有朋自远方来，不亦乐乎？ 欢迎来到STMG 191的课堂！珍惜当下 :-) Carpe Diem / Seize the Day
All the worlds a stage, And all the menand women merely players: They havetheir exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts.
Welcome to your journey into the world of organisations and management The journey not the arrival matters’ T.S. Eliot. ‘Tell me and I forget. Show me and I remember. Involve me and I understand’ (Chinese proverb) How do you learn best?
What do you want to get from this paper? A pass? Pass well? Fail? Don’t know? To be challenged intellectually? Personal development? To become independently minded? To learn to think critically? To differentiate myself? Why should I want to do this? To find out what ‘pushes your buttons’, what route you might want to explore in your degree?
What do we want? To get you interested in learning about organisations and management To ‘press your buttons’ To challenge you To get you to think critically To help you realise your potential To make it an enjoyable learning experience To encourage you to ‘learn how to learn’
You already know a lot about the subject Think about the organisations you have belonged to or currently belong to What do they have in common? How do they differ?
What is an organisation? A collection of people working together to achieve a common purpose Where people are able to accomplish more together than they could individually (achieve synergy) Produce goods and/or services that, hopefully satisfy the needs of customers e. g. 191 is our organisation Organisations do not simply exist to employ people! They also come in all shapes and sizes with a variety of purposes - Red Cross, WMS, Hillcrest High, Hillcrest Bakery etc
What is management? Is it…. A Science: knowledge through disciplined exploration of that which is not clearly understood Management utilises scientifically acquired knowledge to develop tools e.g. planning techniques An Art: conceptualised a new idea or approach from personal insights Difficult to conceptualize management as an ‘art’ A Profession: Not a profession but some sub-disciplines have a professional basis e.g. accountancy A Craft: Better thought of as a craft to be mastered like pottery?
Management is…. “Getting things done through people” ◦ An on-going activity that, ◦ Entails goal attainment, and ◦ Requires knowing how to perform the major management functions e.g. planning ◦ Often fragmented ‘messy’ and carried out under pressure ◦ Transforming resources ◦ Needs ‘leadership’
How did management come about? Why is it important? A tale of three revolutions The Agricultural Revolution in 16th century England The Industrial Revolution in 18/19th century England and Europe The Knowledge Revolution in 20th century, western developed nations e.g. USA
What kicked off the Management Revolution?: The Industrial Revolution Power – water - then steam power Mechanisation – application of power Factory system – large scale grouping of people Need for owners to put someone in charge – to supervise Beginnings of modern management
But what is it that managers actually do? Is managing contextual or is a universal activity i.e. the same in Auckland as Shanghai? Does managerial work differ according to levels? e.g between senior or lower levels? What are the major challenges facing managers in the 21st century?
The Management Process PlanningControlling Organising Leading
The Traditional View of Managing Planning ◦ Setting goals and deciding on courses of action to take Controlling ◦ Evaluating how well goals are met and taking actions to correct deficiencies Organising ◦ Establishing a structure of working relationships that coordinates individuals and groups in an effort to achieve goals Leading ◦ Envisioning, energizing, and enabling people to work together to achieve goals
Raises more questions than answers…. What do these labels mean e.g. planning? Do all managers engage in all of these activities or only some of them? Do managers at different levels engage in more or less of these activities? Can the messy world of managing be neatly compartmentalised under these headings?
Managing is ‘results-orientated’ Managers are concerned about: Effectiveness (goal attainment) ◦ measure of task output or goal accomplishment ◦ direct line to ultimate customer service and satisfaction Efficiency (input/output ratio) ◦ measure of the resource cost associated with goal accomplishment ◦ measure of outputs realised compared to inputs consumed
Management Roles [Mintzberg, 1980] Role: a set of specific tasks a person performs because of the position she/he holds Roles are directed inside as well as outside the organization Interpersonal: leader, figurehead, liaison Informational: monitor, disseminator, spokesperson Decisional: entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
Interpersonal Roles Roles managers assume to coordinate and interact with employees and provide direction to the organization Figurehead role: symbolizes the organization and what it is trying to achieve Leader role: train, mentor and motivate high employee performance. Liaison role: link and coordinate people inside and outside the organization to help achieve goals
Informational Roles Monitor role: seeks & analyses information from both the internal and external environment Disseminator role: manager transmits information to influence attitudes and behaviour of employees Spokesperson role: use of information to positively influence the way people in and out of the organization respond to it
Decisional Roles Entrepreneur role: decides upon new projects or programs to initiate and invest Disturbance handler role: assumes responsibility for handling an unexpected event or crisis Resource allocator role: assigns resources between functions and divisions, set budgets of lower managers Negotiator role: seeks to negotiate solutions between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders
Levels of Management Top Level Management CEO GMMiddle Level Management Plant Mgr First-Line Management Regional Mgr Supervisor3 Department Manager Team Leader
Types of Managers Top managers - conceptual skill emphasis: Ensure that major performance objectives are established and accomplished in accordance with organization’s purpose Responsible for performance of an organization as a whole or one of its significant parts e.g. CEO, President, VP
(cont) Middle managers - mixed skills emphasis: Report to top managers in charge of relatively large departments or divisions Implement complex projects that require participation of persons from different parts of the organizations e.g. Plant managers, division managers, sales managers, clinic directors, deans
(cont) Team leader or supervisor – technical skills emphasis In charge of a smaller work unity composed of non- managerial workers ensure that their work team or unit meet performance objectives that are consistent with plans of middle and top management e.g. team leader, supervisor, department head, unit manager
Management Skills & Competencies [Katz, 1974] Technical: the ability to use specific knowledge, techniques, and resources in performing work. Human: (Interpersonal): the ability to work with, communicate with, and understand others Conceptual: the ability to visualise how each part of an organization fits and interacts with other parts to accomplish goals and objectives Knowledge base: Can organizations rely on generic managers? [institutional knowledge]
Managerial Assumptions andBehaviours: Theory X and Y Managerial beliefs which influence their style of managing Assumptions about human behavior as well as what makes a business successful Beliefs have consequences on how we manage others and the expectations they have of us
Theory X Managements responsibility is to improve the companys "bottom line." Employees are a resource to be used to meet this goal. People are basically unwilling to work in the best interests of the company, cannot handle responsibility, and must be tightly controlled, prodded, and pressured to get their work done.
Theory Y Management create conditions that enable employees to attain their own goals by working toward the goals of the organization. Employees are inherently ready to accept responsibility, do a good job, and work in the best interests of the company. Managements responsibility to create the conditions that allow employees to develop their fullest potential.
Challenges facing modern managers Rapidly changing business environment e.g. the continuing recession Technological change e.g. ‘Twitter’ Developing skills needed e.g. managing ‘GEN-Yers’ Time pressures Stress from pressure to achieve results
(cont) Ethical issues Climate change Globalisation Impact of technology Managing knowledge Diversity in the workplace Speed of change & innovation