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Man101 Chapter6


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Man101 Chapter6

  1. 1. Staffing and Human Resource Management
  2. 2. Human Resources Management (HRM) <ul><li>The management function that is concerned with getting, training, motivating, and keeping competent employees. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing the supply of employees with the demand for employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching the talents and skills of employees with those required by the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a working environment that fosters high employee performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting the pay and benefits needs of employees. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Legal Environment Of HRM <ul><li>The impact of federal, state and local laws on HRM practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programs that ensure that decisions and practices enhance the employment, upgrading, and retention of members of protected groups. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Legal Environment Of HRM (cont’d) <ul><li>Does HRM Face the Same Laws Globally? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HR practices and employment laws of other countries differ significantly from HR practices and laws in the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work councils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nominated or elected employees who must be consulted when management makes decisions involving personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employees who sit on a company’s board of directors and represent the interests of employees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Employment Planning <ul><li>Employment Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which management ensures it has the right number and kinds of people in the right places at the right time, who are capable of helping the organization achieve its goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps in the Planning Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing current human resources and future human resources needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a program to meet those needs. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Employee Assessment <ul><li>Human Resource Inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lists the name, education, training, prior employer, languages spoken, and other information about each employee in the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an assessment of the kinds of skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to successfully perform each job in an organization. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Job Analysis Components <ul><li>Job Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a written statement of what a job holder does, how it is done, and why it is done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks, duties and responsibilities that the job entails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Specification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications that an incumbent must possess to perform a given job successfully. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required of the job holder </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Recruitment And Selection <ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of locating, identifying, and attracting capable applicants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Selection Terms <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the degree to which a selection device measures the same thing consistently (stability). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: an individual consistently achieves nearly identical scores on the same exam. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the proven relationship between a selection device and a relevant criterion (a measure of job success). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: high employment test scores and superior job performance for an employee. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Selection Devices <ul><li>Written Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include intelligence, aptitude, ability, and interest test batteries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance-Simulation Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are selection devices that are based on actual job behaviors; work sampling and assessment centers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are effective if conducted correctly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realistic Job Preview (RJP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides positive and negative information about the job and the company during the job interview. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Potential Biases in Interviews <ul><li>Prior knowledge about the applicant. </li></ul><ul><li>An interviewer’s tendency to hold a stereotype of what represents a good applicant. </li></ul><ul><li>An interviewer’s tendency to favor applicants who share his or her own attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>The order in which applicants are interviewed. </li></ul><ul><li>The order in which information is elicited during the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative information about the applicant which is given unduly high weight. </li></ul><ul><li>An interviewer’s decision concerning the applicant’s suitability within the few minutes of the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>An interviewer’s forgetting much of the interview’s content within minutes after its conclusion. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Potential Biases in Interviews (cont’d) <ul><li>Interviews Are Most Useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For determining an applicant’s intelligence, level of motivation, and interpersonal skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If they are structured and well-organized as opposed to unstructured and unorganized interviews. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Making Interviews More Effective <ul><li>Behavioral (Situation) Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An interview in which candidates are observed not only for what they say, but how behave to determine how they might behave under stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Candidates are presented a complex situation and asked to “deal with” it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research indicates that behavioral interviews are nearly eight times more effective than other interview formats. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Introducing Employee to the Organization <ul><li>Employee Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the introduction of a new employee to the job and the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives of Orientation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce the initial anxiety all new employees feel as they begin a new job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To familiarize new employees with the job, the work unit, and the organization as a whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To facilitate the outsider–insider transition. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. What Is Employee Training? <ul><li>Employee Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in employees such that their ability to perform on the job improves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing skills, knowledge, attitudes, or behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing what employees know, how they work; or their attitudes toward their jobs, co-workers, managers, and the organization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Performance Management <ul><li>Performance Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of establishing performance standards and evaluating performance in order to arrive at objective human resource decisions and to provide documentation to support personnel actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjective Rating Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate an individual on each job performance factor on an incremental scale. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Direct Comparison Methods <ul><li>Group-Order Ranking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the evaluator to place employees into a particular classification such as “top fifth” or “second fifth.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual Ranking Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the evaluator merely to list the employees in order from highest to lowest. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Direct Comparison Methods (cont’d) <ul><li>Paired Comparison Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compares each employee with every other employee in the comparison group and rates the employee as either the superior or weaker member of the pair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns each employee a summary ranking based on the number of superior scores achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MBO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluates employees by how well they accomplish a specific set of objectives determined to be critical in the successful completion of their jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes quantitative results-oriented outcomes. