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A comparative analysis of technical and tactical performance of male and female football teams in elite competitions

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A comparative analysis of technical and tactical performance of male and female football teams in elite competitions

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e A Comparative analysis of the physical, technical and tactical performance leading to goals scored in elite male and female football competition. Leeds Beckett University.Carnegie Faculty. Submitted in part fulfilment of the degree, BSc (Hons) Sports Coaching. Jonathon Robert Holden (33238252)
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e Declaration I confirm that this Major Independent Study constitutes my own work. I confirm that the text of the submission does not exceed the upper word limit of 10,000 words. Student (Print Name) ……………………………………………………………… Signed ……………………………………………………………… Date ……………………………………………………………… Supervisor ……………………………………………………………... Date ……………………………………………………………..
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e Contents List of Tables ................................................................................................................................ 5 List of Appendices......................................................................................................................... 6 Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................... 7 Abstract.......................................................................................................................................8 Introduction.................................................................................................................................9 Aims and Objectives of this study............................................................................................. 10 Literature Review ....................................................................................................................... 11 Attacking Strategies................................................................................................................ 11 Physical Comparison............................................................................................................... 13 Technical and Tactical Comparison........................................................................................... 15 Method...................................................................................................................................... 18 Ethical Approval...................................................................................................................... 18 Subjects................................................................................................................................. 18 Match Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 18 Data Analysis.......................................................................................................................... 20 Results....................................................................................................................................... 22 How many goals were scored?................................................................................................. 22 How were these goals scored?................................................................................................. 22 Where were these goals scoredfrom?..................................................................................... 23 How and where was the ball won?........................................................................................... 24 How did they work their way in to position to score?................................................................ 25 When were the goals scored?.................................................................................................. 26 How did the goals scored effect the state of the game? ............................................................ 27 Discussion.................................................................................................................................. 28 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 33 References................................................................................................................................. 35 Appendices ................................................................................................................................ 40 Appendix One......................................................................................................................... 40 Appendix Two......................................................................................................................... 41 Appendix Three ...................................................................................................................... 42 Appendix Four........................................................................................................................ 43
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e Appendix Five......................................................................................................................... 44 Appendix 6............................................................................................................................. 48 Appendix Seven...................................................................................................................... 52 Appendix Eight....................................................................................................................... 53 Appendix Nine........................................................................................................................ 54 Appendix Ten ......................................................................................................................... 55 Appendix Eleven..................................................................................................................... 56 Appendix Twelve .................................................................................................................... 57 Appendix Thirteen .................................................................................................................. 58 Word Count: 9,660
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e List of Tables Table 1 – Table showing number of games played, goals scored, goal per game ratio and average distance of goals scored by male and female football teams. Table 1.2 – Table showing how goals were scored by both teams, including statistics on distribution of left, right and headed goals and the techniques used. Table 1.3 – Table showing data collected regarding the location in the net where goals were scored by both teams. Table 2 – Table showing where possession was won and how it was won by both teams. Table 3 – Table showing data collected on the number of players involved, number of touches on the ball and the average pass length in the build-up to a goal. This table also shows where the final ball distribution was made from. Table 4 – Table showing when goals were scored during the duration of the game. Table 4.2 – This table shows the match state prior to and post goals being scored.
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e List of Appendices Appendix 1 - Notational Analysis Tool Appendix 2 - Pitch Channels Appendix 3 - Goal Area Appendix 4 – Goal Location Appendix 5 – Male Notation Data Appendix 6 – Female Notation Data Appendix 7 – Male Goal Area Data Appendix 8 – Female Goal Area Data Appendix 9 – Male Goal Location Data Appendix 10 – Female Goal Location Data Appendix 11 – Thirds of a Pitch Appendix 12 – Male Team Formation Appendix 13 – Female Team Formation Appendix 14 – Leeds Beckett University Ethics Forms Appendix 15 – Meeting Minutes Forms
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e Acknowledgements My thanks firstly go to my friends, especially; Alex Hindwood, Jack Banks and John Bentley, who throughout my time, especially my final year at university, have always supported me and been there for reassurance throughout. I would like to thank my M.I.S supervisor, Stephen McKeown for his endless support, enthusiasm and knowledge on my topic. Thanks to every single player and staff member who I have the pleasure of working with at Leeds Beckett University Football Club and Bradford City Women’s Football Club for providing the inspiration for this research. It would be a huge understatement to say that, without working with these players, none of what I have learnt at university would have been meaningful. To those players who have contributed directly to my university work I am even more grateful. I would also like to personally thank John Hall and Chris Welburn, who without I wouldn’t have been involved with the university football programme and would not have been able to achieve what I have so far as a coach. Both have been assessors on my FA coaching courses and been incredibly inspirational and motivating, as well as being incredible role models. Finally I would like to thank Laura Gadd, without who I would probably have stopped working on this research project. She is someone who is always there for me and has always believed in me.
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e Abstract The popularity and professionalism of women’s football (soccer) continues to grow all over the globe in the build up to the FIFA Women’s World Cup in Canada 2015. With players being able to earn more from their footballing contracts than the expenses they incur, putting them in to professional or semi-professional status. With increased research in to the physical comparisons within male and female versions of the game in existence, this study aims to present the technical and tactical differences in the game too. This study identified the differences in attacking strategies that lead to goals (n=66) created by two elite football teams. All the games analysed were regular season games (n=24) played at the home ground of the two teams being observed. One of the teams being analysed is a professional female football team, while the other is a professional male football team. Both teams finished first in their respective leagues in the season prior to this study being conducted in April 2015. From the data compiled it is apparent that at present the women’s game is far more technical and tactical opposed to the physical nature of the male game. The build up to goals in the female game is slower and longer in duration, allowing for more touches on the ball, more passes and more players to be involved. It has also shown a stark contrast in the methods used by male and female player to gain possession of the ball and the areas of the pitch for them to attempt to do so. The number of goals scored by successful male and female teams is similar over the course of 12 competitive league games. The average difference in distance from goal for men to score from is .5m further away than goals scored by the female team.
