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World History Fall 2008

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  1. 1. Islam
  2. 2. Muhammad: The Last Prophet <ul><li>Born in Mecca around 570AD </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy merchant, but hated the greed of the people </li></ul><ul><li>~40 years old heard the voice of Gabriel the Angel </li></ul><ul><li>His wife, Khadija, convinces him to be a messenger of God . </li></ul>
  3. 3. From Mecca to Medina <ul><li>Muhammad is faced with murder threats and moves to the city of Medina (city of the Prophet) </li></ul><ul><li>This happened 622 , which is the first year of the Muslim calendar </li></ul>
  4. 5. And back again… <ul><li>The people welcome Muhammad and his teachings </li></ul><ul><li>They create communities of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad returns to Mecca in 630 </li></ul><ul><li>Once there he destroyed the idols in the Kaaba and rededicated it to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad dies 2 years later in 632. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Abraham’s Kaaba and Muhammad’s
  6. 8. Qu’ran <ul><li>The Qu’ran is the holy text (like the Torah and the Bible) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require priests to mediate </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe God (Allah) sent other prophets, but Muhammad is the last and the greatest </li></ul><ul><li>The Qu’ran is the direct, unchangeable word of God, only in Arabic </li></ul>
  7. 9. The 5 Pillars <ul><li>Belief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no God but God, and Muhammad is His messenger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 times a day towards the Kaaba in Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fasting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No food, drink, smoking or sex b/w sunrise and sunset </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Almsgiving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give a certain amount of property to charity every year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage (Hajj) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel to Mecca at least once in a lifetime </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Back to the regularly scheduled program… <ul><li>After Muhammad’s death, there is confusion about his successor. </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr (father-in-law) became the first Caliph </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you worship Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. If you worship God, God is alive.” </li></ul>
  9. 11. The Big Split <ul><li>Shiite: Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali , is the true successor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descendents of Ali and Fatima are called Imams . They are divinely inspired leaders, like pastors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunni: any male from the sunna , Muslim community, can be a caliph. About 90% of Muslims are Sunni. </li></ul>
  10. 12. The empire moves on <ul><li>After Ali’s murder the Umayyad empire takes over </li></ul><ul><li>It starts in Damascus in Syria, but extends all over the Middle East to Spain. </li></ul>
  11. 15. How could they conquer so much? <ul><li>Weak empires: Byzantine empire and Persian empire </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting with camels and horses </li></ul><ul><li>They allowed religious freedom to the “ People of the Book ” </li></ul>
  12. 16. When empires get too big what happens? <ul><li>Things fall apart, the entire is too hard to control </li></ul>
  13. 17. Our Trip to Saudi Arabia
  14. 18. Religion <ul><li>Strict version of Sunni Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Contains both Mecca and Medina </li></ul><ul><li>NO freedom of religion </li></ul>
  15. 19. Muslim women <ul><li>Granted “equality” in the Qu’ran, but given smaller shares of inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Told to dress moderately in the Qu’ran </li></ul><ul><li>In Saudi Arabia All women are required to wear a full black cloak, called an abaya , and a headscarf or headcovering. They can be harassed by the religious police if they do not. Many women also wear a niqāb or face veil. </li></ul>
  16. 21. Akon
  17. 22. Malcolm X
  18. 23. Mos Def
  19. 24. Muhammad Ali