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. When Performance Falls Short <ul><li>Performance Impediments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismatched skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee’s personal problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is actions taken by a manager to enforce an organization’s standards and regulations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee Counseling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a process designed to help employees overcome performance-related problems. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Compensation And Benefits <ul><li>Compensation Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves determining a cost-effective pay structure that will attract and retain competent employees, provide an incentive for them to work hard, and ensure that pay levels will be perceived as fair. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors Influencing Pay Levels/Compensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee’s job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kind of business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment surrounding the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee performance levels and seniority. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Why Do Organizations Offer Employee Benefits? <ul><li>Employee Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are nonfinancial rewards designed to enrich employees’ lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers’ and unemployment compensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid time off from work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life and disability insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retirement programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health insurance </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Current Issues in HRM: Workforce Diversity <ul><li>Improving Workforce Diversity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widen the recruiting net to broaden the pool of applicants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the organization’s selection process is nondiscriminatory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist new employees in assimilating into the firm’s culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct specialized orientations and workshops for new employees. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Current Issues in HRM: Sexual Harassment <ul><li>What Is Sexual Harassment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment includes sexually suggestive remarks, unwanted touching and sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal and physical conduct of a sexual nature that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates an intimidating, offensive, or hostile environment; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unreasonably interferes with an individual’s work; or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adversely affects an employee’s employment opportunities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Sexual Harassment (cont’d) <ul><li>Hostile (or Offensive) Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meritor Savings Bank v. Vincent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The employer can be held liable for harassment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The harassing act (not the outcome) is deciding factor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Protecting the Organization and Employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educating employees about sexual harassment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having a sexual harassment policy in place that is enforced fairly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking action on the first instance of a sexual harassment complaint. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Current Issues in HRM: Labor Relations and Unions <ul><li>Labor–Management Cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves mutual efforts on the part of a labor union and the management of an organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Successful efforts to increase productivity, improve quality, and lower costs require employee involvement and commitment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor unions now recognize that they can help their members more by cooperating with management than fighting it. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Current Issues in HRM: Workplace Violence <ul><li>Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The increase in violent crimes being committed at the work site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing Violence in the Workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training supervisory personnel to identify troubled employees before the problem results in violence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing employee assistance programs (EAPs) specifically to help individuals in need. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing stronger security mechanisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing violence paraphernalia from entering facilities altogether. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Current HRM Issues: Workplace Spirituality <ul><li>Workplace Spirituality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A spiritual culture that recognizes that employees have both a mind and a spirit, seek to find meaning and purpose in their work, and desire to connect with other employees and be part of a community. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workplace Spirituality Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do organizations have the right to impose spiritual values on their employees? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are spirituality and profits compatible? </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Current HRM Issues: Layoffs and Downsizing <ul><li>Layoff-Survivor Sickness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the set of attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of employees who remain after involuntary staff reductions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealing with the “Survivor Syndrome”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for employees to talk to counselors about their guilt, anger, and anxiety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide group discussions for the survivors to vent their feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement employee participation programs such as empowerment and self-managed work teams. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Career Module BUILDING YOUR CAREER
  30. 30. Making a Career Decision <ul><li>Career </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Assessment Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and organize your skills, interests, work-related needs, and values. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert this information into general career fields and specific job goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test your career possibilities by talking with knowledgeable people in the fields, organizations, or jobs you desire. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Getting Into The Organization <ul><li>Jobs advertised on the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job and career web sites issues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low probability of immediate success </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security of e-resumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparing your resume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper formatting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salient content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ways to Excel at an Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare, prepare, prepare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the company and its industry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Developing a Management Career <ul><li>Organization’s career development responsibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating clearly the organization’s goals and future strategies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating personal growth opportunities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering financial assistance through tuition reimbursement to help employees keep current. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping employees to learn by providing paid time off off-the-job training and adjusting workloads to allow employees to develop skills, abilities, and knowledge. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Developing a Management Career (cont’d) <ul><li>Managing your career as a entrepreneur manages a small business: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know yourself; your strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage your reputation by letting others know about your achievements. Make accomplishments visible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a network contacts through professional associations, conferences, and social gatherings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop current specific skills and abilities that are in high demand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid learning organization-specific skills that can’t be transferred quickly to other employers. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Developing a Management Career (cont’d) <ul><li>Managing your career (cont’d): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance your specialist and generalist competencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document your achievements that offer objective evidence of your competencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your mobility options open with contingency plans that you can call on when needed. </li></ul></ul>