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e Introduction Analysis of football games has received great attention over the last decade or so. The results of this analysis has been utilised by coaches for the planning of weekly training sessions, their annual goals and informing their coaching philosophies. The objective of analysis is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of a team or an individual (Carling, Williams, & Reilly 2005). In this instance two teams have been analysed to determine the difference in strategies used by elite male and female football teams. The attacking strategies of many teams from all over the world have been analysed, however predominately using male football teams in their samples. Scoring goals is a rarity in football and given that they are the key statistic that determines the outcome of a game, it is vital that teams are able to create them. Goal scoring has received extensive attention in scientific research (Hughes & Franks, 2005 and Tenga et al 2010). Armatas & Yiannakos (2010) reported that in almost 70% of matches, the team scoring the first goal, goes on to win the game. There is still a lack of scientific research published on the attacking strategies employed in women’s football. The technical, tactical and physical attributes of male and female footballers differ, Kirkendall et al, (2002). Mara et al, (2012) have analysed the attacking strategies implemented by Australian W-League sides in 34 league games. The outcome of their research showed the differences in the approaches taken by the most successful and the least successful teams in the league over the course of a season. While Kirkendall et al, (2002) have compared male and female strategies used at the 1998 and 1999 FIFA World Cup tournaments in France and Brazil respectively. However the development of women’s football over the last 16 years has been immeasurable, with the creation of ‘professional’ leagues for female’s in their early years all over the world. The Football Association Women’s Super League (FA WSL) being introduced in England in 2010 when there were just 8 founding teams. There are now 18 sides with licences to play in the two tiered FA WSL in 2015, while the majority of the sides remaining semi-professional. The National Women’s Soccer League (NWSL) in the United States of America was founded in 2012 following the demise of the Women’s Premier Soccer league, due to financial reasons. While in the US, national team players are distributed evenly to
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e each of the 8 member teams and are paid by the national governing bodies. Statistics from The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA 2013) show that women’s football is one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, with some nations reporting increases of 511% in registered players over a five year period leading up to the study being conducted. While the English ‘Game Changer’ strategy has enhanced the funding in the female game in the country to £15M, the Football Association still makes no mention of the differences in the male and female game in either its coaching manual (FA 2014) or its Future Game document (FA 2010). There is a severe lack of research done to compare elite male and female football, only Bradley et al, (2014) have directly compared elite footballers previously. Aims and Objectives of this study This new research has specifically looked at the differences in: The position on the field that possession of the ball is won, the number of individuals involved in the build-up to a goal being scored, the number of touches each player has, the number of ball distributions made, where the final ball distribution is made from, where the shot on goal leading to a goal scored is made from, where in the goal the ball crosses the goal line, the length of time passed from possession being won to a goal being scored, the time of the goal and the state of the game pre and post goal being scored. To ensure this study is as relevant as possible, both teams used are playing at the highest level possible in club football. The study has assessed games played in home league fixtures only to ensure that the reliability and validity of data recorded is not affected by changes in the size of the pitch. The results from this study have been generated with coaches in mind, to help highlight the key physical, technical and tactical differences in male and female football. This information should not be taken as being solely for football coaches, as other invasion sports such as rugby, basketball and hockey may also have similar differences to those brought to light in this study. The results of this study aim to help coaches create attacking strategies based on the key physical, technical and tactical differences in male and female elite football. The study also aims to define the development of female football in line with that of male football.
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e Literature Review In order to compile this literature review, a systematic compilation of relative research has been compiled using; Sport Discus, PubMed, Discover and Google Scholar. Journals with key terms such as; gender differences in sport, attacking strategies and soccer match analysis were located using these databases and were narrowed down using date published to locate the most recent and up to date studies in the related areas for this research project. Attacking Strategies The ability to score goals has a huge bearing on overall success levels, teams in several of the world’s top leagues (English Premier League, Spanish Premiera and the German Bundesliga) shows that those who score the most goals finish higher up the league table. Teams at the top of the league were able to score 2 goals per game on average while those at the bottom are only able to average 1 per game. This is also the case for women’s teams competing in elite level competitions (Mara et al 2012). To enhance their ability to score goals teams often create attacking strategies with the intent of producing moments more likely to produce a goal (Luhtanen et al, 2001). However, Cordes et al, (2012) suggested that coaches rarely spend time comparing actual performance to that planned prior to the game, instead opting to provide general feedback to the team. These attacking strategies are often specific to the position on the pitch where possession is won and where the attacking team wish to position the ball in order to create goal scoring opportunities (Horn et al, 2002). Again the quality of the team usually determines the areas of the pitch they choose to exploit, Mara et al, (2012) found that the teams finishing in the top positions scored most of their goals by attacking from the left, the mid-table teams attacking from the right and the least successful teams attacked through the middle. The type, length, height and direction of ball distribution is a vital factor in the effectiveness in a team’s attacking strategy (Taylor et al, 2005 & Leite et al, 2009). Mara et, al. (2012) analysed the strategies employed by teams in the Australian W- League in 34 games, which showed that 24% of goals scored over the course of the league season by all of the teams involved were the result of a cross in open play
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e and that 26% of corners taken directly led to a shot on target. This would suggest that crossing is a fundamental part of the game and should be a key aspect of successful teams play. This research was conducted on the Australian national women’s league, The W-League, which was established in 2008. This league is dominated by Australian players, with the Australian national team sitting 10th in the world. This could question the quality of play being analysed by the researchers. With women’s football increasing in stature and quality since 2012 when the research was completed, the validity of this study at present is now questionable. In analysing the attacking strategies of the 8 teams in the league in 2010/11 they looked at all the games played in the league on all grounds throughout the country. The amount of travel teams making to play in away games could have a significant effect on their strategy in attack. The research does not discuss the formations used by the teams either, this could also dictate the strategy they use to create goal- scoring opportunities. The size of the pith being played is also not considered and therefor this could affect the areas in which teams choose to attack from. Should a pitch be narrow they would have less opportunity to play the ball in to the right or left wing areas. Taylor et al. (2005) & Leite et al. (2009) both also suggested that the area of the pitch in which possession of the ball is used is key to goal-scoring. Teams who operate in the wide areas and manage to deliver a cross in to the central area promote goal-scoring opportunities. Published research by Hughes & Franks (2005) and Yiannakos & Armatas (2006) focusses on the comparisons between direct (using long passes) and possession play (using shorter passes). This research examined the relative success of these two different approaches to the game and recommended that direct play was most effective in creating a goal-scoring opportunity. However analysis from the 2011 Women’s World Cup suggests that the long ball no longer has a place in the game according to FIFA (2011), yet this approach was very effective in the 2014 Under 20 Women’s World Cup, FIFA (2014). The differences in the U20’s ability to be successful through the long, direct passing approach highlights the lack of ability to read the game, due to less experienced players in comparison to those playing in the senior competition. It could also be a sign that the game is changing and the physical capabilities of female players is increasing and therefor allowing players to hit long, direct passes that are now more effective due to the pace of the pass. Lago (2009) suggested that teams often change the style of play during a game depending on the game
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e situation, whether they were winning, losing or drawing. Teams retain possession of the ball for longer periods, possession play, while losing in an attempt to dictate play. This is opposed to when winning or drawing, these teams are more inclined to play ‘direct play’ as they are happy to counter attack their opposition, Bloomfield et al. (2005), Jones et al. (2004) and Lago and Martin (2007). The attacking strategies of many teams from all over the world have been analysed, however predominately using male football teams in their samples. There is still a lack of scientific research published on the attacking strategies employed in women’s football. The technical, tactical and physical attributes of male and female footballers differ, Kirkendall et al. (2002). This research suggests that the majority of goals scored in men’s football were a direct result of set plays in contrast to women’s, where a large proportion of goals scored were from open play. While research has been done on the effectiveness of direct free-kicks in women’s football by Alcock (2010), little has been done on the open play strategies. Physical Comparison While there are distinct differences in the intensity in which the men’s and women’s games are played, the nature of the game, in terms of work-rest ratios, and proportion of time spent moving at several different intensities is very similar between men and women (Andersson et al. 2010, Gabbett & Mulvey 2008 and Gabbett et al. 2012). Football has been characterised as a physical game defined by athlete’s ability to perform high-intensity bouts of movement following longer periods of low intensity movement, (Gabbett, Carius&Mulvey 2008 and Bradley et. al, 2013). FIFA (2011) and Bradley et al, (2013) both suggest that female players are unable to produce high levels of sprinting ability. The average distance sprinted at maximal velocity in the 2011 Women’s World Cup was just 55m. This equates to just 0.5% of the game time spent at maximum speed. Whereas men in the 2010 World Cup were able to spend 5.1% of the time at top speed (FIFA 2010). However these figures could be argued to be unfair as the sprint speed used for both groups were the same, meaning female players had to reach the same speed as their male counterparts to be considered to be sprinting. Lepers, Knechtle& Stapley (2013) found that in the 2012 London Olympic Triathlon event that the average time
