2010) Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct. London: College of Occupational Therapists. Cooke, R., Barkham, M., Audin, K., Bradley, M., & Davy, J. (2004) ‘How social class differences affect students' experiences of university’. Journal of Further and Higher Education. 28, pp.407-422. Creek, J. & Hughes, A. (2008) ‘Occupation and health: a review of selected literature’. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 71(11), pp.456-468. Freshers (2013) ITV 2 Television. (20 October). Great Britain. Data Protection Act 1998: Elizabeth II. Chapter 29. (1998) London: The Stationary Office. Hammell, K. (2009) ‘Sacred texts: A sceptical exploration of the assumptions underpinning theories of occupation’. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 76(1), pp.6-13. Heather, N., Partington, S., Partington, E., Longstaff, F., Allsop, S., Jankowski, M., Wareham., H., & St Clair Gibson, A. (2011) ‘Alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking among undergraduates at English Universities’. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 46(3), pp.270–277. 16
  17. 17. Hocking, C. & Kroksmark, U. (2013) ‘Sustainable occupational responses to climate change through lifestyle choices’. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 20, pp.111-117. Hudson, M.J. & Aoyama, M. (2008) ‘Occupational therapy and the current ecological crisis’. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 71(12), pp.545-548. Kiepek, N. & Magalhaes, L. (2011) ‘Addictions and impulse-control disorders as occupation: A selected literature review and synthesis’. Journal of Occupational Science. 18(3), pp.254-276. Kisic-Tepavcevic, D., Gazibara, T., Popovic, A., Trajkovic, G., & Pekmezovic, T. (2013) ‘The impact of alcohol on health related quality of life in Belgrade University students’. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Use. 39(2), pp.130-135. LaBrie, J.W., Grant, S. & Hummer, J.F. (2011) ‘“This would be better drunk”: Alcohol expectancies become more positive while drinking in the college social environment’. Addictive Behaviours. 36, pp.890-893. Palfai, T.P. & Ralston, T.E. (2011) ‘Life goals and alcohol use among first-year college students: The role of motives to limit drinking’. Addictive Behaviours. 36, pp.1083-1086. Pentland, W. & McColl, M.A. (2008) ‘Occupational integrity: another perspective on "life balance"’. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 75(3), pp.135-138. 17
  18. 18. Reed, K., Hocking, C. & Smythe, L. (2013) ‘The meaning of occupation: Historical and contemporary connections between health and occupation’. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy. 60(1), pp.38-44. Shamloo, Z.S. & Cox, W.M. (2010) ‘The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption’. Addictive Behaviours. 35, pp.140–146. Tieu, T., Pancer, M., Pratt, M., Wintre, M., Birnie-Lefcovitch, S., Polivy, J. & Adams, G. (2010) ‘Helping out or hanging out: The features of involvement and how it relates to university adjustment’. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning. 60(3), pp. 343-355. Twinley, R. & Addidle, G. (2012) ‘Considering violence: the dark side of occupation’. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 75(4), pp.202-204. Twinley, R. (2013) ‘The dark side of occupation: A concept for consideration’. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 60, pp.301-303. Wilson, L. & Wilcock, A. (2005) ‘Occupational Balance: What tips the scale for new students?’. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 68(7), pp.319-323. Yerxa, E.J., Clark, F., Frank, G., Jackson, J., Parham, D., Pierce, D., Stein, C. & Zemke, R. (1989) ‘An introduction to occupational science: a foundation for occupational therapy in the 21st century’. Occupational Therapy in Health Care. 6(4), pp.1-17. 18
  19. 19. Aldrich, R.M. & White, N. (2012) ‘Reconsidering violence: a response to Twinley and Addidle (2012) and Morris (2012)’. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 75(11), pp.527-529. Bell, J. (2010) Doing your research project: a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006) ‘Using thematic analysis in psychology’. Qualitative Research in Psychology. 3(2), pp.77-101. Carpenter, C. & Suto, M. (2008) Qualitative research for occupational and physical therapists: A practical guide. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell. Condell, S. & Begley, C. (2012) ‘Clinical research ethics in Irish healthcare: Diversity, dynamism and medicalization’. Nursing Ethics. 19(6), pp.810-818. Derous, E., & Ryan, A. M. (2008) ‘When earning is (not) beneficial for learning: Investigating the relation of employment and leisure activities to academic outcomes’. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 73, pp.118-131. Bibliography 19
