Report: What Significant Changes have Occurred in Advertising Mediums over the Past Decade, and what is Predicted for the Future?
What Significant Changeshave Occurred in Advertising Mediums over the Past Decade, and what is Predicted for the Future?
IntroductionI have been completing primary and secondary research in an effort to gaininformation regarding the development of advertising over the last 10years, focusing particularly on digitalisation and online mediums. This alsocovers social websites, particularly Twitter and Facebook.I have developed sub-questions which allow my research to be brokendown into sections and allows me to undertake specific research in relationto each of these. Secondary research allowed me to search for informationgathered by others. I used a range of tools to find these, such as Google(advanced search), Google Trends, Google Books, Youtube and GoogleScholar. I was unable to successfully use books to find my information as alot of these sources were out dated, in comparison to online sources Igathered.My primary research techniques involved an experiment, a questionnaireand a comparative analysis. I used this range of methods so I was able togain a public opinion as well as undertake my own work to understandadvertising trends for myself.
Sub-QuestionsI have broken down my initial question into smaller queries of which I wasable to find directly relatable sources. This helped me attain my individualsources more appropriately. I believe I broke down my main questionsuccessfully but questions such as „what type of product is primarily usedwithin digital media ads?‟ was very challenging to find answers for.How has advertising developed in convergence with digital media?How has advertising developed in convergence with social media?How has digital media affected the impact and success of advertising?What type product is primarily used within digital media ads?What are the predictions regarding the future of advertising?
How has advertising developed inconvergence with digital media?Throughout my research I have gathered a range of sources which provide information regarding changes in advertising throughdigital mediums. Source (1) highlights the fact that the internet is allowing for more customers to respond to advertising and have atwo way conversation with a brand. This has also meant that an ad agency has increasing responsibility for the customer servicesand overall brand identity of a client. Source (5) also agrees with this shift in the power of the consumer and adds a further point thatconsumers can actively avoid certain types of advertising e.g. Youtube, skip after 5 second ads and the ability on Google services todisable targeted advertising. Although these sources speak of this change, there is no proof that such methods are used widely andby all brands. Therefore, in only certain cases may an agency hold greater responsibility for customer service.Evidence of this two way process can be seen in source (17) in which I made a comparison between advertising methods of twoairlines. Each ad had a distinct online profile, with British Airways proving to have responded to customers inquires 44 seconds aftermy search, and Virgin Atlantic with 46 since the last search. This shows that digital media such as twitter is encouraging advertisingmethods to converge with customer services. Despite attempting to thoroughly research these two brands, it may be possible thatsome of the information I gathered was incorrect, such as the advertising spend. I also chose two leading brands, so this piece ofresearch only represents the higher end of the spectrum, as cheaper or less popular airlines may use very different methods. Source (6) makes the point that digital advertising allows for ads to be more appropriately targeted at consumers as certain usersvisit particular websites. This also relates to targeted advertising, in which Google are able to track cookies and display personalisedadverts. In source 18 I completed some primary research which was testing the effectiveness of targeted advertising. This workproved that targeted advertising does occur on the internet and that these sorts of ads are a product of the digital advertisinggeneration.Within source 16, 62% of responses said they sometimes recognise targeted advertising onthe internet and 29% said consistently recognise it . This shows that a large percentage of Cinemausers are aware this method. Despite this, only 29% of consumers recognise online Onlineadvertising as the most effective method and television as the most, with 52%. This showsthat from a consumers point of view, that digital advertising is still underdeveloped andineffective in comparison to traditional methods. Despite this questionnaire being completed TV Printby 20 people, this does not represent an effective proportion of the population. It was alsoshared through my social media profiles, with 71% of participants between the 13 – 17 agebracket. It is therefore difficult to draw fair conclusions using this evidence. Effectiveness of advertising methods (source 16)
How has advertising developed inconvergence with social media?Online social media a very significant portal for advertising. Source (2) clearly shows that there is ever increasing traffic to socialnetworks, particularly Facebook and Youtube. Twitter had a minimal amount in comparison. I then found two other sources (3) and(4), which document the history of advertising on these top two social networks. Facebook advertising only occurred for the firsttime in late 2006 and was settled with one client, which contrasts projections within 2011 for four billion dollar spend on advertising.This portrays an exponential development in social media advertising over the last 6 years. Similarly, Youtube harnessedadvertising in late 2006 and now has over 10,000 partners. This presents a clear success and demand in social media advertising.Although the information is clearly displayed in sources (3) and (4), they may be inaccurate due to