Global Outlook                Chemical Parks:             Industry Landscaping                 à la Germany               ...
chemical industry privatization attempt by the trust agencyTreuhand, the organization charged with privatizing theformer E...
Global OutlookLogistics — a further plus                                         Chemical regions: parks and connections  ...
ChemCologne. This region, which includes the ABCD-                pean ethylene network as a hub for a pan-European pipe-c...
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Chem. Parks & Standort Marl - AICHE Profile


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Profile of Chem Park Marl, formerly owned by Huels AG and the site of the world's first synthetic rubber plant Bunawerke Huels.

This article is from Chemical Engineering Progress, October 2011

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Chem. Parks & Standort Marl - AICHE Profile

  1. 1. Global Outlook Chemical Parks: Industry Landscaping à la Germany Chemical parks are synergistic environments for the companies located there — thanks to integration of infrastructure and shared resources and distribution networks. In Europe, Germany’s central location and unique geography have contributed to the success of the chemical park concept.A n offshoot of globalization and the subsequent In parallel, the chemical park model of Germany’s company and industry restructuring has been the chemical industry gave birth to new types of service emergence of chemical parks — a business model providers. Traditionally self-contained sites with internallythat brings together raw material suppliers, chemical manu- connected structures (verbundstandorte) opened up andfacturers, intermediates and specialty-chemicals producers, site operator companies formed. These local players, ofteninfrastructure and service providers, and other companies at leveraging many decades of experience in the operationa single site. of chemical sites, were able to meet the needs of chemi- The advent of chemical parks coincided with the cal businesses at a common location — such as productrestructuring of the German chemical industry, which con- transport and distribution, maintenance, training, utilities,tinues to this day. Within this restructuring, many compa- waste disposal, wastewater treatment, emergency response,nies merged, spun off corporate divisions, or sold business fire brigade, and liaison with authorities — efficiently andunits. Over the past two decades, large conglomerates effectively. Site operator companies and their subsidiariesbecame numerous smaller businesses that now focus on provide the infrastructures needed for chemical production.their core competencies. From the wide range of services offered by the operators Alongside established German specialty-chemicals of chemical parks, chemical companies can choose whatmanufacturers, companies spun off from the conglomer- suits them best. This enables chemical businesses to focusates entered the market. Old and new businesses combined on what is essential to the manufacturing of chemicals:forces and know-how. In the shadow of global players, research, development, and production.high-performing specialty-chemicals enterprises thusemerged in Germany. A diversity of structures and infrastructures The roots of the modern chemical park date back onlyThis article was prepared with assistance from the German Chemical to the early 1990s and the restructuring of East Germany.Industry Association (Verband der Chemischen Industrie; VCI). Specialthanks are extended to Monika von Zedlitz, press officer at VCI, for her The first chemical parks were established in the new federalmany contributions to the article. states that formerly constituted East Germany. An overall44  October 2011  CEP Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE)
  2. 2. chemical industry privatization attempt by the trust agencyTreuhand, the organization charged with privatizing theformer East Germany’s enterprises, had proved to be unre-alistic. As a result, large chemical sites were split up andindividual operations were sold to private investors. The first chemical parks in the former federal states ofWest Germany were formed only in the late 1990s. Produc-tion segments and niche products in all chemical fields weretaken out of the former single-owner sites and were splitoff or purchased by other companies with a view towardstrengthening individual business sectors. In 1998, theformer Hüls AG converted its premises into the ChemieparkMarl, which is operated today by Infracor GmbH. In thesame year, the former Hoechst AG formed Industriepark p The Marl Chemical Park — Germany’s first (and third largest) chemicalHöchst with the operator Infraserv. park — covers more than 1,600 acres (650 hectares). Some 30 companies Today, Germany is home to approximately 60 chemi- operate plants at this parks that occupy more than 2,000 hectares of availablespace. The layouts of these parks are quite diverse: some The success of chemical parksparks appear to be one large plant, whereas others have Chemical park operators enable the smooth runningmore-open structures. The number of companies inside of production facilities, as they assume responsibility forchemical parks varies considerably, from two to more than all tasks that support production activities. This includes60 independent businesses. the provision of primary chemicals via internal piping Around 240,000 people work in German chemical networks (e.g., pipe racks); road systems and waterways;parks (based on the membership of VCI Sector Group of centralized or specialized shops for all types of repairChemical Parks and Sites), and about 55% of the employ- work; and water, electricity, and steam.ees work for chemical manufacturers and their research Chemical parks supply reliable energy based on a widedepartments. Just under 40% of staff are employed by energy mix and judicious energy management. Compa-nonmanufacturing enterprises. Other manufacturing firms nies in chemical parks can cut energy costs, for example,and independent research facilities account for the remain- by optimizing peak loads. This is an important factor ining approximately 5% of staff. chemical production. Since the year 2000, German chemical parks and Companies at chemical parks do not need to makecompanies located there have invested roughly €28 billion their own arrangements for site safety and security.