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e difference over a 10km run was 12.3% in favour of males. While in cycling the time difference over ranging distances from 100m to 2000m is 11% in favour of males according to Schumacher, Mueller and Keul (2001).Baumgart, Hoppe &Freiwald (2014) found that there is a difference of 11.3% and 31.6% in incremental and interval shuttle run testing between male and female soccer players in Germany. They also noted that the gender differences increased when the training was intermittent and non-linear. With football being characterised as a physical game where physical performance is measured by the distance covered in a game and an athlete’s ability to perform short periods of high intensity, high velocity movement, between longer periods of moderate to low speed running. So by using the same speed variables to determine running intensity for male and female soccer players could be seen as unfavourable to females. Baumgart et al (2014) used a male team from division four of the national league to compare against a division one female side, this was due to the similarity of training schedules to allow the tests to be deemed fair. However a comparison of the most elite female footballers in Germany could have been compared to the most elite male teams, this would have given a better representation of the standard of elite women’s football in the country. The tests run did allow for the assumed differences in physical ability between male and females. The researchers allowed the female athletes to start at a slower speed than the males in their incremental tests, however the increase in speeds were the same for both. This would mean that the relative increase in pace for women would be higher than that of their male comparisons. The tests were also done on different days, the researchers noted a difference of seven degrees Celsius and 15% in humidity on the two separate occasions. They failed to note in the article which athletes had the benefit of the favourable conditions for their tests. While Datson et al, (2014) state that women’s physical performance can be effected by their stage of the menstrual cycle, something again the Baumgart et al study does not take in to account. As women train and compete at all stages of their menstrual cycle, the possible effect on performance should be considered. These effects have received a limited amount of research attention and the findings to date have been unclear. (Datson et al, 2014) Pankhurst & Collins (2013) stated that the technical ability of an athlete is limited by their physical development. The world records for 100m and 200m sprints for
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e females has stood since 1988 while the male world records have been broken on several occasions since then and most recently set in 2009 according to IAAF data (http://www.iaaf.org/records/by-category/world-records). If the statement from Pankhurst and Collins be considered fact then the inability of females to develop over short sprint distances is holding back their ability to perform technically at the elite level in football. Data collected by Vescovi & Favero (2014) provides evidence that Division One players in the American college system have similar outputs in all the speed bands used to analyse the movements of players regardless of whether the complete the whole game, substituted on or substituted off. Coaches in this league have an unlimited number of substitutions, in the second half, available to them and players are free to leave and re-enter the same game after a substitution. Carling et al, (2009) reported no difference in the work rates, of French first division players, for second half substitutes in comparison to the players they had replaced in the game. However an analysis completed by Bradley et al (2013) showed a significant difference in both total distance covered, 117m/minute to 109m/minute, and high intensity movement, 33m/minute to 23m/minute by players substituted on compared to those playing a complete game. Technical and Tactical Comparison While a footballer has a requirement to have an all-round ability to move at varying speeds, the game is more than just a physical contest (Gabbett, Carius & Mulvey 2008). Football is also a test of technical and psychological skill and an athlete’s ability to perform under pressure and fatigue (Abernethy & Russell1987). Bradley et. al (2013) suggested that the total time in possession of the ball, the total number of touches and the duels won is was the same for players in the male and female game. However it did suggest that male footballers have a better pass completion and lost possession less often than females of a similar standard of competition. Success at the 2010 FIFA World Cup depended on team’s abilities to intercept passes and make tackles to recover possession of the ball, Barreira et al, (2013) and Delgado-Bordonau(2013) stated team’s attacking ability was more important than the quality of their defending in the same tournament. However they stated that the more successful teams, those who reached the knock out stages, weren’t able to develop
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e their attacking qualities yet their defensive ability declined as the tournament continued. Teams in this tournament also paid a high price on possession and this was successful as the teams who had most possession were able to win more often than their opponents (FIFA 2010). Whereas in the 2014 World Cup in Brazil teams with less possession were able to win 21 games (FIFA 2014). This was in large part down to their ability to counter attack, FIFA (2011) stated that female footballers weren’t able to counter attack due to the lack of explosive movements female players are able to generate. While these study’s all discuss the strategies of international male football in tournament play. Barreira et al, (2013) showed there was a significant difference in the ball retrieval methods used by the most successful teams from the group matches to the knock-out phase of the same tournament. ‘A notational analysis system has not been developed to evaluate the technical and tactical skill of a player in order to determine its importance in scoring goals during a soccer game. In fact, for an observer (usually the coach), the traditional method of assessing skill and its importance in a game has been to watch a game and make subjective conclusions about the individuals’ or team’s performance.’ (Thomas et al, 2009) This research analysed individual skills performed over ten games for one college football team in the United States of America. The results showed that on average 45% of the skills executed by players were defensively linked, yet the team being assessed conceded just three goals in the ten game period under investigation and averaged 2.3 goals per game scored by the team in question. The researchers suggested that dribbling was the most important skill in the game, however only 8% of games were spent by players dribbling with the ball and that defensive skills were the least important in the game. Given the time spent by players performing these types of skills it is hard to determine if these comments would be a fair assumption. As coaches they may believe that defending is the least important aspect of the game they need to work on as a team due to their excellent defensive record. Given the small sample size of players analysed and that it was limited to one team’s style of play it is impossible to generalise from the nature of this study. There is a key difference between the genders at this age group, with female players able to achieve success through the long ball up to the forward players, while male players rely on individuals or counter attacks through midfield to create goal scoring opportunities, FIFA (2014) and FIFA (2012). However the 2012 London Olympic
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e tournament for men did include players over the age group as per FIFA’s ruling on junior tournaments. The women’s 2012 Olympics were won again by USA, the fourth time in the five occasions that women’s football has featured on the Olympic calendar. FIFA (2012) suggested that the USA were able to heavily rely on the individual brilliance of Carli Llyod, Abby Wambach and Alex Morgan to create openings while other teams worked together cohesively to build up play using a variety of attacking strategies and formations. The report from the Olympics showed that each team now clearly has its own playing philosophy, as opposed to previous tournaments, where teams would change styles of play from game to game. In all three of the last major Women’s tournaments the majority of goals have come from wing play (FIFA 2011, 2012 & 2014), compounding the importance of the research complied by Mara et al, (2012). However the work of Thomas et al, (2009) cannot be over looked when taking the importance of dribbling in to account. The lack of work produced on women’s football globally means there is currently no data to tell us how the ball was worked to the wing for the goals to be scored in the first place. Wingers are renowned for their ability to travel at pace with the ball, especially in the men’s game (Giggs, Robben, Ronaldo and Bale). Zubilagaet, al. (2013) identified the influence of the position of the ball in team shape for Spanish women’s football teams. This research used GPS tracking technology to analyse the position of players in relation to the position of the ball at any given time in games. They were able to establish the shape and size of the pitch being used during different phases of play. From this coaches are able to determine the technical and tactical skills players need in these moments of the game. This study did not make note of the size of the pitch the six games was being played on or whether this was the same for the whole study. This research may have been limited to one playing area and the playing surface may also have an effect on this, the study does not say whether the game was played on grass or an artificial surface. Research conducted by Konstadinidou & Tsigilis (2005) suggested that teams who are able to make crosses in to the mid-section of the receivers body, between the knee and shoulder, were more successful than crosses of any other height. This would suggest that women’s footballers are less likely to head the ball and prefer to control the ball before having a shot at goal.
