The new nation


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The new nation

  1. 1. The New Nation (1789-1800)
  2. 2. Washington• Former General of the Colonial Army• Virginian (slave-owner)• 1st president elected by the Constitution• Very modest• Believed in the help of others, set up a Cabinet of advisors• Capital= New York City• Vice President= John Adams (Massachusetts)
  3. 3. Washington and Adams
  4. 4. On his way to New York• “About 10 oclock I bade adieu to Mount Vernon, to private life, and to domestic felicity, and with a mind oppressed with more anxious and painful sensations than I have words to express, set out for New York in company with Mr. Thompson, and Colonel Humphries, with the best dispositions to render service to my country in obedience to its call, but with less hope of answering its expectations.”
  5. 5. “… So help me God.”
  6. 6. Washington’s first goals
  7. 7. Money!!• Tariff of 1789 (Madison’s work) – Angered Southerners, more $ for imports• Whiskey Rebellion – Tax on whiskey production, troops called in, no blood – People worried that gov’t used troops against Americans
  8. 8. Alexander Hamilton’s Plan– Public credit needed, US can borrow $– Nat’l bank (implied powers, enumerated powers)
  9. 9. Foreign Policy (War)• French Revolution (1789) • They helped in American Revolution • Declared war on Britain
  10. 10. Haitian Revolution• Started in 1791• 500,000 African slaves• 40, 000 whites and 28,000 free blacks• Toussaint L’Ouverture• Jean-Jacques Dessalines• 1st Black republic in the world in 1804• Weakens French Empire
  11. 11. L’Ouverture and Dessalines
  12. 12. Treaties w/ Europe• Jay’s Treaty (1794) • Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) – Prevented war with – With Spanish, can Britain, Br. can still navigate the Miss. River attack US ships (they must pay damage)
  13. 13. Natives??• Treaty of Greenville (1795) – 12 NA tribes forced to give Ohio and some of Indiana to US
  14. 14. James Madison• A leader in Congress• Ensures that the Bill of Rights are passed.• He will be the 4th President.
  15. 15. Washington’s Cabinet• Thomas Jefferson (Sec. of State)• Alexander Hamilton (Sec. of Tresurary)• Henry Knox (Sec. of War)• John Jay (Chief Justice, Supreme Court)• Trouble is brewing b/w Jefferson and Hamilton from the beginning
  16. 16. Federalists v. Democratic-Republicans• This is the major political fight of the early republic. How much control should the Fed. Have? This is also the start of 2 political parties• Hamilton= Federalists – Strong Nat’l Gov’t – Fed. Bank – Favored Britain – Industrial economy (support from North East)
  17. 17. Hamilton
  18. 18. Federalists v. Dem. Republicans• Jefferson= Dem. Republicans – Strong state gov’ts (weak central gov’t) – No Nat’l Bank – Favored France – Agrarian society (farming), support in the South and West
  19. 19. Jefferson
  20. 20. Washington’s Farewell Address• Warned against sectionalism (North v South v West v East)• Sept. 1796• “Let me now…warn you in the most solemn manner about the baneful effects of the spirit of party… The disorders and miseries, which result, gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of the individual.”
  21. 21. Farewell Address• Also warned of getting involved in foreign affairs (starts American isolationism)• “The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible… ‘Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.”
  22. 22. Farewell Address
  23. 23. Election of 1796• Adams versus Jefferson• Adams wins by 3 Electoral Votes (71, 68)
  24. 24. Adams and Jefferson
  25. 25. Adams’ Agenda• Stay out of war with Britain or France• Try to curtail the problems between the Federalists and Republicans• Try to live up to Washington’s example
  26. 26. Problems with France• XYZ Affair – French ambassadors wanted $250, 000 bribe to begin negotiations
  27. 27. “Millions for defense but not a penny for tribute”
  28. 28. Alien and Sedition Acts• 1798• 3 laws against ALIENS (non-citizens) – Immigrants often anti-British, vote for Rep. party – Wait 14 yrs for citizenship, deport without trial• 1 law against SEDITION (inciting rebellion) – Crime to print “false, scandalous, and malicious” info about gov’t• Fed. gov’t taking rights from the people
  29. 29. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions• KY written by Th. Jefferson – Nullification (fed. laws can be declared null)• VA written by James Madison – Interposition (state gov’t can interpose b/w fed. and people• Fights back for STATE’S RIGHTS
  30. 30. Election of 1800• Rematch of Jefferson and Adams• Jefferson and Aaron Burr each had 73 votes, House has to choose President
  31. 31. Midnight Appointments• Judiciary Act of 1801• Judge John Marshall• 16 new judges in 6 new courts• To counter the incoming Dem-Republicans