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Academic Writing : Essays
Scientific paper
WRITING A SCIENTIFIC PAPER
When you write about scientific topics to specialists in a particular scientific
field, we call that scientific writing. (When you write to non-specialists about
scientific topics, we call that science writing.) (Writing@CSU is an open-access,
educational website supported by Colorado State University)
A standard format with six main part helps readers to find expected
information and analysis:
• Title
• Abstract
• Introduction
• Methods and Materials
• Results
• Discussion
The title should contain three elements:
1. the name of the organism studied;
2. the particular aspect or system studied;
3. the variable(s) manipulated.
Do not be afraid to be grammatically creative. Here are some variations on a theme, all suitable as titles:
.THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION OF CORN
.DOES TEMPERATURE AFFECT GERMINATION OF CORN?
.TEMPERATURE AND CORN GERMINATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURE
Sometimes it is possible to include the principal result or conclusion in the title:
HIGH TEMPERATURES REDUCE GERMINATION OF CORN
Abstract:
The abstract is a one or two paragraph condensation (150-200 words) of the entire work described completely in
the article. The abstract should be a self-contained unit capable of being understood without the benefit of the
text. It should contain these four elements:
1. the purpose of the study (the central question);
2. a brief statement of what was done (Methods);
3. a brief statement of what was found (Results);
4. a brief statement of what was concluded (Discussion, in part).
Aim
Example of Abstract
We studied survival of 220 calves of radiocollared moose (Alces alces) from parturition to the end of July
in southcentral Alaska from 1994 to 1997. Prior studies established that predation by brown bears (Ursus
arctos) was the primary cause of mortality of moose calves in the region. Our objectives were to
characterize vulnerability of moose calves to predation as influenced by age, date, snow depths, and
previous reproductive success of the mother. We also tested the hypothesis that survival of twin moose
calves was independent and identical to that of single calves. Survival of moose calves from parturition
through July was 0.27 ± 0.03 SE, and their daily rate of mortality declined at a near constant rate with
age in that period. Mean annual survival was 0.22 ± 0.03 SE. Previous winter's snow depths or survival of
the mother's previous calf was not related to neonatal survival. Selection for early parturition was
evidenced in the 4 years of study by a 6.3% increase in the hazard of death with each daily increase in
parturition date. Although there was no significant difference in survival of twin and single moose calves,
most twins that died disappeared together during the first 15 days after birth and independently
thereafter, suggesting that predators usually killed both when encountered up to that age.
• Key words: Alaska, Alces alces, calf survival, moose, Nelchina, parturition synchrony, predation
• Testa, J.W., E.F. Becker, & G.R. Lee. 2000. "Temporal patterns in the survival of twin and single moose
(alces alces) calves in southcentral Alaska." Journal of Mammalogy, 81(1):162-168.

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Academic Writing: Tips for Scientific Paper Titles, Abstracts & Aims

  • 1. Academic Writing : Essays Scientific paper
  • 2. WRITING A SCIENTIFIC PAPER When you write about scientific topics to specialists in a particular scientific field, we call that scientific writing. (When you write to non-specialists about scientific topics, we call that science writing.) (Writing@CSU is an open-access, educational website supported by Colorado State University) A standard format with six main part helps readers to find expected information and analysis: • Title • Abstract • Introduction • Methods and Materials • Results • Discussion
  • 3. The title should contain three elements: 1. the name of the organism studied; 2. the particular aspect or system studied; 3. the variable(s) manipulated. Do not be afraid to be grammatically creative. Here are some variations on a theme, all suitable as titles: .THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION OF CORN .DOES TEMPERATURE AFFECT GERMINATION OF CORN? .TEMPERATURE AND CORN GERMINATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURE Sometimes it is possible to include the principal result or conclusion in the title: HIGH TEMPERATURES REDUCE GERMINATION OF CORN
  • 4. Abstract: The abstract is a one or two paragraph condensation (150-200 words) of the entire work described completely in the article. The abstract should be a self-contained unit capable of being understood without the benefit of the text. It should contain these four elements: 1. the purpose of the study (the central question); 2. a brief statement of what was done (Methods); 3. a brief statement of what was found (Results); 4. a brief statement of what was concluded (Discussion, in part).
  • 5.
  • 6. Aim
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. Example of Abstract We studied survival of 220 calves of radiocollared moose (Alces alces) from parturition to the end of July in southcentral Alaska from 1994 to 1997. Prior studies established that predation by brown bears (Ursus arctos) was the primary cause of mortality of moose calves in the region. Our objectives were to characterize vulnerability of moose calves to predation as influenced by age, date, snow depths, and previous reproductive success of the mother. We also tested the hypothesis that survival of twin moose calves was independent and identical to that of single calves. Survival of moose calves from parturition through July was 0.27 ± 0.03 SE, and their daily rate of mortality declined at a near constant rate with age in that period. Mean annual survival was 0.22 ± 0.03 SE. Previous winter's snow depths or survival of the mother's previous calf was not related to neonatal survival. Selection for early parturition was evidenced in the 4 years of study by a 6.3% increase in the hazard of death with each daily increase in parturition date. Although there was no significant difference in survival of twin and single moose calves, most twins that died disappeared together during the first 15 days after birth and independently thereafter, suggesting that predators usually killed both when encountered up to that age. • Key words: Alaska, Alces alces, calf survival, moose, Nelchina, parturition synchrony, predation • Testa, J.W., E.F. Becker, & G.R. Lee. 2000. "Temporal patterns in the survival of twin and single moose (alces alces) calves in southcentral Alaska." Journal of Mammalogy, 81(1):162-168.