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e Method Ethical Approval Before this research commenced all ethical approval requirements were passed in accordance with Leeds Beckett University ethic’s processes. (See Appendix 14) Subjects Notational analysis coded all goals scored (n=36) in home games by two professional football teams, one male and one female. The female team played 12 home games while the male team played 19, therefore only the games played against the next best 12 teams have been analysed for this study. The two teams that have been chosen in this study both won their respective leagues in the season’s ending in 2014. All ball distributions, individual ball touches, set pieces and shots have been coded from the time possession of the ball was won to the point the ball crossing the goal line. The performance analysis also includes where on the field possession was won and how it was regained by the team. Match Analysis Games publically broadcast for both teams were analysed using a hand notational analysis system designed specifically for this study Appendix 1. The analysis was compiled by an experienced data analyst who has experience in coaching both male and female football of a high level. The observations were made in lapsed-time and the analyst was permitted to pause, stop or rewind the footage at any time to increase the accuracy of the date being coded, Bloomfield et al (2004). The variables used in this study describe the attacking strategy produced by the attacking team from possession being gained to the goal type. The variables used and the associated definitions are outlined below. Definitions:  Games Played – The total number of games analysed from each of the teams being used in the study.  Goals Scored – The total number of goals scored in all games played by each of the teams being used in the study.
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e  Goals:Game – The average number of goals scored per game each of the teams played.  Average Goal Distance – The average distance from goal the ball was last struck by the goals scorer before the goal was scored.  Average Goal Distance* - The average distance from goal the ball was last struck by the goal scorer before the goal was scored, minus those goals scored as a direct result of a penalty.  Player:Goal - The average number of different individual players involved from the time possession is won to a goal being scored.  Touch:Goal – The average number of individual touches on the ball from the time possession is won to a goal being scored. This number is inclusive of the final touch before the ball is deemed to have crossed the goal line for a goal.  Ball Distribution:Goal – The average number of distributions made from the time possession is won to a goal being scored. This does not include the final distribution from the goal scorer.  Average Pass Length – The average length of pass made from the time possession is won to a goal being scored.  Average Goal Duration – The average length of time that has elapsed from the moment possession is won to a goal being scored. Attacking Strategy: This is broken down into where the ball is won, how the ball is won and the ball distribution type leading up to a goal being scored by the attacking team in possession of the ball. Ball Distribution: This describes the movement the ball travels thorough leading up to a goal being scored.  Pass - intentional transfer of the ball from one player to another on the same team.  Cross - Intentional transfer of the ball from one player to another on the same team, from a wide zone (Left or Right) to the central zone inside the penalty area.  Free Kick - The method of restarting play after a foul has been committed.  Corner - The method of restarting play if the defending team touches the ball last and the ball goes out of play beyond the by-line.  Throw in - The method of restarting play if the defending team touches the ball last and the ball goes out of play beyond the side-line.  Final Ball – The last ball transfer made to the individual who scores the goal. Pass/Cross type: The method in which the intentional pass/cross is made from one player to another.  Conventional: distribution made with the inside of either foot that stays below knee height.  Driven: distribution made with the laces of either foot that travels below waist height.  Lofted: distribution made with the laces of either foot that travels above waist height.  Swerved: distribution made with the inside of either foot that bends, from left to right or right to left, as it travels from one player to the next.
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e  Left – The final ball distribution, to the goal scorer, was from the left wing area. See Appendix 2.  Right – The final ball distribution, to the goal scorer, was from the right wing area. See Appendix 2.  Centre – The final ball distribution, to the goal scorer, was from the central area. See Appendix 2. Goal Type: This is broken down in to many areas including the part of the body used, the way in which this body part is used and the area from which a goal was scored, intentionally or not.  Left Foot– The goal was scored using the left leg/foot of the last individual, of the attacking team, to touch the ball before a goal was scored.  Right Foot – The goal was scored using the right leg/foot of the last individual, of the attacking team, to touch the ball before a goal was scored.  Head – The goal was scored using the head of the last individual, of the attacking team, to touch the ball before a goal was scored.  Inside – The inside of the foot was used to direct the ball in to the goal.  Laced – The top section of the foot was used to direct the ball in to the goal.  Glanced – The ball was deflected in to, using the pace of the ball distribution, the goal by the goal scorers head.  Driven – The goal scorer applied power to the ball, using their head, to direct the ball in to the goal.  Goal Time – The amount of time passed in the game from kick-off to the point of the goal being scored.  Goal Area – The area of the net in which the ball is placed for a goal to be given. See appendix 3  Goal Location –The area on the pitch from which the goal was scored from. See appendix 4 Data Analysis All data has been analysed using Microsoft Excel (Version 2010 for Windows, USA). The software was used to produce total and average figures for the various aspects of the data collected through the hand notational analysis of the technical and tactical performanceAppendix 5 - Male and Appendix 6 – Female. The analysis has examined the differences in the number of passes, players involved and the number of individual touches on the ball by those players from the moment possession of the ball has been won to the moment a goal was scored by the attacking team. Data has also been recorded to understand where on the pitch the ball was won, how the ball has been won and the area from which the final ball distribution was made before a shot was made that lead to a goal being scored. An examination of each goal has
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e been to establish the location the shot was taken from and the area of the net the goal was scored in.
