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ALD/CVD applications, equipment and precursors in high volume manufacturing

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ALD/CVD applications, equipment and precursors in high volume manufacturing

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ALD/CVD applications, equipment and precursors in high volume manufacturing

  1. 1. ALD/CVD applications, equipment and precursors in high volume manufacturing Jonas Sundqvist, Ph.D, Fraunhofer IKTS / TECHCET CA LLC 0 500 1000 1500 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 High-k Material IP (Applications) Al2O3 TiO2 HfO2 ZrO2 REO STO, BST etc. Ta2O5 Total
  2. 2. Introduction of ALD in 300mm HVM 200mm
  3. 3. CMC Seminar / ICMtia Joint Conf 10/2018 The driver behind ALD & CVD 300mm Equipment fab invest
  4. 4. ALD Equipment Market <25% of the total CVD Wafer Equipment market • Tokyo Electron has passed ASM in revenue 2017 • 90% of the market is 300mm wafer processing equipment • TEL and Hitachi Kokusai dominates Large Batch ALD • 300 mm Spatial ALD and Multi wafer tools continues taking market shares vs. Single wafer & Large Batch 4 25% 24% 16% 11% 7% 5% 3% 9% ALD Equipment Market Estimate 2017 US$ 1.8 to 1.9 B (Semi, PV, Display, MEMS, R&D) Tokyo Electron ASM International Hitachi Kokusai Electric Lam Research Wonik IPS Jusung Engineering Applied Materials Other
  5. 5. Trend in IP Filing for Spatial ALD 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% IP Applications for Spatial ALD Source: Fraunhofer IKTS
  6. 6. Trend in IP Filing for Spatial ALD 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% IP Applications for Spatial ALD TEL NT333 for thermal and plasma ALD of SiO2, SiN, High-k Source: Fraunhofer IKTS
  7. 7. Wafer forecast – growth drivers for ALD & CVD For more information on TECHCET’s Wafer reports please go to www.techcet.com CMC Seminar / ICMtia Joint Conf 10/2018, Ningbo • Advanced logic benefits as 10 nm followed by 7 nm moves from qualification into production • Multiple patterning (SADP, SAQP) for logic and memory • Completion of the NAND to 3D- NAND transition as 3D will account for 2/3 of the capacity in 2018 (VLSI Research, April 2018) • Continued high demand for DRAM • China investments in new Fabs and expansions continue for logic and memory • Niche memory technologies like spin-transfer torque MRAM (STT- MRAM), Resistive RAM (RRAM), Ferroelectric FET (FeFET) and RAM (FRAM), and Cross-Point memory will grow over the coming 5 years
  8. 8. Dielectric & High-k Materials IP Trends 8 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 High-k Material IP (Applications) Al2O3 TiO2 HfO2 ZrO2 REO STO, BST etc. Ta2O5 Total 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Dielectric & High-k Process IP (Applications) CVD PECVD ALD SOD PVD Total Dielectric Deposition Al2O3 TiO2 HfO2 ZrO2REO STO, BST, PZT Ta2O5 ALD PECVD CVD SOD PVD Ta2O5, SrTiOx, BaSrTiOx and PZT 15 to 20 years ago. Today most IP concerning the metaloxides of Al, Hf, Ti, Zr and Rare Earth elements (SiO2 and SiN excluded) ALD and PECVD are domianting filed IP in deposition of dielectrics and high-k dielectrics (includeing SiO2 and SiN) Source: Fraunhofer IKTS
  9. 9. Leading Semiconductor Materials Suppliers ($M’s) Source: TECHCET Critical Materials Reports™ Excluding Silicon Wafers 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 UpChem Hayward Tokuyama Entegris KFMI Ferrotec AZ/Merck WonikQP AsahiGlass Wonik Kyocera DongWoo Avantor MacDermid Kanto Adeka Fujimi KMG Honeywell NGK Heraeus/Shin-Etsu Heraeus/Shin-Etsu Tosoh BASF JXNippon CoorsTek AirProducts Hitachi TNSC-Matheson Shin-Etsu-PR TokyoOhkaKogyo Sumitomo Cabot Versum DowChem Fujifilm JSR AirLiquide Linde/Praxair Leading Materials Suppliers 2017 Revenue / Ranking Ceramics Quartz Gases Precursors/SOD Photoresists/Anc. CMP Targets Wet Chem/Cleans Metal Chemicals CMC Seminar / ICMtia Joint Conf 10/2018, Ningbo Bulk/Rare Gases 7% Spec Gas 16% Liquide Precursors 5% Sputter Targets 3% Metal Chemicals (FE) 2% Wet Chemicals 8%CMP Pads & Slurry 13% Photoresists / Ancillaries 27% Eqt Parts: CMP 4% Eqt Parts: Si 3% Eqt Parts: Quartz 5% Eqt Parts: SiC / Ceramics 7%
