Is a chronic disease characterized
by one or several neurological
disorders that leaves a
predisposition in the brain to
g...
SYMPTOMS
Involuntary contractions of muscle groups
Shaking hands with involuntary movements
Possible tongue biting
abundan...
Alzheimer’s disease is the most
common form of dementia, a
serious brain disorder that
impacts daily living through
memory...
SYMPTOMS
At first, there are small and subtle memory loss, but over time, this deficiency is
becoming more noticeable. and...
Parkinson's disease is a
neurodegenerative process of the
motor pathways that exert an
important influence on spinal motor...
Is a neurodegenerative genetic
disorder that affects muscle
coordination and leads to cognitive
decline and dementia.
 T...
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
Quick, sudden
jerking movements
of the arms, legs,
face and other
body parts
impatience Irritability
Ps...
There is no cure for
Huntington's disease.
 treatment is to reduce
symptoms and help people
to fend for themselves for a...
It is an autoimmune disease that
affects the brain and spinal cord
(central nervous system)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) affe...
Loss of
balance
Muscle
spasms
Problems with
walking
Double vision
uncontrollable
rapid eye
movements
NEUROLOGY
SYMPTOMS AN...
There is no known cure for
multiple sclerosis at the time,
but there are therapies that
can slow the progression of
the d...
Refers to any brain
abnormality, the product of
a pathological process that
compromises the blood
vessels.
NEUROLOGY
Motor deficit. Sensory deficit Dizziness
Headache
ataxia,
incoordinación,
temblor
Nausea and
vomiting
NEUROLOGY
SYMPTOMS A...
Cerebrovascular disease
has no cure.
Possible treatments
include hospital care,
medicines, transcatheter
interventions, ...
NEUROLOGY
Refers to imaging by sections or
sectioning, through the use of any
kind of penetrating wave.
A device used in tomography ...
Tomograms
are derived
using several
different
physical
phenomena
listed.
X-rays
Gamma
rays
Radio-
frequency
waves
Electron...
Is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-
rays to see how blood flows through the brain.
NEUROLOGY
Is a medical imaging
technique used in radiology to
visualize detailed internal
structures.
NEUROLOGY
One advantage of an MRI scan is that
it is harmless to the patient.
In clinical practice, MRI is used to
distinguish patho...
Is performed in order to collect a
sample of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) for:
Biochemical, microbiological, and
cytological a...
Is the removal of a small piece of brain tissue
for the diagnosis of abnormalities of the brain
NEUROLOGY
It is used to diagnose:
Alzheimer'
s disease
Tumors
InfectionInflammation
Other
brain
disorders
NEUROLOGY
A 35 year old white female
she had noticed some significant
changes in neurologic functions
heat intolerance precipitating...
the patient abruptly
developed a right
hemisensory deficit after
several days of work
The MRI scan was performed
at that t...
FAMILY HISTORY
PERSONAL HISTORY
• high blood pressure
• cancer
• heart disease
• anemia and allergies
• had a tubal ligati...
PATIENT : 33 Years old / female
who was well until 2 years ago
when she noticed an onset of
numbness in the left arm
She w...
How many possible demyelinating lesions
could be suspected in this patient based
upon the clinical history?
At least 4 are...
What is the most likely location of
the demyelinating lesion that is
causing these problems in the
patient?
Spinal cord,
a...
IN CONCLUSION , WHAT’S THE
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS FOR THIS
PATIENT ?