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e Results How many goals were scored? The data collected showed that the teams scored 66 goals between them in the 24 games that were analysed. Both teams failed to score in one game each, this resulted in a 0-0 draw for the female team while the male team went on to record a 0-1 defeat. The male team scored a total of 36 goals and 3 goals per game, while the female team scored 30 at an average of 2.5 per game for the 12 games they played. This is a difference of 16% in favour of the male team over the female side. Table 1 Male Female Goal Data Games Played 12 12 Goals Scored 36 30 Goals:Game 3 2.5 Average Goal Distance 11.61 11.33 Average Goal Distance* 11.71 11.21 How were these goals scored? Table 1.2 Male Female How Scored Right Foot 24 22 Left Foot 9 3 Head 3 5 Technique Inside 20 16 Laced 13 19 Glanced 1 4 Driven 2 1 Analysis shows that these goals were scored in a variety of different ways by each of the two teams, these included the use of left and right feet and the head. Males scored 24 goals using their right foot (66.6%), 9 with their left foot (25%) and 3 with
  23. 23. 23 | P a g e their head (8.3%). Females scored 22 goals with their right foot (73%), 3 with their left foot (10%) and 5 with their head (17%). From those goals scored with their feet, 20 were scored with the inside of the foot (60.60%) my male players and 16 goals were scored using the same technique by female players (45.71%). While male players scored 66.66% of their headers by driving the ball at goal as opposed to just 16.66% of female players scoring a header in this way. Appendix 7 – Male &Appendix 8 - Female shows a breakdown of all the goals scored by giving an overview of where the goals were scored in relation to the goal area itself by both male and female teams respectively, this information has also been presented in table 1.3. The female side were able to score 70% of their goals in the corners of the goal, while the male side scored just 57.14% of their goals in the same four zones. This means just 30% of goals scored by the female sides were placed in the 5 other zones of the goal as opposed to the 42.85% scored in the same areas by the male side. Table 1.3 Goal Area Male Female Corners Top Left 2 2 Top Right 1 2 Bottom Left 8 8 Bottom Right 9 9 Other Top Centre 3 4 Right Centre 1 0 Centre 4 5 Bottom Centre 7 0 Left Centre 1 0 Total 36 30 Where were these goals scored from? Table 1 shows that including penalties scored (Total 7 – Male:2, Female:5) the average distance from goal that the shot leading to a goal scored was 11.61 yards compared to 11.33 yards respectively, a difference of just 2.41%. However when penalties scored are removed from the analysis, these distances do change in contrasting ways. The average distance for males increases to 11.71 while females
  24. 24. 24 | P a g e score from a distance of 11.21 yards on average from open play. Appendix 9 shows the areas from which goals were scored from by the male team, while Appendix 10 shows the goals from the female team. This shows that 94.44% of goals scored by the male team are from central areas of the penalty box, while in the same zone the female side scored 83.33% of their goals. The male side scored 7 goals from outside the penalty area (19.44%) as opposed to 5 (16.66%) by the female team. How and where was the ball won? Table 2 shows a synthesis of the data collected using appendix 11 that explore the way in which the two teams win the ball back that lead to the period of play building up to a goal being scored. These show that there is large difference in the area of the pitch and the method used to win the ball back between the two sides. With the male team winning possession more often in the attacking third 57.14% of the time in the build-up to their 36 goals while the female side regained possession 46.66% in defence and 43.33% in midfield in the process of scoring goals. The male side were able to regain possession through winning a tackle 33.33% of the time while females won possession through interceptions more often than any other method, doing this 63.33% of the time. Table 2 Male Female HowBall Won Tackle 12 2 Interception 13 19 Foul 5 2 DeadBall 6 7 Where Ball Won Defence 5 14 Midfield 11 13 Attack 20 3
  25. 25. 25 | P a g e How did they work their way in to position to score? In the build-up to goals the female team had more interactions with the ball than the male side, using an average of 5.43 different players in the process of scoring as opposed to 2.72 by the male side. This also has an impact on the number of passes per goal with just 1.75 passes being made in the average goal by the male side as opposed to 5.77 by the female team to create a goal. With more passes and individuals involved for the female side this meant more individual touches on the ball per goal for the female side with 17.87 touches compared to 5.47 for the males. With extra players and additional touches on the ball, this has meant significant differences in the time taken from winning the ball, to scoring. The average time taken for goals scored in the female game was 40.17 seconds. The male team were able to score much quicker, in an average time of 8.89 seconds from winning the ball. Data produced also showed differences in the area the final ball distribution to the goal scorer came from. This showed that the final ball distribution for the male sides came from the centre on 72.22% of the time while from the right and left it was 11.11% and 16.67% respectively. While for the female sides the final ball distribution was from the right on 50% of occasions, 36.67% of goals came from the left and just 13.33% from the centre of the pitch.
  26. 26. 26 | P a g e Table 3 Male Female Build Up Players:Goal 2.72 5.43 Touches:Goal 5.47 17.87 Passes:Goal 1.75 5.57 Average PassLength 15.91 14.87 Average Goal Duration 8.89 40.17 Final Ball Left 6 11 Right 4 15 Centre 26 4 When were the goals scored? The times of goals scored also proved contrasting, with the male team scoring 9 goals in the opening half an hour of games compare to 5 for the female team. The last 15 minutes of the first half lead to 8 goals for the male side as opposed to just 5 for the female team. The 15 minutes straight after half time also allowed for more goals for the male side, scoring 9 compared to the 7 by the female side. However the final 15 minutes of normal time allowed the female team to score 11 goals in comparison to the male side. The two teams both scored 2 goals each in time added on to the 90. This meant a combined 17 goals in the first half in the men’s game compared to just 10 in those games played by the female team, a difference of 41.14%. While in the second half, including time added on, the female side scored 20 goals compared to the 19 scored by the male side, representing a difference of 5.26 in favour of the female team. Table 4 Goal Time Male Female First Half 0-15 6 2 16-30 3 3 31-45 8 5 Second Half 45-60 9 7 61-75 5 5 76-90 3 6 90+ 2 2 Total 36 30
  27. 27. 27 | P a g e How did the goals scored effect the state of the game? Table 4.2 shows the effect the goals scored by each of the teams had on the state of the game. The mens team were able to add to their lead on 21 occasions, take the lead on 13 and score in response to being behind on 2 occasions. This mean that they were able to score 34 goals that gave or extended their lead 34 times, with just 2 goals they scored meant they were only in a drawing position and that they never scored a goal that meant they were still in a losing position. The female side scored 14 times when winning games, 11 while drawing and 5 when behind in games. This meant they were also able to add to their lead or create a goal lead on 25 occasions and brought themselves back in to contention for the win on 5. Again they were never more than a goal behind as they didn’t score a goal that meant they were still behind in any of the games they scored in. Table 4.2 Match State Male Female Pre Goal Winning 21 14 Drawing 13 11 Losing 2 5 PostGoal Winning 34 25 Drawing 2 5 Losing 0 0
  28. 28. 28 | P a g e Discussion This study identified the key physical, technical and tactical differences that led to goals scored in elite male and female football. Kirkendall et al, (2002) have previously stated that there are definitive differences in the technical, tactical and physical attributes of male and female footballers. A key finding of the study was the time taken from winning the ball to scoring was much longer in the female game than in goals scored by the male team. The results of data collected showed that more players were involved in the build-up to goals being scored and each player was able to have more touches on the ball in games played by the female team. The average pass length was similar, with a difference of 1.04 meters longer for male players. All these contributing factors meant that the time it took the female team to score a goal on average was in excess of forty seconds, compared to the male side who were able to win the ball and score in less than nine. This shows that there is a physical limitation on their ability, female players aren’t strong enough to make passes as long as their male counterparts, and therefor make more passes of a shorter distance to make up for this. This in turn means more players have to be involved in each goal, creating more touches on the ball in the process and slowing the game down. The Women’s World Cup in Germany proved that women’s football was now world class according to FIFA (2011). This report showed that long, direct passing was no longer an effective strategy. Taylor et al, (2005) and Leite et al, (2009) both acknowledge the ball distribution methods used by attacking teams as the single most influential factor on their attacking strategy. This is clear in the way that this female team has set up to play the game, making short passes, building play from the back before crossing the ball in to the box from the wide areas. This has been reported in the past to be the most effective way of producing an opportunity to create a shot on goal, Konstadinidou & Tsigilis (2005). The importance of producing a cross from the wide areas of the pitch has been observed through scientific research by Huges & Franks (2005) and Yiannakos & Armatas (2006) who stated that goals were more likely to be scored from producing a cross the wide channels of the pitch in to the central goal area. When ‘world class football’ is imagined by the general public it is the men’s game that they picture. From this study we know that 72.22% of the goals scored by the male team in this study are scored by attacking
