LID and Policy:
                Sustainable
           Development Practices

              What is Stopping Us?
         ...
New Way of Doing Business
                    Perceived Costs




 Elected              Why                   New Way to
 ...
All Development Occurs
       in a Watershed
                        Three Parts:
          Watershed Critical Areas
     ...
All Land Uses have a
        Pollutant/Volume Profile
                                      Volume of water flow
         ...
Table 1: Comparison of Bulk Density for undisturbed
Soils and Common Urban Conditions (Compiled from
various sources)
Undi...
Impacts of Compost
                   Amendments
                                                    Compost Amendments Ma...
LID Can Improve Water
          Quality & Water Quantity




http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_resource.htm            ...
LID Can Improve Water
          Quality & Water Quantity
                                                                 ...
LID Can Improve Water
         Quality & Water Quantity
            • Site Design was 103 Lots on 24 Acres
            • C...
Need to change thinking from
              stormwater as waste to
              stormwater as resource.
                  ...
Need to make sure ordinances
        do not prohibit LID AND that
          they allow LID practices.
                    ...
Barriers to Implementing
  LEED Across the Region
                                                                        ...
Halted construction
                fills N.C. waterways
                with silt
                BY PAGE IVEY - The Asso...
Conclusion
                 We have a new resource
                 We can ‘sing from the same
                 songbook.’...
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LID LEED and Policy August 2010 (final) (handouts)

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A look at what and who is holding back LID and LEED developments. Looks at the returns on investments and the benefits to the ecosystem by changing our thinking towards where and how we develop

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LID LEED and Policy August 2010 (final) (handouts)