  20. 20. 20 Foster, A. (2004) ‘A nonlinear model of information-seeking behavior’. [Online] Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.10359/full. (Accessed: 19.05.13). Freshers (2013) ITV 2 Television, (20 October). Gerrish, K. & Lacey, A. (2010) The research process in nursing. 6th edn. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell. Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E. & Chadwick, B. (2008) ‘Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups’. [Online] Available at: http://www.academia.edu/746649/Methods_of_data_collection_in_qualitative_research_interviews_and_focus_g roups. (Accessed: 19.05.13). Greber, C. (2013) ‘Re: The dark side of occupation: A concept for consideration, (Letter)’, Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 60, pp.458-459. Hickson, M. (2008) Research handbook for health care professionals. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell. Holloway, I. & Wheeler, S. (2010) Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell publishing Ltd.
  21. 21. 21 Kielhofner, G. (2008) ‘Volition’, in Kielhofner, G. (ed.) Model of Human Occupation: Theory and application. 4th edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.32-50. Krause, K. & Coates, H. (2008) ‘Students' engagement in first-year university’. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. 33(5), pp.493-505. Krause, K. (2013) ‘Arrival and Orientation’ in Morgan, M. (ed.) Improving the Student Experience. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 69 Mahoney, J.L., Cairns, B.D., & Farmer, T.W. (2003) ‘Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular activity participation’. Journal of Educational Psychology. 95(2), pp.409-418. Maltby, J., Williams, G., McGarry, J. & Day, L. (2010) Research methods for nursing and healthcare. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Miller, T., Birch, M., Mauthner, M. & Jessop, J. (2012) Ethics in qualitative research. 2nd edn. London: Sage Publications. Molineux, M. (2004) Occupation for Occupational Therapists. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  22. 22. 22 Morris, K. (2012) ‘Considering violence, (Letter)’. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 75(5), pp.250. National Union of Students. (no date) Freshers’ week and settling in. Available at: http://www.nus.org.uk/cy/advice/freshers-and-settling-in/. (Accessed: 11.06.13). Newell, R. & Burnard, P. (2011) Research for evidence-based practice in healthcare. 2nd edn. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell. Polgar, S. & Thomas, S. (2008) Introduction to research in the health sciences. 5th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. Roberts, P. & Priest, H. (2010) Healthcare research: A handbook for students and practitioners. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell. Ross, T. (2012) A survival guide for health research methods. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Silverman, D. (2011) Interpreting qualitative data. 4th edn. London: Sage Publications. Thomas, S. (2011) ‘What drives student loyalty in universities: An empirical model from India’. International Business Research. 4(2) pp.183-192.
  23. 23. 23 Wagman, P., Hakansson, C. & Bjorklund, A. (2012) ‘Occupational balance as used in occupational therapy: A concept analysis’. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 19(4), pp.322-327. Wensley, R. & Slade, A. (2012) ‘Walking as a meaningful leisure occupation: the implications for occupational therapy’. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 75(2) pp.85-92. Wilcock, A. (2001) ‘Occupational science: the key to broadening horizons’. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 64(8), pp.412-417. ******** University Lone Working Policy (2013) Available at: http://www1.********.ac.uk/placements/poppi/health/Documents/130819%20Lone%20Working.pdf. (Accessed: 02.10.13). ******** University (2013) Research Ethics Policy. Available at: http://www1.********.ac.uk/research/Ethics/Documents/2013-01- 14%20********%20University%20Research%20Ethics%20Policy%202013.pdf. (Accessed: 11.06.13).

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