  29. 29. 29 | P a g e the central zone of the pitch, not by crossing from the wide areas. When you take in to account the size of the pitches in use for these studies, 115x75 for the female team, and 116x77 for the male team, the female pitch is 307 meter squared smaller or 95% of the size of the male pitch. This means that the female team have less ground to cover, yet still take a longer period of time to score and are more inclined to play the ball in to wide areas before playing the ball back inside when sufficient space has been created in the goal area. The female players were more inclined to pass the ball to the player, rather than in to space, which was the tactical approach used by the male team in this analysis. This meant that the female players had to take more touches on the ball to move the ball in to the space in front of them before being able to advance with the ball or make a further pass. Mara et al (2012) stated that the teams who were able to create goal scoring opportunities via attacking the left wing area of the pitch were more likely to be successful in their league. This study however shows that the female team, who won their league, scored more goals from the right than the left, while the male team scored 28 goals from the centre. This shows how quickly the style and the quality of play in the female game has changed since the analysis on the Australian W-League was conducted. This leads on to another key finding, the areas in which the ball is won by the two teams in the build-up to a goal being scored. There are very specific differences in this area of the study, with the female team being happy to sit back, covering spaces in order to intercept passes by the opposition. While the male team win the ball high up the pitch, through tackles as often as they intercept passes. Horn et al, (2002) reporting that the attacking strategy that teams use rely heavily on the position they win the ball from. From the 36 goals scored by the male team, they were able to win the ball in the attacking third of the pitch on 20 occasions in comparison to the 3 times the female team were able to do this. While the female team were willing to win the ball further back, winning possession a combined 27 times in the midfield and defensive thirds before exploring possession based play to create goal-scoring opportunities. This has had an effect on the duration of these goal-scoring plays, but also shows an inability of female players to close down their opposition, this is due to the lack of time they can spend moving at high intensity movements, Baumgart et al (2014). While they aren’t able to move quick enough, often enough, to win the ball back by closing down their opponents to tackle them as often as their male counterparts, they do win the ball back more often through dead balls and interceptions. This confirms
  30. 30. 30 | P a g e the points raised by Bradley et al (2014) that male players give the ball away through misplaced passes on a less regular basis than female players. So the tactical decision by the female team to cover spaces and intercept a pass is playing to their strengths, while the male players are able to press and win the ball via a tackle due to their physical ability to press the opposition. Physical differences have also had a big difference in the area of the goal in which the goal was actually scored too. With the female players choosing to place the ball in the corner of the goal 70% of the time, while the sheer power of male players meant they were able to score 42.86% of their goals in the central zones of the goal. With the average distance from goal being closer for female players at 11.21 meters as opposed to 11.71 meter for male players, it is interesting to note the way in which the goal was struck. With female players scoring by shooting with their laces 19:16 compared to the inside of their foot. This suggests they need to create more power on the ball from a relatively shorter distance than the male players did. Males used the inside of their foot 20 times compared to 13 goals scored using the more powerful technique. So while the female players score from a closer range to goal, they are required to use the more powerful method of sticking the ball more often than the male players. It is also interesting to see that female players scored more goals from using their heads, scoring 5 compared to the total of 3 by the males. This has also shown the opposite theory to the last key finding in that most of the headers scored by the female players were scored using a glanced technique, essentially deflecting the ball in to the goal as opposed to the powerful technique adopted by male players to score using their head. These key findings have shown differences in the ways in which male and female players; win the ball, what they do to move the ball to an area in which they can score from and the method they use for striking the ball at goal. These differences need to be taken in to account by coaches working with the two different types of footballers. The women’s game is slower due to the physical limitations on the individual players. However this means that the female game is far more technical and tactical in nature as a result of these limitations. The statement by Pankhurst & Collins (2013) that physical ability limits technical and tactical ability is then incorrect. The physical limitation on female players, their inability to reach the same speeds and produce lower levels of high intensity movement actually allows them to express their technical and tactical ability. The very fact that they cannot move as fast as male players means they have more contact time on the ball, more
  31. 31. 31 | P a g e touches, make more passes means they have to be more technically and tactically adept. While male players are able to use their pace and power to overrun defences by hitting long, direct passes over the top of defences to run on to and score, female players build up possession slower, move the ball over shorter distances, create more passes to beat players using combination play before shooting from closer at goal. The fact that the female players had more touches on the ball goes against the research done by Bradley et al (2014). This previous research showed there were no significant differences in technical events in elite male and female players in the UEFA Champions league. However we know from Delgado-Bordonau et al, (2013) that there are differences between knockout and league games in the way in which teams play. Barreira et al, (2013) also showed that the methods used in winning back possession from group stages to knock out games within the same competition changed significantly.To understand these differences we must however look at the basic formation of the two teams that have been analysed in this study, appendix 12 shows the formation most used by the male team. This formation utilises the central zone of the pitch, with two strikers occupying the defence. While appendix 13 shows the formation of the female side, who have three forwards, but only one in a central area. This means that these teams are set up to play a certain way, and their ability to score goals in the way they do, means they are adhering to the tactics set out by their coaches, Cordes et al (2012). With the female team creating space in the centre by having players out in the wide areas they are more likely to create an opportunity to make a pass or cross to someone in that area without this being intercepted. Whereas the male team have a very concentrated number of players in the central area, looking to play the ball in that area direct to the most advanced players. Research compiled byKirkendall et al (2002), noted that a large proportion of goals in male football were scored as a direct result of set pieces, appendix 5 shows that 9 of their 36 goals were scored as a direct result of a set piece. Their research compared this by saying that female teams scored the majority of their goals came from open play, however appendix 6 shows that half of the 30 goals scored involved at least one set piece in the build-up to a goal being scored. These appendices also show that the final ball distribution before a goal being scored by the female team came from behind the last defender and into the central area of goal from the wide areas. However the male team opted to make the final ball distribution from in front of the defence. This meant that the defenders would have to turn
  32. 32. 32 | P a g e through 180 degrees before making a run towards the ball. This would give the attacking team a split second advantage and the ability to beat any offside decision being made. From the same appendices, it also evident that the midfield of the female team bring a higher percentage of goals to the team than their forwards, which is the contrary for the male side. Both teams having three goals scored by their defence but again a higher percentage scored by the defenders for the female side. This shows that the female side, who play with three forwards, two playing in the wide areas, work the ball forward to these wide players and use the central forward as a decoy for their midfielders. The midfielder’s are able to make forward runs, leaving one of the three midfielders back to cover in defence. This means they are able to arrive in the central area of the penalty area late and get their shots on target because of the space created by the central forward getting in position near to goal keeper. Despite having one less forward than the female team, the male forwards score the most of their teams goals, again proving the long ball over the top for the forwards to run on to it a tactical approach exploited well be the male side.
  33. 33. 33 | P a g e Conclusion While this study has set out to outline the key physical, technical and tactical differences of male and female elite footballers, the reason behind this study is to inform coaches working with male and/or female players. This research has shown that there are key differences in the two forms of the game that have not previously been highlighted. For coaches to be successful they must first understand the demands of the game and be able to link these to the needs of their athletes, Abraham et al (2014). With approximately 90% of qualified coaches in England being male and just 5 of the 15 strong female football committee at the English Football Association being female according to UEFA (2013), those with experience of playing and or coaching women’s football isn’t high. Therefore this research is vital to increase the understanding of those who work within female football currently or who do so in the future. This research outlines that female players need to experience more touches on the ball in training sessions to be able to take that in to their match play, while male players should be constrained to a limited number of touches to increase the speed of their decisions and actions on the pitch. Female players need to be given specific training sessions designed around the demands of the game as it is for female players and shouldn’t be coached as if they are a male team. The physical differences that are influencing the nature of female football should not be seen as a negative, but an opportunity to develop players in a different way, to play the game differently but to an equally exceptional standard as their male counterparts. The limitations of this study mean that only one male and female club football team have been analysed, therefore the data coming from it does not take in to account playing styles from various countries. The two teams analysed play on different continents and during different seasons over the year, which could have an effect on the playing styles. With one of the teams included in the study playing on grass and the other playing on an artificial surface, this too could provide explanations for the differences in the data. However this study has provided information for a gap in previous studies and could and should be built on in future. This would allow differences in football cultures to be taken in to account when analysing the style of play. The United States Soccer Federation’s Soccer Curriculum (N.D.) for example provides little emphasis on 1v1 scenarios in coaching.