  1. 1. LID and Policy: Sustainable Development Practices What is Stopping Us? Jon Barsanti Jr Masters in City and Regional Planning BA Interdisciplinary Study in Biology and Chemistry jbarsanti@alumni.unc.edu 919.943.1915 Developers Policy Who Designers Makers Decision Makers (Municipal/County) Competitive Advantage (Others are not Doing it) It is good for the economy, Others are good for the community, and good for the Why Doing It; Can do It Better environment Others are doing it and if I/We don’t adopt/adapt I/We will lose out to other communities/developers
  2. 2. New Way of Doing Business Perceived Costs Elected Why New Way to Official Design Resistance Not New Way of Developing Land/ Approving Plans Land Use Transportation Water Quantity/ Water Quality All Development Occurs in a Watershed All Land Uses have a Water Profile Undeveloped Land can be valuable LID & LEED can improve Water Quality and Quantity; Cost Less Need to view Run-off as a Resource Run-
  3. 3. All Development Occurs in a Watershed Three Parts: Watershed Critical Areas Watershed Protected Areas Remainder of the Watershed Barriers: • “Highest and Best Use of the Land;” • One person’s/community’s out-flow is another’s intake Wetlands are more than Undevelopable Land Wetlands are nature’s filtration system Wetlands manage volume and sediment load Wetlands are key to wildlife habitat preservation Barrier: Wetland is undevelopable; Can fill and replace, although manufactured is not as good as natural Stream Buffers Impact Development Developments Impact Stream Buffers Stream Buffers protect encroachment on ecosystem by development Stream Buffers Protect development from encroachment by ecosystem (e.g. floods.) Barriers: Inconsistent setbacks between communities; Vertical versus Horizontal Setbacks
  4. 4. All Land Uses have a Pollutant/Volume Profile Volume of water flow Nutrients Temperature of water flowing off the land Toxins Bacteria From Kimberly Brewer’s Presentation to the TJCOG Smart Growth Committee ftp://ftp.tjcog.org/pub/tjcog/regplan/smrtgrow/devwq.pdf All Land Uses have a Pollutant/Volume Profile Sources Land-Use Contribution Contribution to N Load to P Load Residential (SF) 14% 29% 12% Residential (MF) 1% Agriculture 20% 36% 51% Forest 56% 19% 15% Commercial/ 3% 9% 6% Industrial Other 6% 7% 16% Data from A Nutrient Credit Trading Framework for the Jordan Lake Watershed: Using Market-Based Mechanisms to Make Watershed Restoration More Cost-Effective http://www.cfra-nc.org/documents/FinalReport-FullReport_000.pdf Soil Compaction Occurs in almost all situations How much is reversible? http://www.cwp.org/Resource_Library/Center_Docs/PWP/ELC_PWP36.pdf
  5. 5. Table 1: Comparison of Bulk Density for undisturbed Soils and Common Urban Conditions (Compiled from various sources) Undisturbed Soil Type or Urban Surface Bulk Condition Density (g/cc) Peat 0.2 to 0.3 Compost 1.0 Sandy Soil 1.1 to 1.3 Silty sands 1.4 Silt 1.3 to 1.4 Silt Loams 1.2 to 1.5 Organic Silts/Clays 1.0 to 1.2 Glacial Till 1.6 to 2.0 Urban Lawns 1.5 to 1.9 Crushed Rock Parking Lot 1.5 to 2.0 Urban Fill Soils 1.8 to 2.0 Athletic Fields 1.8 to 2.0 ROW and Building Pads 1.5 to 1.8 (85% Compaction) ROW and Building Pads 1.6 to 2.1 (95% Compaction) Concrete Pavement 2.2 Quartzite 2.65 http://www.cwp.org/Resource_Library/Center_Docs/PWP/ELC_PWP36.pdf Reversing Compacted Soils • Soil Amendments • Compost Amendments • Reforestation http://www.cwp.org/Resource_Library/Center_Docs/PWP/ELC_PWP37.pdf • Time Benefits of Compost Amendments Compost Amendments Can: • Increase Porosity • Reduce Peak Flows • Produce Thicker lawns • Reduce Fertilizer Applications and Watering Needs • Create better lawns, faster http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/publications/reports/epa600r00016/epa600r00016.pdf EPA/600/R-00/016
  6. 6. Impacts of Compost Amendments Compost Amendments May: • Increase Concentrations of N and • Decrease Total N & P • Amendments can be tilled or applied directly and reseeded. • 2:1 ratio soil to compost tilled to at least 12 inches • Construction compaction can reach 24 inches http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/publications/reports/epa600r00016/epa600r00016.pdf EPA/600/R-00/016 Other perspectives on Compost Amendments Barriers: It takes time and money to measure predevelopment conditions and post-development conditions Cost to amend soil decreases, per lot, as area amended increases LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity How we develop Where we develop (and where we do not) What we do with the Run-off (Pipe or Percolate)
  7. 7. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_resource.htm http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_density.htm LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity • Impacts on Land Start At the Grading Stage • Fertilizers can have an impact on water quality, even in LID Neighborhoods • Volume and Peak Flows were kept at predevelopment levels. • Need to Control Compaction, Minimize Soil Disturbance, and have on-site supervision. http://www.jordancove.uconn.edu/jordan_cove/publications/final_report.pdf LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity Negatively Impacts water-related ecosystems • Impacts water Quality through • Impervious Surfaces • Introduction of Contaminants • Site Location of Development relative to natural features http://www.nahb.org/fileUpload_details.aspx?contentID=112936
  8. 8. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity National Association of Home-Builders has a large amount of information regarding costs and benefits of Low Impact Development Perceived Barrier: It costs more and does not provide a benefit to the builder Actual Barrier: Educating the entire community to the value versus costs of LID (Lower Stormwater Costs, more land can be developed; cost savings to the community, etc.) http://www.nahb.org/fileUpload_details.aspx?contentID=112936 LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity … (In) the vast majority of cases, significant savings were realized due to: • reduced costs for site grading and preparation, • stormwater infrastructure, site paving, and landscaping. • Total capital cost savings ranged from 15 to 80 percent when LID methods were used... http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf
  9. 9. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity • Site Design was 103 Lots on 24 Acres • Conventional Site Design required 270,000 Cu Ft of Stormwater Facilities • LID Required 55,000 cu ft of stormwater facilities • 62% of land was saved as open space • Cost Savings of 20% to the Developer • 10% More units were able to be built than conventional design would have allowed. Managing stormwater in Pierce County: Kensington Estates case study sheds light on low impact development http://www.djc.com/news/en/11135654.html LID: How do we define conservation/disturbed Type of Residential Disturbed Open Space Conserved Space Development Space Low Density Could be entire Yes – may be No (e.g. 1 unit/2a) site yard Cluster Could Be entire Fragmented No site Open Space 50% or less 50% or More Open Space can be undevelopable Conservation Less than 50% More than 50% Undevelopable area excluded Barrier(s): How each is defined varies by community/county Need to change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. Barrier: Need to change the way we think about water http://waterparadigm.org/indexen.php?web=./home/homeen.html http://www.onthecommons.org/media/pdf/original/OurWaterC omonsOctober2008English.pdf
  10. 10. Need to change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. Barrier: We cannot solve our problems at the same level of thinking that created them We need a new way of looking at our water quality and water quantity problems http://www.clemson.edu/restoration/events/past_events/sc_water_re http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUM sources/t4_proceedings_presentations/t4_zip/zimmer.pdf ENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf Need to change from Environment or Economy to Environment & Economy “An urban area is an ecological system wherein humans, habitat, transportation and water infrastructure, and terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna exist in symbiosis and interdependence. Urban fresh waters are the lifeline for ecological and economical sustainability, yet the fresh water resources are being impaired to a point that the integrity of urban waters has been damaged by excessive development and overuse….” http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUM ENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf Need to Change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. resource. The concept of the Cities of the Future, the fifth paradigm of urbanization… is a paradigm of integration • Future, and existing, urban developments will accommodate landscape, drainage, transportation and habitat infrastructure systems • Cities will be resilient to extreme hydrological events and pollution • There will be an optimal balance between recreation, navigation and other economic uses of water. http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUM ENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf
  11. 11. Need to make sure ordinances do not prohibit LID AND that they allow LID practices. SESSION LAW 2009-243 HOUSE BILL 749 “…. No State, county, or local building code or regulation shall prohibit the use of cisterns to provide water for flushing toilets and for outdoor irrigation. As used in this subsection....” Water is Water Paradigm Shift All Development Impacts Water Quality Highest use versus the best use of the land Wetlands and stream buffers are undervalued One community’s outflow is another community’s intake Reducing usage of drinking water for irrigation and toilets Barriers to Implementing LEED Across the Region Similar to Implementing LID “Everybody knows….” it costs more. http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2908
  12. 12. Barriers to Implementing LEED Across the Region • Sometimes, its is not about the costs (price,) rather it is really playing up the benefits http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2908 Barriers to Implementing LEED Across the Region Cost premiums ranging from ZERO% to 6.27% Energy Savings from 23% to 50% Water Savings from Zero to 78% http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2908 Case Study: Residential Development • 73 Projects • Range Under 5 Acres to Over 100 Acres • Utilization of LEED techniques depend on points awarded and cost to develop • Gold and Platinum Certified Utilize Green Technologies and Green Construction • Platinum tend to include affordable housing and http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/316990__914017852.pdf Habitat/wetland restoration
  13. 13. Halted construction fills N.C. waterways with silt BY PAGE IVEY - The Associated Press Photograph: Chuck Burton AP May 5, 2010 News and Observer Our Floating Future? • Research by NC State University and Bill Hunt • Being Tested in City of Durham – Hillendale Golf Course and Museum of Life and Science • Originated in Montana (2000) • Costs: $30/sq ft "When all the plants have grown up, you don't actually see any of the green plastic. • Benefit: “natural” It's just a lush green environment on top of removal of Phosphorus and the pond, so in theory there's a habitat for Nitrogen using fish, frogs, wildlife as well." Ryan Winston wetland/bog plants News and Observer – 4/14/2010 Barriers to Implementing LID Across the Region Need to look at Decentralized solution for a Decentralized problem Our ordinances hold us back “Everybody knows….” Maintaining it after it is built
  14. 14. Conclusion We have a new resource We can ‘sing from the same songbook.’ We can customize our solutions to meet the requirements of our communities and our region. We can have a Win-Win-Win for the consumer, the developer, and the community. If we ‘only’ apply to new construction, existing conditions will ‘only’ not get worse. Jon Barsanti Jr. jbarsanti@alumni.unc.edu 919.943.1915 Presentation available at http://www.slideshare.net/JonBarsantiJr

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