  10. 10. ALD/CVD Metal & High-k Precursors 10 TECHCET Critical Materials Report(TM) • The combined markets for ALD and CVD metal precursors are estimated to be approximately US$460M 2018 and above US$620M by 2023. • Average long term CAGR of 8% over 2013 to 2023 TECHCET CA LLC Copyright 2018 all rights reserved www.techcet.com
  11. 11. ALD/CVD/SOD Dielectric Precursors • Dielectric precursors show growth in all segments for the next 5 years reaching US$660 in 2023 M • As for metal precursors, the market has over an extended period of time had a double digit growth and we expect the market to continue to develop as the transition to 10 nm and 7 nm node logic and 3D-NAND take place with an average long term CAGR of 9% over 2015 to 2023 11 TECHCET Critical Materials Report(TM) TECHCET CA LLC Copyright 2018 all rights reserved www.techcet.com
  12. 12. FinFET logic at the 10/7 nm node Intel 10 nm TSMC 7 nm Samsung 7 nm Globalfoundries 7 nm Process Name P1276 (CPU), P1277 (SoC) 7FF, 7FF+, 7HPC 7LPE 7LP 1st Production 2018 1Q/2018 2019 Cancelled Lithography 193 nm Immersion 193 nm Immersion /EUV EUV 193 nm Immersion Exposure SAQP SAQP/SE SE SAQP Contacted Gate Pitch (CPP) 54 54 54 56 Minimum Metal Pitch (MMP) 36 40 36 40 Source : WikiChip
  13. 13. Multiple patterning Critical Materials Conference, April 26-27, Phoenix AZ David Bloss, Vice President, Technology Manufacturing Group and Director of Lithography Technology Sourcing, Intel Corporation
  14. 14. Multiple patterning Critical Materials Conference, April 26-27, Phoenix AZ David Bloss, Vice President, Technology Manufacturing Group and Director of Lithography Technology Sourcing, Intel Corporation
  15. 15. Lithography beyond 7nm for <24nm pitch • No single lithography technology can create <24nm pitch patterns in a single pass except for direct-write e-beam which is too slow and expensive for HVM. • Multi-patterning process flows can be scompared by Cost Per Wafer Pass (CPWP), a term defined as the cost-of- ownership (CoO) Modeling for the evaluation of alternate 1D and 2D patterning paths Source: Ed Korczynski, TECHCET CMC Conference 2018, April 27 2018, Phoenix ALD
  16. 16. Alternatives – Directed self assembly (DSA) IBM Research at Albany NanoTech, TEL Technology Center, America in Albany, GlobalFoundries, and IBM Research TJ Watson in Yorktown Heights and IBM Research Almaden, San Jose. Nature Electronics volume 1, pages562–569 (2018) ALD ALD ALD
  17. 17. I AIR LIQUIDE, THE WORLD LEADER IN GASES, TECHNOLOGIES AND SERVICES FOR INDUSTRY AND HEALTH ∙ Critical Material Conference, Phoenix April 26th, 2018 • THIS DOCUMENT IS ••PUBLIC Cobalt applications and requirements BEOL Cu metallization: 22nm → Co capping layer ✓ Prevents Cu EM Co liner ✓ Improve wettability ✓ Prevents voids Source: Applied Materials Inc. http://www.appliedmaterials.com/products/endura-volta-cvd-cobalt Challenges • Conformality, void-free deposition • Contact resistance MOL contact fill: <10nm → Cu Low-k Co liner Co cap Barrier Seed Source: Applied Materials Inc. Challenges for <10nm integration • Conformality (low stability precursors) • Adhesion becomes more challenging • Selectivity 7
  18. 18. Cobalt IP Filing Trends for Chemical Compounds Increased filing activity for Cobalt chemical compounds starting 2012. Applications focusing on Li-batteries & Electronic applications (Plating chemicals, Precursors) 2012 Prices for Cobalt cathodes have increased by 60% in 2017 but appear to be stabilized but volatile.