  34. 34. 34 | P a g e This is evident in the way in which the female team, who have just three players from outside the US in their roster, play. However the coach of this side has successful experience of coaching in several other countries. This shows that a coach can get the best out of their players by understanding the previous playing abilities of their players. The rate at which the women’s game of football is growing is truly amazing and with more research in the differences between male and female football can only serve to provide better coaches working with female players to aid their development. Throughout this study it has become clear that female players are capable of some exceptional things on a football field on and off the ball.
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  40. 40. 40 | P a g e Appendices Appendix One
  41. 41. 41 | P a g e Appendix Two
  42. 42. 42 | P a g e Appendix Three
  43. 43. 43 | P a g e Appendix Four
  44. 44. 44 | P a g e Appendix Five Goal Number Time of Goal Goal Duration (s) Goal Scorer Player Position Match State Pre Match State Post 1 5.55 11 Silva Midfield Drawing Winning 2 21.25 8 Aguero Forward Winning Winning 3 49.59 58 Toure Midfield Winning Winning 4 74.17 5 Nasri Midfield Winning Winning 5 15.31 22 Aguero Forward Drawing Winning 6 45.45 3 Toure Midfield Winning Winning 7 46.02 7 Aguero Forward Winning Winning 8 49.49 23 Nasri Midfield Winning Winning 9 16.45 8 Negredo Forward Losing Drawing 10 44.03 12 Aguero Forward Drawing Winning 11 68.51 1 Aguero Forward Winning Winning 12 0.13 6 Navas Forward Drawing Winning 13 33.36 6 Negredo Forward Winning Winning 14 40.04 8 Aguero Forward Winning Winning 15 49.36 6 Aguero Forward Winning Winning 16 54.48 5 Negredo Forward Winning Winning 17 91.16 14 Navas Forward Winning Winning 18 7.53 2 Negredo Forward Drawing Winning 19 57.26 6 Nasri Midfield Winning Winning 20 76.06 8 Nasri Midfield Winning Winning 21 13.06 5 Aguero Forward Drawing Winning 22 38.06 6 Negredo Forward Drawing Winning 23 49.57 3 Fernandinho Midfield Winning Winning 24 65.14 12 Silva Midfield Winning Winning 25 87.08 16 Fernandinho Midfield Winning Winning 26 95.11 1 Toure Midfield Winning Winning 27 30.11 4 Kompany Defender Losing Drawing 28 45.09 9 Negredo Forward Drawing Winning 29 65.42 5 Dzeko Forward Drawing Winning 30 69.35 4 Toure Midfield Drawing Winning 31 2.52 1 Toure Midfield Drawing Winning 32 45.15 8 Nasri Midfield Drawing Winning 33 48.12 6 Dzeko Forward Winning Winning 34 80.19 8 Jovetic Defender Winning Winning 35 38.49 9 Nasri Midfield Drawing Winning 36 48.49 4 Kompany Defender Winning Winning
  45. 45. 45 | P a g e How Scored Goal Distance Goal Position How Ball Won Where Ball Won Head- Driven,TC 10 Inside IntermediateCentral Throwin Midfield Shot,RF, Driven,BRHC 19 Outside Central Tackle Defence FK - IRF, TLHC 19 Outside Central Foul Attack Shot,LF, Driven, BRHC 16 Inside Extreme Central Interception Midfield Volley,LF,TRHC 8 Inside IntermediateCentral Tackle Midfield Shot,ILF, BLHC 3 Inside Immediate Central Corner Attack Shot,IRF,Centre 6 Inside Immediate Central Tackle Attack Shot,IRF,Centre 7 Inside IntermediateLeftCentral Tackle Defence Shot,IRF,BLHC 8 Inside IntermediateLeftCentral Interception Midfield Shot,IRF,BLHC 10 Inside IntermediateRight Interception Defence Pen,IRF,BRHC 12 Inside IntermediateCentral Foul Attack Lob, RF,TLHC 18 Inside Extreme Outside Right Interception Attack Shot,IRF,Centre 8 Inside IntermediateCentral Tackle Midfield Shot,ILF, BLHC 6 Inside Immediate Central Tackle Midfield Shot,IRF,BRHC 15 Inside Extreme RightCentral Interception Midfield Shot,LF, Driven,BRHC 18 Outside Central Interception Midfield Shot,RF, Driven,BLHC 11 Inside IntermediateRightCentral GK Defence FK - ILF, LC 20 Outside Central Foul Attack Shot,ILF, BLHC 11 Inside IntermediateCentral Tackle Attack Shot,LF, Driven,BRHC 14 Inside Extreme Central Tackle Midfield Volley,RF,Centre 6 Inside Immediate RightCentral Corner Attack Shot,IRF,Bottom Centre 5 Inside Immediate Central Tackle Attack Shot,IRF,BRHC 22 Outside Central Interception Attack Shot,ILF, Top Centre 8 Inside IntermdeiateRightCentral Tackle Attack Lob, RF,BLHC 10 Inside IntermediateCentral Interception Attack Pen,IRF,BRHC 12 Inside IntermediateCentral Foul Attack Head- Glanced,BottomCentre 6 Inside Immediate RightCentral Corner Attack Lob, RF,Bottom Centre 20 Outside Central Tackle Defence Shot,RF RightCentre 11 Inside IntermediateCentral Interception Attack Shot,RF, BottomCentre 7 Inside IntermdeiateLeftCentral Interception Attack Pen,IRF,BRHC 12 Inside IntermediateCentral Foul Attack Shot,IRF,Bottom Centre 7 Inside IntermediateCentral Tackle Attack Head,Driven,TopCentre 5 Inside Immediate Central Interception Attack Shot,IRF,Bottom Centre 7 Inside IntermediateCentral Interception Midfield Shot,Driven,LF,BLHC 35 Outside Central Interception Midfield Shot,IRF,Bottom Centre 6 Inside Immediate Central Corner Attack
  46. 46. 46 | P a g e Numberof PlayersInvolved Total Toucheson Ball Numberof Passes Average PassLength Set Pieces 4 9 5 15 1 3 7 2 15 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 4 1 40 0 4 16 3 20 0 3 3 2 20 1 3 6 2 15 0 3 7 2 20 0 4 9 3 18 0 4 10 3 23 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 4 7 2 30 0 3 5 2 25 0 3 7 2 15 0 2 5 1 30 0 4 10 3 33 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 8 1 10 0 4 6 3 20 0 3 3 2 20 1 3 5 2 15 0 1 3 0 0 0 3 10 2 15 0 2 8 2 8 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 30 1 5 8 4 25 0 2 3 1 15 0 3 4 2 8 0 1 1 0 0 0 4 8 3 15 0 3 4 2 20 0 3 4 2 25 0 2 5 1 6 0 3 3 2 22 1