the focus on design. Thesesources also lack detail for the same reasons.Source (17) shows that two famous brands, Virgin Atlantic and British Airways both use social media advertising. British Airwayshad a more successful online profile with over 50,777 talking about the brand and 302,310 likes on Facebook alone and over163,691 followers on Twitter. A lot of these social portals are able to promote existing ads and keep customers up to date onimportant information, including offers etc. As previously mentioned, a lot of customer interaction is consistent, with customersresponding to a post and the brand being able to personally respond. Evidence of this brand interaction technique can be seen insource (16), which shows that 48% of users have aired their opinion or interacted with a brand through social media, 43% haveseen others do this and only 10% were completely unaware of this. One issue with this comparison is that it is difficult to know theage of a social networking page. The age of a page can often impact the overall awareness and popularity. Despite finding out theage of each campaign, this does not represent the age of a social networking page.Source (16) shows that 52% of users didn‟t find social network advertising intrusive or irritating. The other 48% had reasons similarto that of this user (1 of 9 responses to this question), “it‟s annoying, distracting and invades my personal space”. This shows thatonline advertising is by no means something everyone dislikes. This may show that the method of integrating ads into online webspace has been done successfully. In contrast to the mixed response regarding online adverts, 19 out of 21 users responded withnegative feedback regarding targeted advertising. Many of the people I asked regard this technology as a„violation‟, „intrusive‟, „creepy‟ and „odd‟. This shows that this technology is not favourable by users despite it creating a moretailored browsing experience. Once again, regarding source (16) it is hard to rely firmly on this information due to the limited numberof responses.
Source 17 graphs Online Social Platforms Spend vs Twitter FollowersNumber of social networks used Twitter Followers (thousands) 180,000 4 160,000 140,000 3 120,000 100,000 2 80,000 Virgin £10 million 60,000 40,000 BA £20 million 1 20,000 0 0 Virgin BA £10 million £20 million Virgin BA Mediums of Advertising These graphs based on source (17) compare several 4 aspects of these two different campaigns. From graph Mediums (print/online/tv) two, it may be suggested that a higher ad spend is 3 likely to influence the success of social ad space. This shows that social media advertising is a fundamental part of a campaign. The other graphs, taken from the 2 Virgin comparative analysis present findings that with BA greater spend, more online social platforms and 1 mediums are used. This shows that more social platforms insights the success of a campaign, otherwise money would not have been 0 invested into such work. Despite these results, it Virgin BA would have been beneficial to compare more campaigns in different product fields such as food or fashion.
How has digital media affected theimpact and success of advertising?Following the amount on online campaigns seen, this new medium of advertising must be reaping some form of success.Source (7) tells us that after more than 10 seconds of being on the the webpage, 73% of users experienced a higheremotional response to ads on the page than other webpage content. This source also presents findings that say that93% of users notice online adverts whilst searching the net, 40% of users fixate on an ad within 10 seconds, and a userwill, on average, fixate on an ad 15 times whilst visiting a webpage. This source presents findings that suggest online adsdo attract attention of most users. Source (8) also affirms the success of online, in comparison to TV ads.Graphed results from source (8) (right) show that online video generates a significantlygreater likeability, message recall, brand recall and general recall than TV ads. Thisshows that specifically, online videos are able to have a greater impact on aconsumer. Not only do they have a greater impact, but they are also more likeable soare reaching an audience in a positive manner. Despite these positive results, theyonly cover online video and do not represent other online mediums such as webbanners. Despite these sources aiming to prove the success of online ads, it fails tomention the population reach, so although these ads are deemed more effective, theymay be seen by less and in turn, be less effective as e.g. a television ad.Source (13) highlights that viral material allows ads to reach a more appropriate audience, in a time when many consumersfeel bombarded by ads. Viral ads are likely to come from another user sending the material on, so this is unlikely to beviewed as an invasion of personal space etc. The challenge here is that material has to be interesting and provocativeenough for someone to deem it necessary to share further. This relates to source (11) which says ad agencies are havingto adapt quickly to the changes in the 21st century. A significant one of these highlighted here is that the instant nature ofdigital work means the turnaround time for projects has been decreased, sometimes leading to badly crafted campaigns.This has promoted the beginning of digitally focused agencies which are able to meet this demand with quality production.Source (10) mentions that digital material needs to have a key narrative and appear through search results throughappropriate tagging. From here, „fans‟ of this product may share the media or even create their own content. This allows fora significantly lower media spend as one piece of media, if executed correctly, can have a snowball effect. Despite theseresults, a greater range of sources are required to draw accurate results. As well as this, the long term effects of digitaladvertising is hard to find effective proof of as this is a relatively new method.