  19. 19. Cobalt IP Filing Trends for Chemical Compounds Increased filing activity for Cobalt chemical compounds starting 2012. Applications focusing on Li-batteries & Electronic applications (Plating chemicals, Precursors) 2012 Prices for Cobalt cathodes have increased by 60% in 2017 but appear to be stabilized but volatile. Higher demand from Cobalt use in Electric Vechicles
  20. 20. Competeing Industries Competing industries for ALD precursors and the most important industries in high volume manufacturing today are: • Non-Semi Wafer based (e.g. MEMS and LED) • QD-OLED and AMOLED Flexible display • Photovoltaic • R&D Equipment 20 From an ALD equipment perspective these markets account for 10 to 15% of the total annual revenue for ALD equipment (US$ 1.8 to 1.9 B). NCD Cluster system for Lucida™ GD series OLED Encapsluation 6G half (1500mmX925mm)
  21. 21. PV – Back side passivation for PERC cells driving TMA use in PECVD & ALD Equipment & Process Market Share Estimate (%) OEM Process TMA consumption [mg / wafer] 2017 2018 2020 2022 2025 2028 Fullshare PECVD 9 90 92 86 87 87 83Centrotherm PECVD 5 Meyer Burger PECVD 2.9 Ideal Energy ALD 4 6 6 11 12 13 16 SoLayTec ALD 3 NCD ALD 2 Levitech Spatial ALD 1.6 Leadmicro Spatial ALD 1 Other PECVD SiNx n/a 4 2 2 1 0 0 21 TMA consumption and Al2O3 thickness for APCVD, PECVD and ALD Tools (Adapted from TaiyangNews 2018). The low TMA consumption is a reason why ALD tools are slowly taking market share from PECVD, especially in China
  22. 22. MEMS In MEMS applications that consist of numerous 3D structures, narrow cavities and the need of conformal coatings even in large buried structures ALD is optimal for deposition in of layers with very specific properties or combination thereof: info@techcet.com 22 Large volume of MEMS for Smartphone market (Gyro, Sensors, Speakers, Microphones) Leading MEMS and companies have implemented ALD i HVM o Diffusion barriers o Adhesion layers o Charge dissipative layers o Layers lowering frictional wear o Optical layers o Coatings for hermetical sealing o Hydrophobic layers to decrease stiction o Conformal, thermally conductive layers o Conductive seed layers for plating purposes o Etch masks and etch stop layers o Conformal, electrically insulating layers
  23. 23. New 200 mm ALD Wafer Cluster Tools Picosun Singel Wafer Mini Batch Veeco Mini Batch Beneq Mini Batch Oxford Instruments PlasmaPro Cluster PECVD, ALD & ALE
  24. 24. Contact: jonas.sundqvist@ikts.fraunhofer.de jsundqvist@techcet.com Thank you!

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