Published on

World History Fall 2008

Published in: Education
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Rome: The Republic
  2. 2. Romulus and Remus <ul><li>Twin brothers are the sons of a princess and a god (Mars, god of war) </li></ul><ul><li>Floated down the Tiber River, she-wolf finds them, cares for them </li></ul><ul><li>When older they both decide to create their own cities </li></ul><ul><li>They disagree on the location and Romulus killed Remus </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore he is the first king of Rome (named after himself) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Etruscans <ul><li>Learned their language from the Greeks, passed it on the Romans </li></ul><ul><li>Very similar to the Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of some equality between men and women </li></ul><ul><li>City-states </li></ul><ul><li>Traded frequently, Rome developed as the center of trade </li></ul>
  4. 5. Republic <ul><li>Overthrow last king in 509BC </li></ul><ul><li>Republic: People choose some officials to represent them </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 3 main groups: </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300 men, originally only patricians (landowners) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magistrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 consuls (highest position)control army, 1 yr term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of common people called plebeians </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Republic continued… <ul><li>How did they all get chosen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consuls (2) chosen by the Assembly (plebeians), Consuls were always members of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senators chosen by Consuls (whenever a seat was available </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Conflict of the Orders <ul><li>This is the struggle for power between the two classes of people (patricians and plebeians) </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians often protested by secession (withdrawal from the Roman state during times of crisis) </li></ul><ul><li>494BC Plebeians secede, create their own assembly </li></ul>
  7. 8. More Conflict of Orders <ul><li>450BC Twelve Tables created </li></ul><ul><li>Over the next 200 years laws were passed that allowed plebeians and patricians to marry </li></ul><ul><li>Also, laws made it mandatory that many of the most important positions have a plebeian </li></ul><ul><li>-ex: 1 of the consuls MUST be a plebeian </li></ul>
  8. 9. Punic Wars
  9. 10. First Punic War 264-241BC <ul><li>Carthage controlled three islands off the coast of Italy. That was too close for comfort. </li></ul><ul><li>No one wins after 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Rome will leave Carthage alone in exchange for Sicily (1 of the 3 islands) </li></ul><ul><li>Rome says ok, also takes Corsica and Sardinia </li></ul><ul><li>Carthage is upset, they try to attack Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Hannibal is the son of that Carthaginian general </li></ul>
  10. 11. Map of the Second Punic Wars
  11. 12. Second Punic Wars 218-202BC <ul><li>Hannibal uses surprise attack, marches through the Pyrenees and Alps (90,000 men, 12,000 cavalry and 37 Elephants) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost him 1/3 of army, but he wins battles all through Italy (never captures Rome!) </li></ul><ul><li>Rome attacks Carthage without Hannibal there to defend it </li></ul><ul><li>Carthage signs a peace treaty, then breaks it </li></ul><ul><li>Rome is furious and destroys Carthage in 3 rd war (pours salt in the Earth) </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Gracchi and Reform <ul><li>After fighting Carthage Rome is the master of the Mediterranean, they call it “Mare Nostrum” </li></ul><ul><li>They believed in the idea of imperialism , which is controlling foreign lands and people </li></ul><ul><li>This created huge homes called latifundias </li></ul><ul><li>As the poor farmers lose their land two brothers stand up for them: </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus ( The Gracchi ) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Gaius Gracchus, Tribune of the People
  14. 15. Gracchi Reform <ul><li>Around 133BC Tiberius calls for government to give more land to the plebeians </li></ul><ul><li>This angered the Senate and violence erupts in the streets </li></ul><ul><li>The Gracchi brothers were killed during this violence </li></ul>
  15. 16. Cicero <ul><li>Served as a consul, “Father of his Country” </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled around Greece, North Africa and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>“ Words cannot express…how bitterly we are hated among foreign nations because of the… outrageous conduct of the men whom we have sent to govern them.” </li></ul><ul><li>Determined to save the Republic, so became an ally with Pompey , a powerful general </li></ul>
  16. 17. Julius Caesar
  17. 18. Caesar <ul><li>He was a powerful general in the army </li></ul><ul><li>His first big accomplishment was the conquest of Gaul (modern day France) 58-50BC </li></ul><ul><li>Another important general, Pompey is upset </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar does not disband his army when Senate asks, he attacks Rome instead </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar defeats Pompey ( Veni, vidi, vici! ) </li></ul><ul><li>After this victory the Senate must make him a dictator (48-44BC) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Caesar’s Reforms <ul><li>Caesar decided to change the government by: </li></ul><ul><li>Employing the jobless </li></ul><ul><li>Giving land to the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Making provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Granting citizenship to more people </li></ul><ul><li>Creating the Roman/Julian calendar </li></ul>
  19. 20. Caesar is Dead!! <ul><li>People were afraid that he would become a “king” and rule forever </li></ul><ul><li>On the Ides of March (March 15) 44BC Caesar was stabbed by multiple senators </li></ul>
  20. 21. Rome is in Chaos <ul><li>Marc Antony (general) and Octavian (grandnephew) fight over control of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>31BC Octavian wins and takes the name of Augustus (the Exalted One) </li></ul><ul><li>This marks the end of the Republic and is the beginning of the Roman Empire. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Journal 10/17/08 <ul><li>What are the 12 Tables? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the Gracchi concerned with? </li></ul><ul><li>How was Julius Caesar killed? </li></ul><ul><li>What date is considered the end of the Roman Republic? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of “Veni, Vidi, Vici” </li></ul>
  22. 23. Augustus’ Rule <ul><li>Absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Kept the Senate intact </li></ul><ul><li>High level jobs open to all classes of citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Created a census </li></ul><ul><li>Pax Romana (more than 200 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Dies in 14 AD </li></ul>
  23. 24. Expanding the Empire <ul><li>Romans ruled their citizens with Civil Law </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Nations used for both citizens and non-citizens </li></ul><ul><li>“ Innocent until proven guilty” </li></ul><ul><li>Rome continues to fight other people, expand empire </li></ul>
  24. 27. Jews and Romans <ul><li>Jews attack Jerusalem, Romans then destroy Galilee, take slaves </li></ul><ul><li>4 years later Romans destroy the Temple </li></ul><ul><li>Many Jews leaving Judea </li></ul><ul><li>This is the beginning of an almost 2000 year assault against Jews </li></ul>
  25. 28. - Was a Jew -Called himself the Son of God -Was betrayed and arrested -Then crucified and rose from the dead
  26. 30. Christianity Grows <ul><li>The religion appeals to the sick, the poor and oppressed </li></ul><ul><li>“ The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church.” </li></ul><ul><li>In 313 AD emperor Constantine issued Edict of Milan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can to be Christian or pagan, not religious freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He also creates a new capital in Constantinople </li></ul>
  27. 31. Church Hierarchy
  28. 32. Decline of Rome
  29. 33. - Diocletian divides the Empire in 2 -Western Roman Empire – emperor: Maximian, capital: Rome -Eastern Roman Empire- emperor: Diocletian, capital: Constantinople -And it falls down…
  30. 34. Huns
  31. 35. Visigoths
  32. 36. Vandals
  33. 37. Attila and Odoacer
  34. 38. <ul><li>476 AD Fall of Roman Empire (Western Rome) </li></ul>