What type of product advertising is primarilyused within digital media?I was interested to see if one type of product was advertised using digital methodsmore, in comparison to another. In source (16), 79% of participants said that fashionappeared to me the most advertised product online. This was followed by Music/Filmat 63%. Such services may be seen to be advertised digitally as they converge wellwith online services. There are many online shopping outlets as well as opportunitiesto purchase film and music, whereas this is applicable for food and beverageproducts. Source (9) believes this online spend is likely to grow throughout the future.Despite these results, 71% of survey results were from 16 – 18 year olds so this mayinfluence the attention paid to particular ads depending on age group, as well as theappearance of targeted ads. This was a difficult question to find relevant secondarysources to and the questionnaire did not gain answers from enough people to give aneffective perspective on what products are mostly seen online. To gain a betterunderstand, an experiment may have been a more appropriate method of primaryresearch to address this question.What are the predictions regarding thefuture of advertising? The rapid changes in advertising over the last 10 years also raises questions regarding the future of the industry. Source (9) predicts that web use on mobile devices will overtake desktop we use in 2014. This means that advertising will need to become optimised for this platform effectively. In turn, online payments are expected to increase dramatically in the same time. This implies that the consumer process will become more instantaneous and accessible, which means such mobile ads are likely to act directly in relation to online mobile payment. The wide range of services available on smart phones means that agencies have greater opportunities for ad space. Source (15) projects the continuing rise of social network customer service interaction, which means companies are “becoming increasingly focused on creating and managing perception of their products or services”.
It also mentions location based services, with the projected increase of mobile devices, applications such as „Foursquare‟allowing brands to communicate to consumers who may be nearby e.g. a restaurant, similarly to source (9), predictionsof increased mobile web use are seen here and „It is projected that 50% of last minute holiday shopping, for the year2015 will be done via mobile devices‟. Another prediction regarding the future of advertising is seen in source (5) where itis said that 20% of advertising revenue is expected to shift from „impression-based‟ to „impact-based‟ within the next threeyears. This means to create advertising which is more individual specific and not pushed as a mass market media. Thislinks well to other sources which speak of the rise in targeted and demographic specific ads. This graph as seen on source (9) presents predictions regarding hardware used for completing online payments. Over a quarter of these expect to be done on mobile devices by 2015, in convergence with the expected increase of mobile web use over desktop. This emphasises the growing importance of mobile apt ads and payment services. Despite these future predictions, from a range of sources, it is likely this information can change in a short space of time and technologies may develop in unexpected ways. New legislation may also affect the limits of online ad space the development of impact-based ads. Without a greater range of sources, it is hard to draw an appropriate conclusion regarding the future as it is more effective to notice common trends in predictions after seeing more sources.