  47. 47. 47 | P a g e Channel Final Ball From PlaySwitched Times Switched Centre 0 Centre 0 Centre 0 Centre 0 Left Centre toLeft 2 Right Rightto Centre 1 Centre 0 Centre 0 Centre 0 Centre 0 Centre 0 Centre 0 Centre Centre toLeft 2 Right Leftto Centre 1 Centre 0 Centre 0 Left Leftto Centre 1 Centre 0 Centre 0 Centre Centre toLeft 2 Centre Rightto Centre 1 Centre 0 Centre 0 Right Rightto Centre 1 Centre 0 Centre 0 Left Leftto Centre 1 Centre 0 Centre 0 Left Leftto Centre 1 Centre 0 Centre 0 Left Leftto Centre 2 Right Rightto Centre 2 Centre 0 Left Leftto Centre 1
  48. 48. 48 | P a g e Appendix 6 Goal Number Time of Goal Goal Duration (S) Goal Scorer Player Position Match State Pre Match State Post 1 48.21 88 Little Midfield Drawing Winning 2 53.22 19 Little Midfield Winning Winning 3 87.33 23 Rapinoe Forward Winning Winning 4 1.54 92 Fletcher Defender Drawing Winning 5 48.07 56 Winters Midfield Winning Winning 6 79.33 23 Fishlock Midfield Winning Winning 7 18.45 48 Little Midfield Drawing Winning 8 37.51 14 Little Midfield Winning Winning 9 15.24 123 Fletcher Defender Drawing Winning 10 17.58 55 Little Midfield Winning Winning 11 75.56 72 Winters Defender Drawing Winning 12 44.13 15 Fishlock Midfield Losing Drawing 13 92.35 12 Little Midfield Losing Drawing 14 65.07 76 Little Midfield Losing Drawing 15 67.58 8 Leroux Forward Drawing Winning 16 77.06 103 Little Midfield Winning Winning 17 54.55 32 Kawasumi Forward Losing Drawing 18 75.56 51 Little Midfield Drawing Winning 19 82.54 4 Kawasumi Forward Drawing Winning 20 69.05 133 Goebel Forward Drawing Winning 21 16.34 14 Leroux Forward Drawing Winning 22 53.04 9 Kawasumi Forward Winning Winning 23 48.18 18 Kawasumi Forward Winning Winning 24 53.17 14 Rapinoe Forward Winning Winning 25 93.13 4 Little Midfield Winning Winning 26 31.03 31 Kawasumi Forward Drawing Winning 27 33.16 14 Kawasumi Forward Winning Winning 28 38.24 26 Goebel Forward Winning Winning 29 62.01 16 Little Midfield Winning Winning 30 88.02 12 Little Midfield Losing Drawing
  49. 49. 49 | P a g e How Scored Goal Distance Goal Position How Ball Won Pen-IRF, BLHC 12 Inside Intermediate Central Tackle Shot - IRF, BLHC 15 Inside Extreme Central Offside Shot - IRF, Centre 7 Inside Extreme Central GK Head - Glanced, TC 6 Inside Intermediate Central Interception Head - Driven, TC 5 Inside Immediate Central Interception Shot - Driven, RF, BLHC 23 Outside Right Central Interception Pen-IRF, BRHC 12 Inside Intermediate Central Foul Shot - IRF, Centre 11 Inside Intermediate Right Central Tackle Shot - IRF, Centre 8 Inside Intermediate Central Offside Pen - IRF, TLHC 12 Inside Intermediate Central Offside Head - Glanced, TC 11 Inside Intermediate Central Interception Volley - Driven RF, BLHC 11 Inside Intermediate Central Interception Shot - Driven LF, BRHC 19 Outside Left Central Interception Pen - IRF, BLHC 12 Inside Intermediate Central Interception Shot - RF, TC, Lob 22 Outside Left Central Throwin Pen - IRF, BRHC 12 Inside Intermediate Central Interception Volley - Driven, RF, BLHC 6 Inside Immediate Right Central Interception Shot - ILF, BRHC 8 Inside Intermediate Left Central GK Shot - IRF, BRHC 10 Inside Extreme Central Interception Shot - IRF, Centre 8 Inside Intermediate Central Interception Shot - ILF, BLHC 7 Inside Intermdiate Left Interception Head - Glanced, TRHC 11 Inside Intermediate Central Interception Shot - Driven, RF, BLHC 13 Inside Intermediate Right Central Interception Head - Glanced, TLHC 7 Inside Intermediate Left Central Interception Shot - IRF, BRHC 10 Inside Intermediate Right Central Interception Shot - Driven, RF, TRHC 8 Outside Left Central Interception Volley - Lob, RF, Centre 23 Inside Extreme Central Foul Shot - IRF, BRHC 13 Outside Left Central Interception Shot - Driven, RF, BRHC 10 Inside Intermediate Central GK Shot - IRF, BRHC 8 Inside Intermediate Left Central Interception
  50. 50. 50 | P a g e Where Ball Won Number of Players Involved Total Touches on Ball Number of Passes Defence 3 13 3 Defence 6 14 4 Defence 4 8 3 Midfield 8 29 12 Midfield 7 30 7 Defence 7 21 6 Midfield 3 6 1 Midfield 3 14 2 Defence 10 68 25 Defence 5 11 4 Defence 10 36 11 Midfield 5 7 4 Defence 5 9 4 Midfield 5 23 5 Attack 3 10 2 Defence 8 29 11 Defence 9 25 9 Defence 8 34 11 Attack 2 3 1 Midfield 8 17 7 Defence 4 12 3 Midfield 2 11 1 Defence 5 18 4 Midfield 4 15 5 Attack 1 3 0 Midfield 9 26 11 Midfield 4 9 5 Midfield 5 12 4 Defence 5 12 4 Midfield 5 11 4
  51. 51. 51 | P a g e Average Pass Length Set Pieces Channel Final Ball From Play Switched Times Switched 10 0 Left Centre to Left 1 20 2 Centre 0 16.25 1 Centre 0 16.5 2 Left Centre to Left 1 14.25 1 Left Centre to Left 2 12.5 0 Centre Left to Right 3 20 2 Left 0 25 0 Centre 0 12.5 1 Left Right to Left 6 25 2 Right Left to Right 2 15 1 Left Left, Right, Left 6 20 0 Left Right to Left 3 20 0 Centre Left to Centre 1 15 1 Centre Right to Left 2 12.5 1 Left Left to Centre 1 10 1 Right Left to Right 6 10 0 Left Left to Centre 5 15 1 Centre Left to Right 6 5 0 Centre 0 12.5 1 Right Left to Centre 2 10 0 Centre 0 25 0 Left 0 20 0 Centre Right to Centre 2 8 0 Right Right to Centre 2 0 0 Centre 0 10 0 Left Right to Left 3 12.5 1 Centre Left to Centre 1 25 0 Centre 0 16.25 1 Centre Centre to Left 2 12.25 0 Centre 0
  52. 52. 52 | P a g e Appendix Seven
  53. 53. 53 | P a g e Appendix Eight
  54. 54. 54 | P a g e Appendix Nine
  55. 55. 55 | P a g e Appendix Ten
  56. 56. 56 | P a g e Appendix Eleven
  57. 57. 57 | P a g e Appendix Twelve
  58. 58. 58 | P a g e Appendix Thirteen

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