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  1. 1. Chapter I:California By Jonathan Covarrubias History 141 Tue/Thurs (11-12:20)
  2. 2. Ch 1 (Queen Califia's Island) <ul><ul><li>Allies of Esplandians were known as Californians, whom were a race of black amazons, lead by Queen Califia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California seen as a paradise, known for its cold and precious stones which were flaunted in battle on the weapons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Califia sailed to Constantinople to join forces with other great captains in fight against the Turks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish explorers in 1533 sailed west from Mexico under the command of Hernan Cortes landed on what later be California in the pacific, in search of gold and stones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caifornia resulted from the collision of the North and Pacific plates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,264 Mile pacifit shorline, 4 harbors formed over 33 years ago when the mountains on the shorline collapsed and the sea came rushing in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco bay being one of a few finest natural harbors on earth. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Ch 1 (Queen Califia's Island) Cont.. <ul><ul><li>Over 41  mountains in CA peak over ten thousand feet. The highest being Mt Whitney at over 14 thousand fee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result of such mountanis topography comes earthquakes which cost great damage and devistation to the population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higest point is death valley, just 60 miles from Mt Whitney, the loest on the continent 282 feet below sea level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The California current coming from the northestern pacific and the pacifit high, which is a high pressure zone a few thousand miles off the coast help moderate interior heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain and desert barriers  along with water and climate reneder California a bioregion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ch 1 (Queen Califia's Island) Cont.. <ul><ul><li>Native Americans amongst the first few hundread thousand inhibators of california, native to the land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the mountains were the fishing people, to the west were several tribes who were some of the few to survive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With an abundance of natural resources, most if not all the Native Americans were happy with no need for war, because they had everything they needed and there was not much reason to fight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With the arrival of europeans, the Native population declined fast, and civilizations were destroyed and the native would never be the same again. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter 7: Great Expectations <ul><ul><li>1890, public works infrastructure of California was established. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was the amazing structures and architectural work put together that would create the empowerment of what California would later become. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statewide water systems of large magnitude needed to be created for California to become inhabitable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The drainage act would later be passed that would &quot; Create the position of state engineer and appropriate 100k for irrigation, drainage, and navigation studies&quot; . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Central Valley as well as portions of southern California would later become an empire for agriculture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first question was how? State engineer William Hammond Hall along with some other engineers did some studies that would include bringing the water from the Colorado river. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 miles laying down hill, a gravity canal would be built and on May14th, 1901 George Chaffey ordered the lifting of the last head gate and water from the Colorado river  flowed into the Salton sink creating Imperial Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chapter 7: Great Expectations Cont.. <ul><ul><li>Irrigation is making the possibilities endless for  the rise of a new civilization in california creating oppurtunity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In October of 1904 the California development company created a second canal from the western bank of the Colorado river across northern Mexico into the imperial valley, having been done illegally, it was a complete failure.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1905, a shift of titanic portions gorged by spring rains overwhelmed the the second canal almost drowning southern California. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To get rid of the flooding, about 2,500 carloads of rock gravel and clay were put into the break for 15 miles on both sides of the rupture creating a levee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The technology used in the gold rush for moving water across land led up to the technology of irrigation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By having each city appoint a board of public works to develop water plans and programs to meet the demands of the growing city populations water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On July 7th, 1923 the mayor of San Francisco dedicated the O'Shaufhnessy Dam in honor of a city engineer as well as the men lost in the dams, pipelines, power plants and other structures that created the possibility for San Francisco. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict of interest along with other scandals and stories contributed to the many failing as well as benefiting factors that would be created through the building and expansion of San Francisco and other places as well. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The future of water was only the beginning for San Francisco, upgrading the architechture was also a big factor in its expansion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The money and architectual talent were available for these upgrades. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.9 million populated California by1940. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1920, Mexican American Population from LA making the single largest minority group in the city. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Chapter 7: Great Expectations Cont.. <ul><ul><li>With so much going on, making a living was easy in the booming economy, especially with the construction of the LA Aqueduct keeping thousands employed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angel's was on top of the world early in the game with the expansion of homes creating more jobs, and later in the San Diego area, marine base would be built, along with the many ports creating stations for navy and for import and export as well as a great place to go fishing, all in all California was doing great, expanding and bringing tourist from all over the world as well as mass producing oil. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chapter 12:Ecumenopolis <ul><ul><li>In order to understand California, you must first look at the different ethnic groups that inhabited the land. The Native Americans, following the intrusion of the Spanish along with other European countries and ethnic groups around the world who came for gold during the gold rush. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All were not equal and everything wasn't fair. With so many different ethnic minorities, it was hard to not be a target of racism or discrimination, like the Japanese American men that were arrested during WWII or the segregation of blacks and whites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 1900's San Francisco had the highest proportion of foreign born residents relative to its own population in the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the end of the 20th century over 80 languages in addition to English were spoken in LA School District. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of all the different ethnic groups, there was racial tension and discrimination leading to violence such as in the Watts riots. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chapter 12:Ecumenopolis Cont... <ul><ul><li>  In the case of racial tension between blacks and whites, not only the Watts riots, but the O.J Simpson trial where the people wanted to see if you got a fair trial or not depending on your race. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With crime as well as the economy, California would face some struggles, but on top of these two issues was the issue of illegal immigration from Mexico to California. With the laws past over decades giving amnesty, the population of legal Mexican born Americans has risen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mexican American presence in the U.S was questioned once the issue of the anti-illegal campaigns focused on illegals from Mexican with possible accusations of corruption of the American legal system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposition 187 would call for the withdrawal of all public support for undocumented immigrants besides medical services, creating ideas in Washington that illegals were costing the country a lot of money. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action was based on theory that men and women were primarily who and what they were because of race, ethnicity, gender or class, and this was later fought and remains. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Chapter 12:Ecumenopolis <ul><ul><li>The next scandal was the bilingual education, because such a high amount of kids about 1.4 million in 1997 had little proficiency in English, and the argument was weather or not they should teach the classes in Spanish or to put them in English and see if there skills improved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many laws were argued and put into effect in benefit of the surrounding society. With immigrants taking jobs non immigrants don't want, come advantages and disadvantages, but with proper solution compromise can be made and the debate of illegal immigration continues to be a huge issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>