EvaluationOverall, I think I have completed the research project to a high standard. I believe I found a wide range of sources thatrelated to my question and sub questions. I would have liked to of used the internet less and found more literature, butthis was quite difficult to achieve as the topic is very current and relevant, up to date information is more difficult to find inthis format. Despite this, I did aim to search in a range of ways, using different services such as Google scholar andYoutube etc. I believe I found enough sources to effectively answer my questions except for „What type of productadvertising is primarily used within digital media? „, of which I was unable to find any primary sources. To gain some formof information on this part, I integrated it as part of my primary research. Although secondary research is oftenreliable, the legitimacy and truth within each source is difficult to test fully. Though it is difficult to lay entire trust ininformation gained, such sources may indicate some form of result but nothing definitive. Definitive results may be drawnfrom independent research with strict variables, or secondary sources which provide full proof of reliability.For my primary research, I completed a questionnaire, a comparative analysis and an experiment. I enjoyed collectingdata for these and was interested by the results from each. I believe I carried them out to a high standard, but wouldhave spent more time on them and repeated certain parts, such as the experiment, to increase reliability. In the case ofthe comparative analysis, I would have compared more campaigns, and regarding the questionnaire, I would have aimedto get more results. I think it would have been effective to ask more questions that I have such as „what are yourpredictions regarding the future of advertising‟, as it would be interesting to get a pubic opinion on this topic as well as amore professional one. If I had more time, it would have been good to carry out more primary research, especiallyexperiments. This would have allowed me to answer my question/sub questions in more depth and also pose more subquestions.I believe I appropriately applied my sources to my sub-questions and answered these as effectively as possible. Throughanswering sub-questions, this allowed me to also answer, to an extent, my main question. The use of graphs hereallowed me to present some of my results in an easily viewable visual style. Graphs are very useful but it is important tolabel axis and present information careful to prevent misleading anyone. It is possible that I could have used moregraphs within my presentation, especially in relation to quantative data. One the whole, I feel that the research projectwent well due to the range of sources I gathered and what this information was able to suggest in response to thequestions I posed.
ConclusionsWhat Significant Changes have Occurred in Advertising Mediums over the Past Decade, and what is Predicted for theFuture?The report shows that a significant restructure in the way advertising works has occurred over the past decade, as digitalmedia has opened up a new, powerful method of conveying messages. It is expected for a campaign to have a digitalelement to it, whereas this was not the case ten years ago. These digital methods may be as or more successful thantraditional methods as the digitalisation of services continues and become a bigger part of many peoples lives. One keyaspect of this is social media, which is seen as a very important part of online ads. Social media advertising allows forspecifically targeted ads through converging with information provided to the website.As well as these changes, advertising is coming an increasingly interactive process. Some ads now rely on a responsefrom the user e.g. mouse rollover ads. Social media tools such as Twitter and Facebook are also used by brands foradvertising purposes. A presence on these sites allows for companies to become a natural part of the digitallandscape, as well as promote awareness and increase opportunities for viral material. Such websites are also beingused to interact with customers directly about products and respond to any particularly questions, complaints etc.There are also a range of predictions regarding the future of the industry. One of these is the increase in mobile webuse, over desktop use. This therefore highlights the likelihood in development of mobile web appropriate advertising andwhat these changes will mean. With this, it is also predicted that location based services will also grow and advertisingspecific to current location will occur. This means that the range of demographics used for targeted advertising maygrow. A final prediction is that online product browsing and payment services will be brought closer to ads, so that a usercan pay for product or services directly through an advertisement.
BibliographySource 1http://www.forbes.com/sites/marketshare/2012/01/27/the-future-of-advertising-2012-hear-it-from-the-ad-students/By: Scott Goodson. 27th January 2012. Accessed 14th February 2012.Content: A piece about the development of advertising in relation to digital media, primarily the internet. It highlights how advertising isturning into a two-way process as consumers are able to actively interact and respond to brands online. It emphasises that developingmedia is constantly changing the landscape for advertising and that agencies are becoming increasingly responsible for the whole brandidentity and image of a company, not just their promotion.How Found: Typed „the future of advertising‟ into google with advanced search – past month results.Reliability: The source, Forbes is a reliable news publisher. The article is balanced as it contains a range of views from differentpeople, including students. Despite this, the article is made up of largely predictions and a lack of proof.Source 2http://www.google.co.uk/trends/?q=facebook,+twitter,+youtubeBy: Google. 14th February 2012. Accessed 14th February 2012.Content:I n relation to the idea that social media is an important tool for advertising, the graph represents an increasing use of the top 3social websites. The rapid increase in Facebook usage presents an opportunity to advertisers as a medium for advertising. Facebookadvertising became a significant feature in April 2007 as pages for brands were introduced (see source 3), at the same time as it‟spopularity just began to increase. Youtube‟s popularity has increased at a more steady rate and is another significant portal for onlineadvertising. In a similar manner to Facebook, Youtube has implemented advertising following initial success (see source 4), in thiscase, August 2006.How Found: A known tool by Google.Reliability: Google trends is very reliable source as they are likely to use technical counters. This service provides only quantative data andreferences, minimising the potential for bias.Source 3http://mashable.com/2011/06/28/facebook-advertising-infographic/By: Graphic made by Emily Caufield – Article posted by Sarah Kessler. 28th June 2011. Sourced 14th February 2012.Content: The infographic allows for a clear, time scaled presentation of information regarding advertising on Facebook. This method ofpresentation allows for quick reading, although it is likely to lack significant detail in parts. Despite this, is clearly demonstrates thedevelopment of social advertising in the case of Facebook and Facebook‟s popularity.Reliability: This information is likely to be quite reliable in content, but may be lacking information due to design purposes. These designpurposes may also mean some information is miscommunicated. Also, as it is a graphic, it is harder to update than a webpage etc.
