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Managing Change, Stress, and Innovation
What Is Change? <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an alteration of an organization’s environment, structure, technol...
Forces For Change <ul><li>External Forces  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketplace competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govern...
Two Views Of The Change Process <ul><li>“Calm Waters” Metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes traditional practices in an...
Change in “Calm Waters” <ul><li>Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfreezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Change In “White-Water Rapids” <ul><li>Change is constant in a dynamic environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The only certainty i...
Implementing Planned Changes <ul><li>Organization Development (OD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an activity ( intervention ) d...
Stress: The Aftermath Of Organizational Change <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when individuals confront a sit...
Sources of Stress <ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are barriers that keep us from doing what we desire. </li></ul...
Organizational Stressors: Role Demands <ul><li>Role Conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are work expectations that are hard to...
Personal Factors: Personality Types <ul><li>Type A Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who have a chronic sense of ur...
Symptoms Of Stress <ul><li>Psychological Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxie...
Reducing Stress <ul><li>Person-Job Fit Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Match employees to their jobs, clarify expectations,...
Stimulating Innovation <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make...
Structural Variables Affecting Innovation <ul><li>Organic Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively influences innovation...
Characteristics of an Innovative Culture <ul><li>Acceptance of ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of the impractical </...
HR Variables Affecting Innovation <ul><li>HR Practices that Foster Innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting of training ...
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Man101 Chapter7

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Man101 Chapter7

  1. 1. Managing Change, Stress, and Innovation
  2. 2. What Is Change? <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an alteration of an organization’s environment, structure, technology, or people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A constant force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An organizational reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An opportunity or a threat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Change Agent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a person who initiates and assumes the responsibility for managing a change in an organization. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Forces For Change <ul><li>External Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketplace competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government laws and regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor market shifts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycles in the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy modifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workforce composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restructured jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor surpluses and shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee attitudes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Two Views Of The Change Process <ul><li>“Calm Waters” Metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes traditional practices in and theories about organizations that likens the organization to a large ship making a predictable trip across a calm sea and experiencing an occasional storm. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“White-Water Rapids” Metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the organization as a small raft navigating a raging river. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Change in “Calm Waters” <ul><li>Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfreezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The driving forces, which direct behavior away from the status quo, can be increased. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The restraining forces, which hinder movement from the existing equilibrium, can be decreased. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The two approaches can be combined. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refreezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing a new equilibrium state. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Change In “White-Water Rapids” <ul><li>Change is constant in a dynamic environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The only certainty is continuing uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive advantages do not last. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers must quickly and properly react to unexpected events by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being alert to problems and opportunities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming change agents in stimulating, implementing and supporting change in the organization. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Implementing Planned Changes <ul><li>Organization Development (OD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an activity ( intervention ) designed to facilitate planned, long-term organization-wide change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on the attitudes and values of organizational members; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is essentially an effort to change an organization’s culture. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Stress: The Aftermath Of Organizational Change <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when individuals confront a situation related to their desires for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive stress: when the situation offers an opportunity for one to gain something </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative stress: when constraints or demands are placed on individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stressor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a factor that causes stress. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sources of Stress <ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are barriers that keep us from doing what we desire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibit individuals in ways that take the control of a situation out of their hands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause persons to give up something they desire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can preoccupy your time and force you to shift priorities. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Organizational Stressors: Role Demands <ul><li>Role Conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are work expectations that are hard to satisfy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role Overload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the result of having more work to accomplish than time permits. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when role expectations are not clearly understood. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Personal Factors: Personality Types <ul><li>Type A Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who have a chronic sense of urgency and an excessive competitive drive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type B Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who are relaxed and easygoing and accept change easily. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Symptoms Of Stress <ul><li>Psychological Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boredom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procrastination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior-related Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in eating habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep disorders </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Reducing Stress <ul><li>Person-Job Fit Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Match employees to their jobs, clarify expectations, redesign jobs, and increase employee involvement and participation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help employees overcome personal and health-related problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wellness Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help employees prevent health problems. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Stimulating Innovation <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual connections. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of taking a creative idea and turning it into a useful product, service, or method of operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Structural Variables Affecting Innovation <ul><li>Organic Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively influences innovation through less work specialization, fewer rules and decentralization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Easy Availability of Plentiful Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow management to purchase innovations, bear the cost of instituting innovations, and absorb failures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequent Interunit Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps to break down barriers to innovation by facilitating interaction across departmental lines. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Characteristics of an Innovative Culture <ul><li>Acceptance of ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of the impractical </li></ul><ul><li>Low external controls </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on ends rather than on means </li></ul><ul><li>Open systems focus </li></ul>
  17. 17. HR Variables Affecting Innovation <ul><li>HR Practices that Foster Innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting of training and development so employee knowledge remains current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering employees high job security to reduce fear of making mistakes and taking risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging employees to become champions of change </li></ul></ul>

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