(approximately U.S.$40 billion) on upgrading existing Typically, park operators are responsible for emergencyplants and building new ones. In recent years, 60% of and security management and in‑house fire went into expansion. Within the manufactur- This cuts costs without compromising competence anding sector, chemical producers are major investors: more safety, and ensures the integrity and availability of thethan 80% of the investment is attributable to chemical production plants.companies. Environmental protection is another function performed Chemical parks are open to all companies along the by park operators. Most chemical parks have wastewaterentire chemical value chain — from raw material producers, treatment plants and waste disposal systems. Operatorsprocessors, and finishers, to manufacturers of end prod- also offer further support in the areas of environmentalucts — as well as to chemistry-related industries, such as protection, occupational health and safety, and plant andpetroleum, pulp and paper, metal finishing, and automotive process safety. For instance, collaboration between chemi-suppliers. Chemical parks are also attractive to manufac- cal park operators and government authorities can facilitateturers with activities based on renewable raw materials or plant licensing and ensure compliance with the relevantbiotechnology — with products such as biofuels, bio- environmental laws.intermediates, and bioplastics. By outsourcing subsidiary The range of services offered by chemical parks canbusiness processes to service providers in their home parks, also extend to vocational and advanced training, publiccompanies are able to redevelop their business models to relations activities, event management, and onsite employeefocus on their core competencies. conveniences such as restaurants and retail outlets. Article continues on next pageCopyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) CEP  October 2011  45
  3. 3. Global OutlookLogistics — a further plus Chemical regions: parks and connections The centralization of logistics and product transport is Many chemical parks in Germany are organized intoanother strong point of Germany’s chemical parks — for five “chemical regions” that are roughly distributed aroundboth raw material supplies and exports of chemical products. the nation’s perimeter. The regions are less distinguished byGermany is in the heart of Europe, and the short distance their industrial specializations or the chemical parks’ occu-to Central and Eastern European accession countries of the pants than by their unique geographic settings and proxim-European Union opens up many sales prospects. German ity to major distribution networks.chemical parks are located along major trans-Europe and CeChemNet. The network of the Central Germaninternational transportation routes that connect companies chemical sites — the Central European Chemical Networkin Germany and other European countries by roads, rail, (CeChemNet) — incorporates six sites in the towns ofand inland waterway networks. (Some of these networks are Bitterfeld, Leuna, Schkopau, Böhlen, Zeitz, and Schwar-described below in the section about the chemical regions.) zheide. The CeChemNet partners are InfraLeuna, P-D Nearly all German chemical parks have rail connec- ChemiePark Bitterfeld‑Wolfen, Dow Olefinverbund, Infra‑tions, and one-third are accessible by water. About half of Zeitz Servicegesellschaft, and BASF Schwarzheide.the raw materials processed at chemical sites arrive by road, The region’s parks include 600 companies, employ-one-third by rail, 15% by pipelines, and 10% by water. ing about 27,000 people. The chemical companies and More than 40% of Germany’s chemical parks are con- chemical park operators in the CeChemNet network ben-nected through a network of pipelines that supply German efit from the shared strengths of the individual chemicalchemical sites with raw materials and intermediates such as parks — creating synergies with feedstock integration incrude oil, ethylene, and propylene. Pipelines between parks the Central German chemical triangle, and facilitating theprovide natural gas, naphtha, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, transfer of knowledge among its six chemical sites in theand industrial gases, enabling integrated production (produk- three federal states of Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony, and Bran-tionsverbund). Unique value chains can be integrated with denburg. Moreover, the CeChemNet initiative coordinateseach other through the large choice and good availability of information exchange among industry, scientific researchchemical substances at minimal logistical effort. Such syner- organizations, and policy-makers, and supports the mar-gies result in lower production costs at chemical parks. keting efforts of the chemical parks in collaboration with Specialty providers of chemical logistics usually have investment and marketing agencies at the national andrepresentatives onsite to ensure quality and safety in filling, federal state levels.packing, and interim storage, and in the smooth transport of ChemCoast. Located directly on the seacoast, Chem-chemical products. Coast e.V. is an interstate initiative — supported by the governments of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein —Productive partnerships for strengthening the sustainability and economic power of Another major advantage of chemical parks is that com- the Northern German chemical locations of Brunsbüttel,panies can make changes to their product