Source 4http://www.mashable.com/2011/07/26/youtube-advertising-infographic/By: Graphic made by Emily Caufield – Article posted by Lauren Drell. 26th July 2011. Accessed 14th February 2012.Content: In a similar manner to the Facebook infographic, this graphic shows the development of advertising on YouTube.It shows a clear, chronological progression as well as other pieces of relevant information. How found: Typing in „youtubeinfographic‟ into google. First page of results. My search for this was due to finding the Facebook infographic.Reliability: The reliability of this infographic is similar to that of source 3. Although it is visually pleasing, it may have lostimportant information due to this and the graphical nature of the information makes it more difficult to update regularly.Source 5http://www.huddleproductions.com/2011/02/24/major-changes-for-advertising/By: The Admin of Huddle Productions. Article 24th February 2011. Accessed 21st February 2012.Content: This article speaks about the shift in power regarding advertising, highlighting the consumers ability to shape theirown advertising experience. People are now able to actively avoid advertisements more easily e.g. youtube adverts whichmay be skipped, when advertising is made more interactive. The article reports that the IBM found that two thirds of adexperts expected 20% of advertising revenue to shift from „impression-based‟ to „impact-based‟ within the next three years.How found: Typing „changes in advertising‟ into google with the use of the advanced search feature in finding results fromthe past year.Reliability: Huddle are a video production company who work in social media. The information here is all quoted from„Article by IBM Global Business Services‟. They are a very reliable source as they work in research and solutiontechniques. They are also global, well known company meaning their research is likely to be accurate.Source 6http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=LJYGOW6VWaYC&dq=digital+advertising&source=gbs_navlinks_sBy: Brand Media Strategy – Antony Young. Published 21st December 2010. Accessed 21st February 2012.Content: This book highlights a range of changes in advertising including the previously mentioned shifts in consumerinvolvement. In terms of advertising „type‟ and target, this source says that demographics have been made morespecific, with more psychographics being introduced to help target a consumer. A brand is able to make its appearance onparticular pages of the web in which it knows its target market (or destined target market) visits. It also allows for theconstant tweeking and live-altering of work which means it can be made as effective as possible.How found: Searching „digital advertising‟ on Google Books. Second page.Reliability: Anthony Young appears to have written several books on the subject of marketing and investment. He alsoappeared to use quotes and figures from advertising experts.