NEUROLOGY
NEUROLOGY
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Neurology 111227084027-phpapp01

  1. 1. Is a chronic disease characterized by one or several neurological disorders that leaves a predisposition in the brain to generate recurrent seizures, which often results in consequences neurobiological, cognitive and psychological. NEUROLOGY
  2. 2. SYMPTOMS Involuntary contractions of muscle groups Shaking hands with involuntary movements Possible tongue biting abundant salivation TREATMENT Was based on the use of non-specific depressant of the nervous system Currently there have been a number of new antiepileptic drugs that try to increase treatment efficacy and reduce side effects. NEUROLOGY
  3. 3. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, a serious brain disorder that impacts daily living through memory loss and cognitive changes. NEUROLOGY
  4. 4. SYMPTOMS At first, there are small and subtle memory loss, but over time, this deficiency is becoming more noticeable. and disabling for the individual who will have trouble performing everyday tasks and simple, and also other more intellectual, such as speaking, understanding, reading, or writing. TREATMENT At present, there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, there are medications that can help control your symptoms There are four drugs used, called cholinesterase inhibitors Cholinesterase inhibitors slow the metabolic degradation of acetylcholine NEUROLOGY
  5. 5. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative process of the motor pathways that exert an important influence on spinal motor circuits, the brain stem and cerebellum. SYMPTOMS medications ;to be effective, medication should be taken exactly as prescribed by your doctor. TREATMENT NEUROLOGY
  6. 6. Is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and dementia.  The disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation. It is much more common in people of Western European descent than in those of Asian or African ancestry. NEUROLOGY
  7. 7. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS Quick, sudden jerking movements of the arms, legs, face and other body parts impatience Irritability Psychosis Changes in language Disorientation or confusion Loss of memory NEUROLOGY
  8. 8. There is no cure for Huntington's disease.  treatment is to reduce symptoms and help people to fend for themselves for as long and as comfortably as possible. NEUROLOGY TREATMENT
  9. 9. It is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects more women than men. The disorder is most commonly diagnosed between 20 and 40 years of age NEUROLOGY
  10. 10. Loss of balance Muscle spasms Problems with walking Double vision uncontrollable rapid eye movements NEUROLOGY SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
  11. 11. There is no known cure for multiple sclerosis at the time, but there are therapies that can slow the progression of the disease. The important thing is to control symptoms and help maintain a normal quality of life. NEUROLOGY TREATMENT
  12. 12. Refers to any brain abnormality, the product of a pathological process that compromises the blood vessels. NEUROLOGY
  13. 13. Motor deficit. Sensory deficit Dizziness Headache ataxia, incoordinación, temblor Nausea and vomiting NEUROLOGY SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
  14. 14. Cerebrovascular disease has no cure. Possible treatments include hospital care, medicines, transcatheter interventions, surgery and rehabilitation. NEUROLOGY TREATMENT
  15. 15. NEUROLOGY
  16. 16. Refers to imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave. A device used in tomography is called a TOMOGRAPH. The image produced is a TOMOGRAM. NEUROLOGY
  17. 17. Tomograms are derived using several different physical phenomena listed. X-rays Gamma rays Radio- frequency waves Electron- positron annihilation Electrons Ions NEUROLOGY
  18. 18. Is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x- rays to see how blood flows through the brain. NEUROLOGY
  19. 19. Is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures. NEUROLOGY
  20. 20. One advantage of an MRI scan is that it is harmless to the patient. In clinical practice, MRI is used to distinguish pathologic tissue (such as a brain tumor) from normal tissue. NEUROLOGY
  21. 21. Is performed in order to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) for: Biochemical, microbiological, and cytological analysis. Very rarely as a treatment ("therapeutic lumbar puncture") to relieve increased intracranial pressure. NEUROLOGY
  22. 22. Is the removal of a small piece of brain tissue for the diagnosis of abnormalities of the brain NEUROLOGY
  23. 23. It is used to diagnose: Alzheimer' s disease Tumors InfectionInflammation Other brain disorders NEUROLOGY
  24. 24. A 35 year old white female she had noticed some significant changes in neurologic functions heat intolerance precipitating a stumbling gait and a tendency to fall visual acuity change periodically NEUROLOGY She got sick with a flu and her neurologic condition worsened.
  25. 25. the patient abruptly developed a right hemisensory deficit after several days of work The MRI scan was performed at that time and revealed a multifocal white matter disease - areas of increased T2 signal in both cerebral hemispheres. NEUROLOGY
  26. 26. FAMILY HISTORY PERSONAL HISTORY • high blood pressure • cancer • heart disease • anemia and allergies • had a tubal ligation. • mild vibratory sense loss in the distal lower extremities NEUROLOGIC EXAMINATION Diagnosis: Multiple Sclerosis NEUROLOGY
  27. 27. PATIENT : 33 Years old / female who was well until 2 years ago when she noticed an onset of numbness in the left arm She was able to walk normally but a few weeks later developed a relapse of neurologic dysfunction NEUROLOGY
  28. 28. How many possible demyelinating lesions could be suspected in this patient based upon the clinical history? At least 4 areas of the CNS may be involved: •abnormal vision with blind spots •optic pallor •diplopia NEUROLOGY
  29. 29. What is the most likely location of the demyelinating lesion that is causing these problems in the patient? Spinal cord, around T4-T5 Which 2 major neurological systems (or tracts) are quite apparently affected in this patient? A. pyramidal system B. dorsal columns- medial lemniscus system NEUROLOGY
  30. 30. IN CONCLUSION , WHAT’S THE MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS FOR THIS PATIENT ? NEUROLOGY
  31. 31. NEUROLOGY

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