A fundamental belief system concerned with
the nature of society’s political, social, and
economic arrangements and the role of
individuals and groups within these
FIRST WORLD WAR (1914-1918)
Rise and Challenge of German
industrial and military power
The ethnic conflicts between
Germanic and Slavic peoples.
The existence of secret
“making the world safe
Democracies were peace &
1st World War would not
have happened if they
played the role in decision
1. Germany 2. Austro-Hungary
3. Ottoman Turkey
Many leaders enshrined DEMOCRACY as TOUCH STONE of
a good government, but DEMOCRACY would soon encounter serious
Challenges by TOTALIRIAN DICTATORSHIP.
A severe form of authoritarianism and is fairly rare,
with the chief examples being Nazi Germany and
the Communist Soviet Union.
1. IDEOLOGY OF UNQUESTIONED TRUTH
2. SINGLE POLITICAL PARTY TO
IMPLEMENT AND PROTECT IDEOLOGY
3. A SECRET POLICE THAT USES TERROR
4. CENTRALIZED OPERATION OF THE
5. STATE-OWNED MASS MEDIA
6. AND THE USE
Germany wanted an empire based on the
Italy desired an empire in East Africa.
The Soviet Union held ambitions for the
Baltic Republics and Poland.
Japan’s ambition was to conquer much of
Asia and the Pacific regions.
An Ideology calls for a population to select its government
and hold that government accountable to the people
Equality Rule of Law
Democracy stressed the value of:
Enamated from the writings of Karl Marx (1818-1883),
a nineteenth-century socialist. Marx though history moved
forward by economic forces involving class exploitation
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
He seized control of the Russian
Revolution of 1917, nationalized
factories, and protected the Russian
state from the danger of the “capitalist
encirclement” of enemy states.
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
Transformed Lenin’s venture in
government into a more extreme
communism by turning the Soviet
Union into a totalitarian dictatorship.
A totalitarian structure, but its content in values is
entirely different from that of communism.
Fascist worship the state and treat it as having an
organic existence, a life of its own, that is greater
and more important than those who serve it.
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
Created the prototype of the fascist
state in Italy after 1922.
Fascist regimes of various hues cropped
up in the 1930s in Argentina, Germany,
Japan, and Spain.
Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany
Nazism differed from fascism primarily
in the Nazi emphasis on race in
addition to the state.
What Italian Fascism and German
Nazism shared above all was an
extreme form of nationalism
SECOND WORLD WAR (1939-1945)
Began with Germany’s and Russia’s attack on Poland in 1939 and ended in
1945 with unconditional surrender of the German and Japanese.
Italy switched sides to join the
The Allies fought hard to win because fascism threatened not only the
independence of many states but their way of life as well.
AFTER SECOND WORLD WAR
Western Allies brought democratic reforms to West
Germany, and the United States did the same in Japan
Unfavorable treatment of Germany
contributed to the outbreak of the 2nd
Soviet Union moved energetically to spread its ideological
system to eastern Europe and to East Germany and to lead
their own alliance in this region to counter Western Power.
COLD WAR (1947-1989)
The United States and the Soviet Union had a cool relationship long
before 1917, when Lenin’s communists took control.
The Cold War were created an atmosphere of extreme tension and
hostility. A move by either side caused fear and suspicion on the part of
1. ARMS RACE
2. SPACE RACE
4. RECRUITMENT OF CLIEN-STATES
IN THE THIRD WORLD
5. WAGING OF PROPAGANDA AND
Scholars will argue whether great power competition or ideological
differnces was the main driving force that divided the Soviet Union and
the United States.
policy focused on the nature of the Soviet intentions
and what the United States should do.
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
MEMORANDUM NO. 68
called for, first, a strong military system to counter the Soviet
military system to counter the Soviet Military threat and
second, the use of political, economic and psychological
warfare by the West to wear down the Soviet Union.
In the Cold War received the top priority and put a
premium on statecraft skill.
The first step of the Soviet Union, if they are successful in this
crisis, addressing all of Europe, meaning reducing Europe to a
nearly disarmed, neutral status compliant with Soviet wishes.
The Cold War were
swings from high
tensions to co-
existence and then