Source 7http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/138715/study-do-online-ads-work.htmlBy: Laurie Sullivan on „Online Media Daily‟. Published 2nd November 2011. Accessed 21st February 2012.Content: This article provides the results of research regarding the emotional effect of advertisements on a webpage. The article found thatthe experiment presented results showing that after more the 10 seconds on a webpage, 73% of users experienced a higher emotionalresponse to the adverts than other elements on the webpage. It was also found that in 40% of cases, a user fixated more than 15 times onan ad unit within the first 10 seconds of visiting a webpage. This experiment was measured using sensitive eye, heart rate, breathingmonitors etc.How found: Google search of „does online advertising work‟, second page.Reliability: This article seems reliable and the experiment appears to be have been completed under strict test conditions. Media postappears to be a reliable source as it focuses specifically on media news and information.Source 8http://econsultancy.com/uk/reports/uk-internet-statistics-compendium - downloadable PDF report (sample) available from this link.By: Econsultancy. Published 2011 (no specific date) Accessed 26th February 2012.Content: The report contains a lot of information about the use of digital media, specifically online advertising and draws variouscomparisons in the field. Despite emerging technologies and the significance of social networking in advertising, the majority of advertisingis received through television (2009), as many people often consume television ads whilst navigating around the internet. Despite this, thereport also highlights that the general recall, brand recall, message recall and likeability of an online video ad is consistently higher than atelevision ad. (2008 – 2009) See graph below.How found: Google search „advertising statistics‟.Reliability: I believe this source is very reliable. Econsultancy are a group who often publish marketing facts and statistics to aid marketers.Much of the research on the report has been sourced from Nielsen, e.g. the pictures graph. As previously discussed, Nielsen are a worldrenowned research group known for their accurate results. One downside to this report may be the date of information, but such reports arelikely to take time to produce, therefore making them slightly outdated.
Source 9http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CwTAARorGbk&feature=related - The Future of Online Digital Marketing 2012 - 2015By: GoToMyVideocom. Published June 4th 2011. Accessed 27th February 2012.Content: This motion infographic contains a lot of information regarding the future of the digital lifestyle. Despite not being directlyabout advertising, it contains a vast amount of information on how the evolution of social media and the internet is expected to impactour lives between the timeframe of 2012 – 2015. Some important points include the prediction that mobile web-use is expected toovertake computer and desktop internet use. This highlights the importance of mobile-web adapted ads. The amount of money spentonline is also set to increase dramatically, making the consuming process easier and quicker, which is also important for advertising.How found: Typing „advertising future‟ into Youtube.Reliability: The Youtube channel related to the video does not appear to be a technology/advertising/marketing group, but a film andvideo production group. It is also hard to track or determine the sources of the information shown in the video. This shows some lackof reliability, but the video is very professional and in depth with its information.Source 10http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4NyXzir2yKg&feature=endscreen - The Future of AdvertisingBy: StoryWorldwide. Published March 16th 2011. Accessed 27th February 2012.Content: This is another example of a motion infographic video. It is short, but contains a lot of direct information about advertising.The video highlights several key points: a brand should have a key narrative at the heart of it. These stories should be publishedacross areas the target market are likely to visit as well as being well optimized for appearing in search results through appropriatetagging. The fans of the brand here may share and create their own content in relation to this original story. An advantage of this is thelower media spend, as information can be shared for free online.How found: In related videos to „The Future of Online Digital Marketing 2012 – 2015‟Reliability: The video is sourced from an advertising agency, „Story‟. They are a very successful group with a range of impressiveclients. This means the information displayed in the video is likely to be based on experience from the agency. Despite this, some maysay that is just the opinion of one agency and other groups have different, more effective methods.Source 11http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:QNBcV3QkBuAJ:www.bhatnaturally.com/advertising/the-decade-in-advertising-then-and-now/+past+decade+advertising+changes&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk&client=safariBy: Bhatnaturally – a blogger posting about technology and advertising. Published May 16th 2011, accessed February 27th 2012.Content: A change in advertising this article highlights is the turnaround time for the creation of an ad. It explains that the instantnature of advertising digitally means that the move of a competitor must be matched as soon as possible, increasing pressure on thewhole agency, leading the birth of digitally focused agencies in the past few years. The post also says that this increased pressurehas lead of a lack of craftsmanship and attention to detail in advertising, and ideas may not be developed as much as they used to be.Despite this, „traditional‟ methods of advertising such as TV and print are still prominent and may be subdued to the time constraints ofdigital advertising productionHow found: Google. Typing „past decade advertising change‟, first page.Reliability: Although this blog post does contain some interesting and fair information, it is likely to be bias as it is from one singleviewpoint and not based on facts of figures, whereas many of my other sources are.
