Ancient Greece

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World History Fall 2008

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Ancient Greece

  1. 3. <ul><li>We don’t know a lot about them, mostly sailors and traders </li></ul><ul><li>Giant palace at Knossos </li></ul><ul><li>Worshipped bulls as sacred </li></ul><ul><li>Unsure about what happened to them, but Mycenaeans conquered them in the end </li></ul><ul><li>Mycenaeans speak Indo-European language </li></ul><ul><li>The Trojan war (Mycenae and Troy) </li></ul><ul><li>Iliad and Odyssey ( possibly by Homer) </li></ul>
  2. 8. <ul><li>Called polis </li></ul><ul><li>Developed this way partially because of the rocky, island geography </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted culture from others, example Phonecian alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>Created acropolis </li></ul><ul><li>First to use the idea of “citizens” </li></ul><ul><li>Government: Monarchy to aristocracy to oligarchy </li></ul><ul><li>New military technique: phalanx! </li></ul>
  3. 15. <ul><li>&quot;Life is short, the art long.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Wise men speak because they have something to say; Fools because they have to say something.” </li></ul><ul><li>The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom begins in wonder. </li></ul>
  4. 19. <ul><li>Dorians </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens= male, native-born, over 30yrs old </li></ul><ul><li>Males trained to be soldiers from birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhealthy children killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged to steal to build to develop skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spent most of their lives in the military barracks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women had to be fit to birth strong children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had some rights to own property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isolated from other city-states </li></ul>
  5. 20. <ul><li>People unhappy, move towards DEMOCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>Solon (wise leader) reforms Athens: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends debt slavery, grants citizenship to foreigners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No women, merchants or slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women: Religion and home life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No voting, run the house, usually married at 13 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only males that could afford it </li></ul></ul>
  6. 22. <ul><li>Zeus- King of the Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Hera- wife of Zeus, protector of marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo- God of music, truth </li></ul><ul><li>Athena- goddess of love </li></ul><ul><li>Aphrodite- goddess of love </li></ul><ul><li>Poseidon – god of the Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Ares- God of War </li></ul>
  7. 26. <ul><li>499 BC Ionians rebel against Persian rule (they had been part of the Persian empire), Athens sends ships to help </li></ul><ul><li>Persia wins, but is mad at Athens for the ships </li></ul><ul><li>In 490 BC Darius I of Persia attacks Marathon (near Athens), Athens somehow wins. </li></ul><ul><li>In 480 BC Xerxes attacks again at Thermopylae (Spartans fight to the last man, but lose) </li></ul><ul><li>Persians head south, burn Athens, but lose at Salamis b/c of narrow port </li></ul>
  8. 27. <ul><li>Athens decides that for protection sake the city-states should create an alliance (called the Delian League) </li></ul><ul><li>Athens heads the Delian League, often uses the money/resources to rebuild its own city-state. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta and others create the Peloponnesian League in opposition </li></ul>
  9. 28. <ul><li>Unstable Greece is an advantage to Philip II of Macedonia </li></ul><ul><li>After creating alliances with Greek states Philip is able to defeat Athens and Thebes to control all of Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>After his father (Philip) is murdered Alexander takes over the empire. </li></ul>
  10. 30. <ul><li>At only 20 years old Alexander takes on the massive Persian empire and wins! </li></ul><ul><li>After conquering Persia he wants to push on towards India </li></ul><ul><li>In India his troops see men mounted on war elephants, Alexander’s horse is killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers tired of marching and fighting, they decide to return to Babylon. </li></ul><ul><li>In Babylon Alexander catches a fever and dies at just 32 years old . </li></ul>
  11. 31. <ul><li>Marched for 11 years over 20,000 miles and never lost a battle </li></ul><ul><li>United an area of over 22 million square miles. </li></ul>
  12. 33. <ul><li>Socratic method </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates put to death for “corrupting youth and disrespecting the gods” </li></ul><ul><li>Plato writes The Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 classes of society: workers, soldiers, philosophers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded the “Academy” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aristotle questions all forms of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason is the guiding force for all actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea of “ Golden Mean ”, a middle ground between extremes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 34. <ul><li>Monuments need balance (ex. Parthenon) </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures and statues start to look more life-like, not rigid like early Greece and Egypt. </li></ul>
  14. 36. <ul><li>Drama developed from religious festivals for the god of fertility and wine, Dionysus . </li></ul><ul><li>Websites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ancientgreece/classics/theatre/intro.shtml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://libary.thinkquest.org/CR0210200/ancient_greece/face_memory.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tragedies were the most popular, especially those of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oresteia, Antigone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comedies often made fun of politicians and important people in society </li></ul>
  15. 38. <ul><li>Pythagoras creates Pythagorean Theorem </li></ul><ul><li>Archimedes developed the ideas of physics (lever and pulley) </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocrates is one of the innovators of medicine (Hippocratic oath) </li></ul>

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