portfolios more Seelze, Stade, Walsrode, and Wilhelmshaven.easily than at individual (conventional) sites. For example, a Brunsbüttel, Stade, and Wilhelmshaven have directfirm that no longer needs a production unit might be able to access to international maritime transport routes. The directfind a buyer at its home chemical park location. Conversely, shipping route via Brunsbüttel leads through the Kiel Canalcompanies wishing to expand their product range might be to Scandinavia and the Baltic states. In the last few years,able to purchase a plant from another company at the same Stade harbor has expanded into one of the largest ethylenesite. This reduces the costs of dismantling, rebuilding, and transhipment ports of Europe. A new ethylene pipelinemodifying plants. between Stade and Brunsbüttel was opened in 2007; today, German chemical park sites also provide close contact the ChemCoast region is connected to a pipeline system thatwith universities, technical colleges, and other research runs from Heide to Böhlen, via Brunsbüttel and Stade.institutes where companies can find partners for innovation. The ChemCoast locations of Seelze and Walsrode areThe parks attract not only manufacturing companies and situated at a motorway hub with east-west and north-southindustry service providers, but scientific institutes as well, road access, while the ChemCoast locations of Maschenwith half of all German chemical parks directly affiliated and Seelze benefit from some of Europe’s most‑advancedwith research networks. Many research organizations seek and efficient railway facilities for freight transport. Thethe type of neighborhood provided by chemical parks, regional distribution network also includes the internationalwhich inspires the flow and exchange of research. Addition- airports of Hannover, Hamburg, and, chemical parks often provide education and training New power plants are scheduled to be built along thefacilities for staff. coast in the near future.46 October 2011 CEP Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE)
  4. 4. ChemCologne. This region, which includes the ABCD- pean ethylene network as a hub for a pan-European pipe-cities of Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, and Düsseldorf, lies in line system. BASF Construction Chemicals is among thethe heart of Europe. The ChemCologne region borders the region’s companies, occupying a plant at the Trostberg park.Netherlands and Belgium and is located along the RhineRiver, which connects the region’s parks to Europe’s Summing uplargest seaports of Rotterdam and Antwerp. The Rhine is Chemical parks are an offshoot of the structural changesequipped with modern docks that are specially tailored to brought on by globalization. In German chemical parks,the needs of the chemical parks along its route. The Chem- chemical manufacturers can focus on their core compe-Cologne region is also home to two major air traffic hubs, at tency — the manufacture of chemical products — withoutCologne/Bonn and Düsseldorf, and close to Europe’s largest spending on their own infrastructures. Individually tailoredinland port in Duisburg. Frankfurt Airport, as Germany’s offerings from service providers help save costs and time.busiest airport for both passenger and cargo traffic, can be Synergies arise from having many companies at one loca-reached within an hour from the region’s sites. tion: companies can jointly obtain energy, raw materials, The ChemCologne region’s 10 chemical and industrial and intermediates, and they can share plants and facilities,parks include about 230 companies of all sizes and from leading to further savings. Given the diverse nature ofvirtually all chemical industry sectors, and employ about companies at one site linked through sophisticated pipe-75,000 people. A few of Germany’s largest chemical lines, many chemicals can be manufactured at the samecompanies operate multiple plants in the area, including location — from basic commodity chemicals to high-valueBayer (CHEMPARK), LANXESS, and Evonik. With its specialty chemical products. For small chemical enterprisesthree sites in Leverkusen, Dormagen, and Krefeld, the and start-ups as well, chemical parks are ideal locations forCHEMPARK is Germany’s largest chemical park. Also in prospering fields of business. The chemical park concept isthis region, Shell operates Germany’s largest refinery in the a success story with a future. CEPsouth of Cologne. ChemSite. Situated in the German state of NorthRhine-Westphalia near the nation’s northwestern bor-der with the Netherlands and Belgium, ChemSite is thechemical and plastics cluster in the Ruhr region, Europe’slargest industrial area. The chemical parks in the regionhave access to Europe’s largest inland port in Duisburg.ChemSite locations include chemical parks in Marl (MarlChemical Park), Gelsenkirchen (BP RP/Ruhroel), Castrop-Rauxel (Rütgers Germany), and Dortmund (DeutscheGasrußwerke) — with the region’s companies producingmore than 4,000 products. The Marl Chemical Park — the first chemical park andGermany’s third largest park overall — houses Evonik’slargest production site. Other firms producing chemicals atthe Marl Chemical Park include INEOS Styrenics, Inter-national Specialty Products, LANXESS Buna, Rohm andHaas, Sasol, and VESTOLIT. ChemDelta Bavaria. The Bavarian Chemical Triangleregion occupies a high-tech area in southeast Germany,along the border with Austria and in the vicinity of Munich.Its location allows access to the markets of southern Europeand the rapidly growing states of central and easternEurope, enabling it to serve as a center for east-west andnorth-south trade within Europe. Roughly 30 companies, employing more than 25,000people, are partners in the region’s half-dozen chemicalparks. The parks will be connected to southern Germany’sEthylene Pipeline South, which is currently under construc-tion and will soon provide access to the north-west Euro-Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) CEP  October 2011  47