Source 12https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:m9Ddo1wPA1AJ:www.google.com/doubleclick/pdfs/DoubleClick-04-2005-The-Decade-in-Online-Advertising.pdf+past+decade+advertising+changes&hl=en&gl=uk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESicmCBNFeAAMpkBIqJ8H9tG60HZ4InGat07OBdd5Qbr50mPzcNGbcgx467xl0M4LVaqzx66Tss2sLexbQLMLv3-fgTeWDSENNQEjK1TS3iKISqxV50oEtnhwdp14W795FPP9G2G&sig=AHIEtbT4wWYoyfIjWuoZ4Cj4kdrV9z-PswBy: doubleclick.com. Published April 2005, accessed 27th February 2012.Content: The report gives background information regarding internet advertising, which originated in 1994. Interestingly, the report doesnot mention the rise of social network advertising, but speaks of advertising on blogs instead. Although blog advertising on blogs doeshappen, it is not as prominent, successful or interactive as advertising on youtube, facebook etc. It also mentions information regardingthe ease of online ad success measurement, which allows for more accurate budgeting by a company.How found: Google. Typing „past decade advertising change‟, second page.Reliability: The main issue with the piece is its dating. My research question is based around the last current decade (2012/2011 –2002/2001) whereas this report is based between 1994 – 2004. Despite this, I can still use the information on this report regarding theyear 2001 until 2004. In terms of the informational source, doubleclick are an ad management and ad technology company, so theirinformation is likely to be reliable. Some other sources are also from Nielsen, emphasizing the reliability.Source 13http://jiad.org/download?p=78By: Lance Porter and Guy J. Golan. Published 2006 (unable to access date), accessed 28th February 2012.Content: The paper highlights that viral advertising is something that has only come about through digitalization, and that viral media ismore likely to be reach the right audience and not be spread among people who have no relation or interest in a product. It mentions thatconsumers are feeling increasingly bombarded by adverts that are not appropriate for them, which is frustrating for them. Online and viralads are able to address this issue to a degree, whereas TV can‟t do this. It is also mentioned that viral content needs to be moreappealing and provocative, to make it worth sharing, perhaps increasing the effectiveness of viral ads.How found: Google scholar search. Typing „viral advertising‟ – first page.Reliability: Googling the authors of the article lead me to results which pointed to university websites. I found that both authors areuniversity lecturers in communication and similar subjects. These means the reliability of this piece is particularly high. There is also alarge list of references at the end of the article to backup data and information mentioned in the article.
Source 14http://davebirss.wordpress.com/2011/09/28/the-future-of-advertising-podcast-episode-6/The Future of Advertising – Podcast Series – Episode 6By: Dave Birrs. Published September 2011, accessed 28th February 2012.Content: (unable to listen to podcast because of technical fault) The information blogged about the podcast gives a summary regardingthe content of the podcast. It contains interviews with two agency professionals, as well as links from the producer of the podcast. Thepodcast contains content about how technology is „improving our lives‟, and that it is important to know the audience well, collaborate(convergence) and know the competition.How found: Googling „advertising podcast‟. Second page of results.Reliability: The producer and presenter of the podcast is the owner of an advertising training company. This increases the reliability of theinformation presented as he is an industry professional. It also includes interviews with other industry professionals, ensuring theinformation is reliable. Despite this, there are no actual statistics here, which may lower its reliability.Source 15http://smallbusinessadvertisingstrategies.com/advertising-trends-7-trends-in-advertising-for-2012/7 Trends in Advertising for 2012By: http://smallbusinessadvertisingstrategies.com. Published January 2012, accessed February 28th 2012.Content: This article highlights a series of predicted trends in advertising for the coming year. It expects the use of social media as acustomer service tool to become the primary and most effective method of communication with a brand. It allows for instant and effectiveresolutions to problems, complaints, compliments etc. With smartphone use and the integration of location services, it is expected thatconsumers are likely to be subject to brands or services which are local and convenient to them. This may be seen as giving smallerorganisations a voice and making the access to services for a consumer an easier process.How found: Googled „advertising trends‟. First page of results.Reliability: Although the post does not have a specific author attached, the blog is an organization aiming to encourage the advertising ofsmall business. This therefore highlights knowledge in the field of advertising, and in turn, reliability. On the other hand, these are onlypredictions for the future, and as these are not based on precise figures and analysis of previous trends, one may not trust this source.